Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education
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Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education



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  • As paper became more affordable, dictations became the common form in early universities, and students hand wrote their own copies of texts.
  • CC By-NC-SA Photo from
  • With the “lecture text” we get wide margins, so that faculty can now dictate their annotations to students. Though universities temporarily ban dictations, students demand them and they continue.
  • And this is still our primary mode of instruction, 3000 years later.
  • Allan Collins talked about customization, learner control, production – technology enables these, but the law does not allow them.
  • CC By-SA Photo from
  • What’s your university’s IP policy with regard to sharing curriculum materials or research products?
  • Public domain photo from
  • CC By Photo from
  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • Image courtesy of Jon Mott
  • Image courtesy of Jon Mott

Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education Presentation Transcript

  • Openness, Data and a Sustainable Future of Education David Wiley, PhD Department of Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
  • Download These Slides
  • If the Book Didn’t Change Schools Can the computer? Can the internet? Can the LMS?
  • Openness, Then Data A brief thought experiment…
  • Openness… In Education? Let’s begin by defining terms
  • Open, adj . Describes educational artifacts
  • Open Textbooks Open Educational Resources Open Courseware (Open Source Software)
  • Open, adj . Teaching materials freely shared with permissions to engage in the “4R” activities
  • The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
  • Communicate 4Rs Permissions
    • Since this overrides default copyright, you must use a copyright license
  • Offers easy to use 4R’s licenses
  • While Nouns Differ… The operationalizing actions are the same
  • Open, adj . Generous, sharing, giving
  • Open, adj . Providing (1) access and (2) local control
  • Your Inner Two-year Old Overcoming the impulse to scream “ Mine!”
  • Law and Policy “Enable” Us To shout “Mine!” ever more loudly, convulse ever more uncontrollably, and hit each other with ever larger toys
  • Society’s Siren Song “ Be selfish. Keep it to yourself. Sue your neighbor. It’s legal. It’s ok.”
  • Education Is Not Immune This kind of thinking is accepted
  • Role of Openness in Education? A terrible, insidious question
  • Openness is the only means of doing education.
  • If There Is No Sharing… There is no education
  • Education, n . A relationship of sharing
  • Successful Educators Share most thoroughly with the most students
  • Expertise Is Nonrivalrous Can be given without being given away
  • “ He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson
  • Teachers Would Be Like Bees! They could only teach once
  • Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  • Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  • Expressions Are Different Digital expressions are nonrivalrous n’t ^
  • E.g., Online Book We can all read simultaneously
  • An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
  • Expertise and Its Expressions Give without giving away
  • Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
  • Unprecedented Capacity We can educate as never before
  • What Are We Doing? This increased capacity is a stewardship
  • Open Educational Resources Open Course Ware Open Courses Open Textbooks
  • Repository Examples
  • OpenCourseWare Examples
  • Open Courses Examples
  • Open Textbook Examples
  • Organizations
  • Now, On to Data
    • But first a brief joke
  • Each and Every Interaction
    • Recorded and stored for analysis to improve quality of service / experience
  • Continuous Improvement Process
    • (CIP)
  • If Only We Could Get It…
    • Education could engage in continuous quality improvement, too!
  • Even the Grocer!
    • Almost every industry (1) gathers and (2) uses data more effectively than we do
  • Data Alone Don’t Enable CIP
    • You need Openness + Data
  • A Concrete Example
    • Why you need BOTH
    • Openness + Data to CIP
  • Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge
    • Bloom, 1984
  • One-to-One Tutoring
    • And other methods compared to 30 students in the classroom
  • Average Tutored Student +2sd
    • In other words, the average student is capable of much more
  • Tutoring is Expensive
    • So we teach class instead!
  • Bloom, 1984
    • If the research on the 2 sigma problem yields practiced methods (methods that the average teacher or school faculty can learn in a brief period of time and use with little more cost or time than conventional instruction), it would be an educational contribution of the greatest magnitude . (p. 5)
  • To Tutor Or Not to Tutor?
    • That is the (false) question
  • “ Intelligent” Tutors
    • Have different scalability problems
    • Dehumanize learning
  • “ Strategic Tutoring”
    • What if we could do one-on-one tutoring just-in-time and just-on-topic?
  • Would Require Lots of Data
    • Where can we get it all?
  • Would Require New Model
    • Institutional commitment
  • What Kind of Data?
    • When they logged in, read, and worked
    • How long they logged in, read, and worked
    • Pathway information, Item-by-item analytics ,
    • &c.
  • OHSU Teaching Model
    • Online curriculum teaches as much as possible, teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring”
  • Teacher Becomes Tutor
    • Has the curriculum replaced the teacher?
    • As broadcast machinery, yes.
  • Are You Even Allowed to CIP?
    • Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission
  • Open Educational Resources
    • Give OHSU the permissions it needs to engage in continuous improvement
  • “ 4R” Permissions Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
  • OHSU Charter Requires OER
    • Founders’ way of “burning the ships” and fully committing to CIP
  • Conjoint CIP
    • Student learning and curriculum effectiveness
    • grow simultaneously
  • Feedback Loop Curriculum Use Curriculum Redesign Student Performance Data Data Describing Curriculum Performance Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring
  • But Tutoring Data are Out-of-Band!
    • Using customer relationship management
    • (CRM) tools
  • Visualizing Educational Data
    • Creating new visualization techniques to support teaching and learning
  • Openness + Data Are Required For Continuous Improvement Processes
  • Openness + Data Are Required For us to stay competitive and relevant in a changing post-secondary ecosystem
  • If the Book Didn’t Change Schools Can openness? Can data? Can openness + data?
  • Reconsider Your Stewardship Please – for yourself, your institution, and your students
  • Thank You! [email_address]