Theoretical Foundations
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  • 1. Teaching and Learning with Technology Theoretical Foundations Chapter 1Teaching and Learning with Technology
  • 2. What is Educational Technology? • Educational technology is any technology used by educators in support of the teaching and learning process • Educators study educational technology in order to have a sound foundation in the technologies needed to teach • NETS-T standards articulate what teachers and students should know about technologyTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 3. Educational Technology & Instruction • Educational technologies are the tools teachers use to create an effective instructional event • An instructional event includes all activities that promote the transfer of knowledge and/or skills in the learning environment • The learning environment includes the physical and non-physical aspects of the area in which the instructional event takes placeTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 4. About Learning • A variety of theories explain how people learn • Each theory offers a different perspective on learning • Some theories may be contradictory • Each teacher must personally decide which theory he or she agrees withTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 5. Learning Theories Learning as Communication • Knowledge is transferred by sending a message from sender to receiver • Receiver then returns feedback to sender • Sender receives feedback • All messages are impacted by variables that may alter the pure meaning of the intended messageTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 6. Learning Theories Factors Affecting Learning Psychological Factors Personal Environmental Filters FactorsTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 7. Learning Theories Environmental Factors • Any factor in the environment that may cause a learner to lose focus • Environmental conditions can block communications • Lighting, movement, temperature may all interfere with communicationsTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 8. Learning Theories Psychological Factors • Unique individual differences that define and impact reception of communicated information • Emotional state may interfere with message reception • Learning styles (preferred sensory gateways) may interfere with transmissionTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 9. Learning Theories Personal Filters • Individual’s values, heritage, and belief system that may alter intended messages • May include attitudes, cultural differences, and opinions • Filters are present in both sender and receiverTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 10. Learning Theories Behaviorists • All behavior is a response to external stimuli • Students learn (acquire behaviors, skills and knowledge) in response to rewards and punishments • Learning is a passive response to the environmentTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 11. Learning Theories Cognitivists • Focus is on learning as a mental operation • Information enters through senses, is mentally manipulated, stored and used • Learning is explained in terms of how one thinks • Believe learning is more complex than simple behavioristic responsesTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 12. Learning Theory Constructivists • Knowledge is constructed as a result of the learning process and is unique to the person who constructs it • Learning happens when knowledge is assimilated or accommodated (Piaget) • Knowledge may be constructed best in a social contextTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 13. The Learner Cognitive Styles • The manner in which one thinks and interprets the environment • Myers-Briggs helps to determine cognitive preferences • Understanding cognitive styles helps teachers create a supportive instructional environmentTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 14. The Learner Learning Styles • Conditions under which one learns best • Relates to individual sensory dominance • Auditory learners learn best by listening • Visual learners learn best by seeing • Kinesthetic/Tactile learners learn best by doing and touchingTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 15. The Learner Intelligence • Inherent capabilities to learn and understand • Standford-Binet IQ tests emphasize verbal and mathematical abilities • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory suggests everyone has some degree of each of nine types of intelligenceTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 16. The Learner Multiple Intelligences • Verbal-Linguistic • Interpersonal • Mathematical- • Intrapersonal Logical • Naturalistic • Musical • Existential • Visual-Spatial • Bodily-KinestheticTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 17. Teaching and Learning • Teaching is a systematic planned sequence of events • Teaching is a process that communication of ideas and skills • Teaching takes into account individual and environmental factors related to the learner • Skilled teachers are aware of learning theories and learner characteristics that impact the processTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 18. Teaching and Learning • Technology is a component of the teaching and learning process • Educational technology includes any resource used to facilitate teaching and learning • This view of technology has been an evolution consistent with the evolution of learning theoriesTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 19. Educational Technology An Historical Overview • The audio-visual movement began in the early 1900s with the advent of movies • Slides, radio, sound recordings were added in the 1920s-1930s to support the wars • Television drove audio-visuals in the 1950sTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 20. Educational Technology An Historical Overview • In the 1960s A-V was expanded to a broader systems view • By the 1970s educational technology was redefined to include all types of learning resources and systems • With the advent of the computer in the 1980s, educational technology entered the Digital AgeTeaching and Learning with Technology
  • 21. Educational Technology Today • The systems view of educational technology embraces all media and systems that support the teaching and learning process • Each teacher must decide how to best utilize technology in support of his or her studentsTeaching and Learning with Technology