03.20.09: Retina and Visual System
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03.20.09: Retina and Visual System



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03.20.09: Retina and Visual System 03.20.09: Retina and Visual System Presentation Transcript

  • Author(s): Peter Hitchcock, PH.D., 2009License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms ofthe Creative Commons Attribution–Non-commercial–Share Alike 3.0 License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximize your ability to use, share, andadapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides information about how you may share and adapt this material.Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu with any questions, corrections, orclarification regarding the use of content.For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use.Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement formedical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional. Please speak to your physician if you have questionsabout your medical condition.Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for all viewers.
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  • Retina and Visual System M1 – CNS Sequence Peter Hitchcock, Ph.D.Winter, 2009
  • The topic of today s lecture is the central visual pathways. I. anatomy of the eyeII. laminar and cellular anatomy of the retina III. regional specializations of the retinaIV. central visual pathwaysV. visual association cortexVI. subcortical projections of ganglion cell axons circadian rhythms pupilary light reflexVI. visual information processing
  • Schematic diagram of the eye. Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.
  • The human retina has 10 layers retinal pigmented epithelium photoreceptor layer outer limiting membrane ONL; photoreceptor nuclei outer plexiform layer INL; horizontal, bipolar and amacrine cell nuclei inner plexiform layer ganglion cell layer optic fiber layer inner limiting membranelight information Source Undetermined
  • The retina consists of a directpathway, photoreceptors - bipolarcells - ganglion cells. Informationin the direct pathway is modified byhorizontal and amacrine cells. c - cones Gray s Anatomy r-rods b-bipolar cells h-horizontal cells a-amacrine cells g-ganglion cells
  • Photoreceptors andprocesses of the RPEinterdigitate, but form nospecialized junctions. Functions of RPE: phagocytose photoreceptors transport and store Vit. A Image of recycle photopigments photoreceptors absorb stray light regulate fluid levels in the removed sub-retinal space Retinal detachment occurs when fluid accumulates in thespace between the retina andRPE and separates the retinafrom the RPE. This space waspart of the third ventricle inthe embryonic brain.
  • Müller cells are a specialized type of radial glia Müller cells help maintain ionic Images of Mullerbalances within the extracellularspaces in the retina. They also cellsform the inner and outer limiting removed membranes
  • The two classes of photoreceptors divide visible light into two domains: intensity and wavelength Rods – dim light, monochromatic Cones – bright light, 3 wavelength sensitive subgroups R. Young, wikipedia There are several inherited diseases that result in death of photoreceptors, e.g, retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration.
  • Absorption spectra for rod andThe 3 classes of cone photoreceptors Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.
  • Regional specializations in the retina. macula (lutea) fovea Fundus photograph of living, human retina illustrating the vasculature, fovea and optic nerve head (disc)Source Undetermined
  • The fovea is an pit (excavation) in the retina, wherein the inner layers are dis- placed laterally. sclera RPE photoreceptors ONL INL IPL GCLRPE, retinal pigmented epithelium; ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layerIPL, inner plexiform layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer Source Undetermined
  • The fovea contains conephotoreceptors only (no rods)at an extremely high density. % photorecptors? cones - 5% rods - 95% Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.
  • Density distribution of photoreceptors in the retina along a line passing through the fovea and optic disc. Source Undetermined
  • optic nerve headSource Undetermined
  • lamina cribrosa retinaoptic fiber layer optic nerve head blood vessels Source Undetermined
  • Find your blind spot! Using the diagram below, fixate on the star, closeyour left eye and hold the figure about 1.5 feet from your face. When the filled circle disappears, its image is on your blind spot.Frisko, wikimedia commons
  • Connections from the retina into the hypothalamusdiencephalon and midbrain (only 4 will be described) Image of visual system connections removed
  • optic nerve hypthalamus optic chiasm optic tract (Meyer s loop) lateral geniculate nuc. optic radiations midbrain (superior colliculus & pre-tectum) primary visual cortex (area 17; striate cortex)Source Undetermined
  • T N N T L -lower retina (superior visual fields) L -loop (Meyer s) L -lingual gyrusN T T N Meyer s loopCross sectionthrough opticchiasmcuneate gyrus lingual gyrus Source Undetermined
  • parieto-occipetal fissure(cuneate gyrus) superior lip CCcalcarine sulcus inferior lip (lingual gyrus) Most of primary visual cortex, area 17, lies on the medial wall of the occipital lobe Source Undetermined
  • vertical meridianlower vertical meridian periphery foveafovea upper vertical meridian Gray s Anatomy Source Undetermined
  • L=left eye R=right eye area 17 flattened and viewed from the surface,illustrating the complete pattern of oculardominance columns Source Undetermined
  • These two regions are sometimes referred as the ventral stream (what is it?) and adorsal stream (where is it?). Source Undetermined
  • Cortical lesions in ventral or dorsal stream produce unique perceptual deficits Source Undetermined
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  • Additional Source Information for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicySlide 5: Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.Slide 6: Source UndeterminedSlide 7: Gray’s AnatomySlide 10: R. Young, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rod_cone_cells.jpg, PD-SELFSlide 11: Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.Slide 12: Source UndeterminedSlide 13: Source UndeterminedSlide 14: Hanes. Fundamental Neuroscience. Churchill Livingstone, 2002. 2nd ed.Slide 15: Source UndeterminedSlide 16: Source UndeterminedSlide 17: Source UndeterminedSlide 18: Frisko, Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blind_spot_test.svg, PD-SELFSlide 20: Source UndeterminedSlide 21: Source UndeterminedSlide 22: Source UndeterminedSlide 23: Gray’s Anatomy; Source UndeterminedSlide 24: Source UndeterminedSlide 25: Source UndeterminedSlide 26: Source UndeterminedSlide 27: Source UndeterminedSlide 28: Source Undetermined