DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Curriculum development is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating the learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interest of learners, and on the basis of the nature of the society or community.
It is a continuous process for the possibilities ofimproving the teaching-learning situation. Its goalsis a positive change; process; transformation inthe lives of the learners based on school’smission and goals. It should be produced incoordinated program of meaningful experiencesfor learner’s development (2009 Ed.) Curriculumdevelopment is a decision-making process thatinvolves a variety of concerns (Bago).
The following are crucial questions to be asked in developing a curriculum:• What learning objectives should be included?• What will be the bases for the choice of objectives?• Will the choice be based on the learner’s needs and interests, or rather on the needs of the society?• Will the selection depend on tradition, the nature of knowledge, or the learner’s characteristics?
• What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content?• Will the choice of methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles?• Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning that is taking place?
Curriculum ModelsRalph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles This is also popularly known as Tyler’s Rationale. He posited four fundamental questions or principles in examining any curriculum in schools. These four fundamental principles are as follows:
1. What educational purpose should the school seek to attain?2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?3. How can these educational purposes be effectively organized?4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not?
In summary, Tyler’s Model show that incurriculum development, the followingconsiderations should be made:1. Purposes of the school2. Educational experiences related to thepurposes3. Organization of the experiences4. Evaluation of the experiences
Hilda Taba improved on Tyler’s Rationalemodel. She believed that teachers who teach orimplement the curriculum should participate indeveloping it. Her advocacy is commonly calledthe grassroots approach. She presented sevenmajor steps to her model where teacher shouldhave a major input. These steps are:
1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society2. Formulation of learning objectives3. Selection of learning content4. Organization of learning content5. Selection of learning experiences6. Organization of learning activities7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it
Thus as one looks into curriculum models,the three interacting processes in curriculumdevelopment are planning, implementing andevaluating.
Types of Curricula Operating in Schools1. Recommended curriculum – proposed by scholars and professional organizations. Most of the school curricula are recommended. The curriculum may come from a national agency like the Department of Education (DepEd), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Department of Science and Technology (DOST) or any professional organization who has stake in education for example the Philippine Association for Teacher Education (PAFTE) or the Biology Teacher Education (BIOTA) may recommend a curriculum to be implemented in the elementary or secondary education.
2. Written curriculum – appears in school, district, division or country documents. This includes documents, course of study or syllabi handed down to the schools, districts, division, departments or colleges for implementation. Most of the written curricula are made by curriculum experts with participation of teachers. These were pilot-tested or tried out in sample schools or population. Example of this is the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). Another example is the written lesson plan of each classroom teacher made up of objectives and planned activities of the teacher.
3. Taught curriculum – what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schools. The different planned activities which are put into action in the classroom compose the taught curriculum. These are varied activities that are implemented in order to arrive at the objectives or purposes of the written curriculum. These are used by the learners with the guidance of teachers. Taught curriculum varies according to the learning styles of students and the teaching styles of teachers.
4. Supported curriculum – resources, textbooks, computers, audio-visual aids which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum. In order to have successful teaching, other than the teacher, there must be materials which should support or help in the implementation of a written curriculum. These refer to the support curriculum that includes material resources such as textbooks, audio-visual materials, laboratory equipment, playgrounds, zoos, and other facilities. Support curriculum should enable each learner to achieve real and lifelong learning.
5. Assessed curriculum – that which is tested and evaluated. This refers to a tested or evaluated curriculum. At the duration and end of the teaching episodes, a series of evaluations are being done by the teachers to determine the extent of teaching or to tell if the students are progressing. This refers to the assessed curriculum. Assessment tools like paper-and- pencil tests, authentic instruments like portfolio are being utilized.
6. Learned curriculum – what the students actually learn and what is measured. This refers to the learning outcomes achieved by the students. Learning outcomes are indicated by the results of the tests and changes in behavior which can either be cognitive, affective or psychomotor.
7. Hidden curriculum – the unintended curriculum. This is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influence learning outcomes. There are lots of hidden curriculum that transpire in the schools. Peer influence, school environment, physical condition, teacher-learner interaction, mood of the teachers and many other factors make up the hidden curriculum.
Major Foundations of Curriculum 1. philosophical 2. historical 3. psychological 4. social
Philosophical Foundation Philosophy provides educators, teachers and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in schools helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used in decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making
philosophy gives direction to curriculum in termsof goals and objectives,; the school’s underlyingbeliefs and values have impact on curriculumcontent and choice of appropriate instructionalstrategies and learning activities in implementingthe curriculumsome philosophical beliefs that undergird thecurricula of schools are as follows:
Basic Philosophical Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications BeliefsMetaphysics Study of what is beyond the Curriculum must go beyond its natural (what is real is true) content; must consider what the students can becomeEpistemology Truth about the nature of Curriculum should revolve knowledge around the issues on teaching-learning processLogic Focus on logical and The goal of all curricula must accurate thought patterns be the of the ability of the students to think logicallyAxiology Values and ethics Development of a sense of right and wrong
Basic Philosophical Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications BeliefsIdealism • Importance of mind and Subject matter- or content spirit and developing them focused, in the learner Believing that this is • Reality is in the ideas essential to mental and independent of sense and oral development experienceRealism (Aristotle) • truth can be Curriculum is subject- tested/proven centered, organized from • knowledge is derived simple to complex, and from sense experience stressing mastery of facts and development of process and objective skills, critical analysis and attention to Science and Math
Basic Philosophical Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications BeliefsPragmatism (W. James, The world is a world of • Provisions for directDewey, Rousseau) change; man can know experiences anything within his • Activity/learner-centered experience, belief in • Basis: problems of “learning by doing” democratic society focus on problem solving inquiryPerennialism (Hutchins, Human beings are rational Subject-matter consists ofAdler) and their existence remain perennial basic education the same throughout of rational men: history, differing environments; language, math, logic, includes knowledge that classical literature, has been endured through science, fine arts, cultural the years heritage
Basic Philosophical Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications BeliefsExistentialism Reality is a matter of Curriculum stresses(Kierkegaard, Marcel, individual existence activity; recognition ofSartre) individual differences, The meaning of life is what opportunities for making each individual makes; choices and awareness of focus on conscious consequence, of awareness of choice introspection and self analysis through individualized learning experiencesEssentialism (Bagley) There are certain ideas Curriculum focused on that men should know for assimilation of prescribed social stability basic subject matter: 3Rs, history, science, math, language
Basic Philosophical Fundamental Idea(s) Curricular Implications BeliefsReconstructionism (Plato, Societal reforms needed Curriculum should includeAugustine, Dewey, Counts, towards experiencing the subjects that deal withRigg) good life now and in the social and cultural crises to future; schools are the prepare students to make chief means for building become analyzer and new social order ensure that democratic principles are followed
Historical Foundations of Curriculum Curriculum is not an old field. Majority of scholars would place its beginning in 1918 with the publication of Franklin Bobbit’s book The Curriculum Philippine education came back about from various foreign influences. This can be traced back to our glorious history. Of all the foreign educational systems, the American educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system. The following are curriculum theorists and how they view curriculum from historical prespective.
1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) – Bobbit presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students’ need. Curriculum prepares students for adult life. To Bobbit, objectives with corresponding activities should be grouped and sequenced. This can only be done if instructional activities and tasks are clarified.
2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) – Like Bobbit, to Charters curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on students’ needs. The listing of objectives and matching these with corresponding activities ensures that the content or subject matter is related to objectives. The subject matter and the activities are planned by the teacher.
3. William Kilpatrick (1871- 1965) – Curriculum are purposeful activities which are child- centered. The purpose of the curriculum is child development and growth. The project method was introduced by Kilpatrick where teacher and student plan the activities. The curriculum develops social relationships and small group instruction.
4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) – To Rugg, curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child-centered. With the statement of objectives and related learning activities, curriculum should produce outcomes. Harold Rugg emphasized social studies and the teacher plans curriculum in advance.
5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) – Sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and learner’s interest. Caswell believes that curriculum is a set of experiences. Subject matter is developed around social functions and learners’ interest.
6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) – As one of the hallmarks of curriculum, Tyler believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school’s philosophy. It is based on students’ needs and interest. To Tyler, curriculum is always related to instruction. Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills and values. The process emphasizes problem solving. The curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists.
The historical foundation of curriculum reflects the educational focus prevalent during a particular period or event in Philippine history. This focus could be made basis or model for curriculum development in recent years.
Period Characteristics Curricular FocusPre-Spanish • Focused on Practical training • Broad; not defined nor written to satisfy basic needs for • Prescriptive survival and to transmit social •Reading and writing in relation ideas, customs, beliefs, and to the study of Koran for the traditions Maguindanao Moslems • Training done in the homesSpanish Focused on the learning of the •Parochial schools: study of Christian Doctrine Doctrina Cristiana, arithmetic, music, arts and trades; vernacular was the medium of instruction
Period Characteristics Curricular FocusAmerican Focused on establishing the • Reading, writing, arithmetic, public school system, highly good manners and right influenced by the philosophy conduct, civics, hygiene and of John Dewey sanitation, domestic science, American history, Philippine history English as medium of instruction
Period Characteristics Curricular FocusCommonwealth Focused on the • Tagalog and later on development of moral Filipino, as another character, personal medium of instruction discipline, civic • Provided for 6-year consciousness, and elementary schools; vocational efficiency as school entrance age at provided in the 1935 7; compulsory constitution attendance in Grade 1; introduction of double – single sessions • Teaching of Filipino as a subject
Period Characteristics Curricular FocusJapanese Focused on promoting the • Diffusion of elementary East Asia co-prosperity education with the promotion sphere educational objective of vocational education • Fostering of new Filipino culture based on the awareness that Filipinos are orientals
Third Republic-Patterned after the 1935 Constitution Period Characteristics Curricular FocusNew Society Focused on national • Promotion of Bilingual development goals; Education Policy manpower training; high • Development of moral level professions; self- character; self-discipline; actualization scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency; love of country; good citizenshipFourth Republic Focused on promotion of • Strengthening of the the rights of all citizens to teaching of values; return quality education to the basics in the new elementary and secondary curriculum
Psychological Foundations Psychology provides a basis