Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education


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  • As paper became more affordable, dictations became the common form in early universities, and students hand wrote their own copies of texts.
  • CC By-NC-SA Photo from
  • With the “lecture text” we get wide margins, so that faculty can now dictate their annotations to students. Though universities temporarily ban dictations, students demand them and they continue.
  • And this is still our primary mode of instruction, 3000 years later.
  • Allan Collins talked about customization, learner control, production – technology enables these, but the law does not allow them.
  • CC By-SA Photo from
  • What’s your university’s IP policy with regard to sharing curriculum materials or research products?
  • Public domain photo from
  • CC By Photo from
  • CC By Photo by David Wiley
  • Image courtesy of Jon Mott
  • Image courtesy of Jon Mott
  • Educause 2010 - Openness, Data, and a Sustainable Future for Education

    1. 1. Openness, Data and a Sustainable Future of Education David Wiley, PhD Department of Instructional Psychology & Technology Brigham Young University
    2. 2. Download These Slides
    3. 6.
    4. 7. If the Book Didn’t Change Schools Can the computer? Can the internet? Can the LMS?
    5. 8. Openness, Then Data A brief thought experiment…
    6. 10. Openness… In Education? Let’s begin by defining terms
    7. 11. Open, adj . Describes educational artifacts
    8. 12. Open Textbooks Open Educational Resources Open Courseware (Open Source Software)
    9. 13. Open, adj . Teaching materials freely shared with permissions to engage in the “4R” activities
    10. 14. The 4Rs Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
    11. 15. Communicate 4Rs Permissions <ul><li>Since this overrides default copyright, you must use a copyright license </li></ul>
    12. 16. Offers easy to use 4R’s licenses
    13. 21. While Nouns Differ… The operationalizing actions are the same
    14. 22. Open, adj . Generous, sharing, giving
    15. 23. Open, adj . Providing (1) access and (2) local control
    16. 24. Your Inner Two-year Old Overcoming the impulse to scream “ Mine!”
    17. 25. Law and Policy “Enable” Us To shout “Mine!” ever more loudly, convulse ever more uncontrollably, and hit each other with ever larger toys
    18. 26. Society’s Siren Song “ Be selfish. Keep it to yourself. Sue your neighbor. It’s legal. It’s ok.”
    19. 27. Education Is Not Immune This kind of thinking is accepted
    20. 28. Role of Openness in Education? A terrible, insidious question
    21. 29. Openness is the only means of doing education.
    22. 30. If There Is No Sharing… There is no education
    23. 31. Education, n . A relationship of sharing
    24. 32. Successful Educators Share most thoroughly with the most students
    25. 33. Expertise Is Nonrivalrous Can be given without being given away
    26. 34. “ He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson
    27. 35. Teachers Would Be Like Bees! They could only teach once
    28. 36. Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
    29. 37. Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
    30. 38. Expressions Are Different Digital expressions are nonrivalrous n’t ^
    31. 39. E.g., Online Book We can all read simultaneously
    32. 40. An Indescribable Advance The first time in human history
    33. 41. Expertise and Its Expressions Give without giving away
    34. 42. Unprecedented Capacity We can share as never before
    35. 43. Unprecedented Capacity We can educate as never before
    36. 44. What Are We Doing? This increased capacity is a stewardship
    37. 45. Open Educational Resources Open Course Ware Open Courses Open Textbooks
    38. 46. Repository Examples
    39. 50. OpenCourseWare Examples
    40. 61. Open Courses Examples
    41. 65. Open Textbook Examples
    42. 68. Organizations
    43. 72. Now, On to Data <ul><li>But first a brief joke </li></ul>
    44. 80. Each and Every Interaction <ul><li>Recorded and stored for analysis to improve quality of service / experience </li></ul>
    45. 81. Continuous Improvement Process <ul><li>(CIP) </li></ul>
    46. 82. If Only We Could Get It… <ul><li>Education could engage in continuous quality improvement, too! </li></ul>
    47. 86. Even the Grocer! <ul><li>Almost every industry (1) gathers and (2) uses data more effectively than we do </li></ul>
    48. 87. Data Alone Don’t Enable CIP <ul><li>You need Openness + Data </li></ul>
    49. 88. A Concrete Example <ul><li>Why you need BOTH </li></ul><ul><li>Openness + Data to CIP </li></ul>
    50. 90. Bloom’s 2 Sigma Challenge <ul><li>Bloom, 1984 </li></ul>
    51. 91. One-to-One Tutoring <ul><li>And other methods compared to 30 students in the classroom </li></ul>
    52. 92. Average Tutored Student +2sd <ul><li>In other words, the average student is capable of much more </li></ul>
    53. 93. Tutoring is Expensive <ul><li>So we teach class instead! </li></ul>
    54. 94. Bloom, 1984 <ul><li>If the research on the 2 sigma problem yields practiced methods (methods that the average teacher or school faculty can learn in a brief period of time and use with little more cost or time than conventional instruction), it would be an educational contribution of the greatest magnitude . (p. 5) </li></ul>
    55. 95. To Tutor Or Not to Tutor? <ul><li>That is the (false) question </li></ul>
    56. 96. “ Intelligent” Tutors <ul><li>Have different scalability problems </li></ul><ul><li>Dehumanize learning </li></ul>
    57. 97. “ Strategic Tutoring” <ul><li>What if we could do one-on-one tutoring just-in-time and just-on-topic? </li></ul>
    58. 98. Would Require Lots of Data <ul><li>Where can we get it all? </li></ul>
    59. 99. Would Require New Model <ul><li>Institutional commitment </li></ul>
    60. 101. What Kind of Data? <ul><li>When they logged in, read, and worked </li></ul><ul><li>How long they logged in, read, and worked </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway information, Item-by-item analytics , </li></ul><ul><li>&c. </li></ul>
    61. 102. OHSU Teaching Model <ul><li>Online curriculum teaches as much as possible, teachers do proactive “strategic tutoring” </li></ul>
    62. 103. Teacher Becomes Tutor <ul><li>Has the curriculum replaced the teacher? </li></ul><ul><li>As broadcast machinery, yes. </li></ul>
    63. 104. Are You Even Allowed to CIP? <ul><li>Data aren’t sufficient – you need permission </li></ul>
    64. 105. Open Educational Resources <ul><li>Give OHSU the permissions it needs to engage in continuous improvement </li></ul>
    65. 106. “ 4R” Permissions Reuse – copy verbatim Redistribute – share with others Revise – adapt and improve Remix – combine with others
    66. 107. OHSU Charter Requires OER <ul><li>Founders’ way of “burning the ships” and fully committing to CIP </li></ul>
    67. 108. Conjoint CIP <ul><li>Student learning and curriculum effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>grow simultaneously </li></ul>
    68. 109. Feedback Loop Curriculum Use Curriculum Redesign Student Performance Data Data Describing Curriculum Performance Data Supporting Strategic Tutoring
    69. 110. But Tutoring Data are Out-of-Band! <ul><li>Using customer relationship management </li></ul><ul><li>(CRM) tools </li></ul>
    70. 112. Visualizing Educational Data <ul><li>Creating new visualization techniques to support teaching and learning </li></ul>
    71. 114. Openness + Data Are Required For Continuous Improvement Processes
    72. 115. Openness + Data Are Required For us to stay competitive and relevant in a changing post-secondary ecosystem
    73. 116. If the Book Didn’t Change Schools Can openness? Can data? Can openness + data?
    74. 118. Reconsider Your Stewardship Please – for yourself, your institution, and your students
    75. 119. Thank You! [email_address]