All effective instruction requires careful planning. Teaching with instructional media and technology is certainly no exception. The ASSURE model is a procedural guide for planning and conducting instruction that incorporates media and technology. The ASSURE model focuses on planning surrounding the actual classroom use of media and technology. It is less ambitious than models of instruction development, which are intended to guide the entire process of designing instructional systems. Such models include the procedures of the ASSURE model and the processes of needs analysis, subject matter analysis, product design, prototype tryout, system implementation and the like. The ASSURE model, on the other hand, is meant for the individual instructor to use when planning classroom use of media and technology.
If instructional media and technology are to be used effectively, there must be a match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the methods, media, and materials. Therefore, the first step is analysis of the learners. You cannot analyze every trait of your learners, but several factors are critical for making good methods and media decisions. General characteristics include broad identifying descriptors such as age, grade level, job or position, and cultural or socioeconomic factors. Specific entry competencies refer to knowledge and skills that learners either possess or lack: prerequisite skills, target skills, and attitudes. Learning style refers to the spectrum of psychological traits that affect how we perceive and respond to different stimuli, such as anxiety, aptitude, visual or auditory preference, and motivation.
What learning outcome is each learner expected to achieve? More precisely, what new capability should learners possess at the completion of instruction? An objective is not a statement of what the instructor plans to put into the lesson but of what learners ought to get out of the lesson. An objective is a statement of what will be achieved, not how it will be achieved. You must know your objectives in order to make appropriate selection of methods and media. Your objectives will guide your sequence of learning activities and your choice of media. Knowing your objectives will also commit you to create a learning environment in which the objectives can be reached. Objectives also help insure proper evaluation. You won’t know whether your students have achieved an objective unless you are absolutely sure what that objective is. If objectives are clearly and specifically stated, learning and teaching become objective oriented. Should be as specific as possible. ABCDs of Objectives – Audience, Behavior, Conditions, Degree A well-stated objective starts by naming the audience for whom the objective is intended. It then specifies the behavior or capability to be demonstrated and the conditions under which the behavior or capability will be observed. Finally, it specifies the degree to which the new skill must be mastered—the standard by which the capability can be judged.
A systematic plan for using media and technology certainly demands that the methods, media, and materials be selected systematically in the first place. The selection process has three steps: 1) deciding on the appropriate method for the given learning tasks, 2) choosing a media format that is suitable for carrying out the method and 3) selecting, modifying, or designing specific materials within that media format.
ASSURE MODEL POWERPOINT
The ASSURE Model Chapter 3 Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning
The ASSURE MODEL <ul><li>is an ISD ( Instructional Systems Design ) process that was modified to be used by teachers in the regular classroom The ISD process is one in which teachers and trainers can use to design and develop the most appropriate learning environment for their students. You can use this process in writing your lesson plans and in improving teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>incorporates Robert Gagne's events of instruction to assure effective use of media in instruction. </li></ul>
The ASSURE Model <ul><li>A nalyze learners </li></ul><ul><li>S tate objectives </li></ul><ul><li>S elect methods, media, and materials </li></ul><ul><li>U tilize media and materials </li></ul><ul><li>R equire learner participation </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate and revise </li></ul>
State Objectives <ul><li>Be specific </li></ul><ul><li>State terms of what student will be able to do </li></ul><ul><li>Include conditions and degree of acceptable performance </li></ul><ul><li>The objectives may be derived from a needs assessment or a course syllabus, stated in a textbook, taken from a curriculum guide, or developed by the instructor. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Once you know your students, you can begin writing the objectives of your lesson. Objectives are the learning outcomes, that is, What will the student get out of the lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>The ABCD's of writing objectives are: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience (who are your students?) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior to be demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions under which the behavior will be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Degree to which the learned skills are to be mastered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Fifth grade social studies students (Audience) will be able to name at least 90% (Degree) of the state capitols (Behavior) when given a list of states (Condition). </li></ul></ul>
Audience <ul><li>A major premise of systematic instruction is to focus on what the learner is doing , not on what the teacher is doing. </li></ul>
Behavior <ul><li>What will the learner be able to do after completing instruction? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vague terms such as know,' understand , and appreciate do not communicate your aim ' clearly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better are define, categorize , and demonstrate , which denote observable performance </li></ul></ul>
Condition <ul><li>A statement of objectives should include the conditions under which performance is to be observed, if such conditions are relevant. </li></ul>
Degree <ul><li>The final requirement of a well-stated objective is to indicate the standard by which acceptable performance will be judged: </li></ul><ul><li>What degree of accuracy or proficiency must the learner display? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the criteria are stated in qualitative or quantitative terms, they should be based on some real-world requirement. </li></ul>
CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES <ul><li>CLASSIFYING objectives is much more than an academic exercise for educational psychologists. </li></ul><ul><li>It has practical value because the selection of instructional methods and media depends on what type of objective is being pursued and so does the choice of evaluation instruments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe classified as the primary type of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 3 domains: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Learning involves the whole array of intellectual capabilities, from simple factual recall to the generation of new theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective </li></ul><ul><li>Learning involves feelings and values. Objectives in the affective domain may range from stimulating interest in a school subject to encouraging healthy social attitudes to adopting a set of ethical standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor skill </li></ul><ul><li>Learning involves athletic, manual, and other such physical skills. Objectives in the motor skill domain include capabilities ranging from simple mechanical operations to those entailing-sophisticated neuromuscular coordination and strategy, as in competitive sports. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Interpersonal skills learning involves interaction among people. These are people-centered skills that involve the ability to relate effectively with others., Examples include teamwork, counseling techniques, administrative skills, salesmanship, discussion activities, and customer relations. </li></ul><ul><li>The cognitive Domain </li></ul><ul><li>The original classification scheme for the cognitive domain proposed by Bloom* envisioned a rather orderly progression from simple to complex mental abilities. Research over the past three decades suggests that the cognitive domain incorporates at least three qualitatively different types of capabilities, not a single simple to complex continuum. Gagne's* categories are widely accepted among instructional designers: </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. Verbal/visual information : factual knowledge stored verbally or visually in memory; it consists of single images, facts, labels, memorized sequences, and organized information. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: To be able to recall that Mackenzie King served as prime minister of Canada three times between 1921 and 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intellectual skills : the ability to use symbols to organize and manipulate the environment. The two most basic forms of symbols, words and numbers, allow us to read, write, and compute. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Discrimination: to be able to distinguish between two different stimuli, that is, to see the difference between physically similar objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : To be able to distinguish between a turboprop and a turbofan jet engine </li></ul><ul><li>b. Concept learning : classifying things or ideas into categories on the basis of some shared attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : To be able to identify a bat as a mammal. c. Rule using: applying principles to a variety of situations. Using mathematical equations or following the rules of grammar to construct sentences in a foreign language are rule-using capabilities. </li></ul>
<ul><li>3. Cognitive Strategies : the internal "control processes" that govern the learner's ability to visualize, think about, and solve problems. The sophistication of our cognitive strategies determines how creatively, fluently, or critically we will be able to think. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>To resolve logical contradictions by questioning the assumptions behind each. </li></ul>
The Affective Domain <ul><li>The affective domain is organized according to the degree of internalization— the degree to which the attitude or value has become part of the individual: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Receiving : being aware of and willing to pay attention to a stimulus (listen or look) (e.g., The student will sit quietly while the teacher reads Longfellow's Paul Revere's Ride.). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Responding : actively participating, reacting in some way • (e.g., The student will ask questions relating to Paul Revere's Ride.). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Valuing : voluntarily displaying - an attitude, showing an interest (e.g., The student will ask to read another story or poem about Paul Revere.). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Characterization : demonstrating an internally consistent value system, developing a characteristic lifestyle based upon a value or value system (e.g., The student will devote a percentage of his or her free time to studying American history.). </li></ul>
The Motor Skill Domain <ul><li>The motor skill domain may be seen as a progression in the degree of coordination required: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Imitation : repeating the action shown (e.g., After viewing the film on the backhand tennis swing, you will demonstrate the swing with reasonable accuracy.). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Manipulation : performing independently (e.g., Following a practice period, you will demonstrate the backhand tennis swing, scoring seven of the ten points on the performance checklist.). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Precision : performing with accuracy (e.g., You will demonstrate an acceptable backhand tennis swing, returning successfully at least 75 percent of practice serves to the backhand.). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Articulation : performing unconsciously, efficiently, and harmoniously, incorporating coordination of skills (e.g., During a tennis match, you will execute the backhand stroke effectively against your opponent, returning nine out of ten of all types of shots hit to the backhand side.). </li></ul>
Types of Interpersonal Skills Learning* <ul><li>The types of interpersonal skills can be classified into six categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Seeking/giving information : asking for/offering facts, opinions, or clarification from/to another individual or individuals (e.g., You will ask your supervisor about the meaning of a new work rule.). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Proposing : putting forward a new concept, suggestion, or course of action (e.g., You will make a job enrichment suggestion to your supervisor.). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Building and supporting : extending, developing, and enhancing another person, his or her proposal, or concepts (e.g., In a departmental meeting you will suggest an amendment to someone's motion.). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Shutting out/bringing in : excluding/involving another group member from/into a conversation or discussion (e.g., In a departmental meeting you will ask a quiet member to give his or her ideas.). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Disagreeing : providing a conscious, direct declaration of difference of opinion, or criticism of another person's concepts (e.g., During a lunchroom discussion you will defend a new work rule against a colleague's attack.). </li></ul><ul><li>6. Summarizing : restating in a compact form the content of previous discussions or considerations (e.g., Before giving your comments in a departmental meeting you will summarize the arguments that have been presented.). </li></ul>
Select Methods, Media, and Materials <ul><li>Decide on appropriate method </li></ul><ul><li>Choose suitable format </li></ul><ul><li>Select available materials </li></ul><ul><li>Modify existing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Design new materials </li></ul>
<ul><li>Obtaining Specific Materials: Select, Modify, or Design? </li></ul><ul><li>Having decided what media format suits your immediate instructional objective; you face the problem of finding specific materials to convey the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting Available Materials </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of instructional materials used by teachers and trainers are "off the shelf"—that is, ready-made and available from school, district, or company collections or other easily accessible sources. How do you go about making an appropriate choice from available materials? </li></ul>
Modify existing materials <ul><li>Materials that provide your students with the help they need in mastering the objectives. Materials might be purchased and used as is or they might need some modifications. You can also design and create your own materials for the students to use. Materials would be specific software programs, music, videotapes, images, but would also be equipment, i.e., overhead projector, computer, printer, scanner, TV, laserdisk player, VCR, and so on. </li></ul>
Design new Materials <ul><li>Objectives —What do you want your students to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Audience — What are the characteristics of your learners? Do they have the prerequisite knowledge and skills to use and/or learn from the materials? </li></ul><ul><li>Cost — Is sufficient money available in your budget to meet the cost of supplies (film, audio-tapes, etc.) you will need to prepare the materials? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Technical expertise — Do you have the necessary expertise to design and produce the kind of materials you wish to use? If not, will the necessary technical assistance be available to you? (Try to keep your design within the range of your own capabilities. Don't waste time and money trying to produce slick professional materials when simple inexpensive products will get the job done.) </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment — Do you have available the necessary equipment - - to produce and/or use the materials you intend to design? </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities — If your design calls for use of special facilities for preparation and/or use of your materials, are such facilities available? </li></ul><ul><li>Time — Can you afford to spend whatever time may be necessary to design and produce the kind of materials you have in mind? </li></ul>