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Sandro Macchieto: A good deal of Imperial Energy


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Prof. Sandro Macchietto brought us up-to-date with recent climate and energy issues

Prof. Sandro Macchietto brought us up-to-date with recent climate and energy issues

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  • 1. A good deal of Imperial Energy Prof Sandro Macchietto Chem Eng & Energy Futures Lab © Imperial College London Page
  • 2. Outline
    • The energy challenge
    • What is Imperial doing about it
    • Some research projects
    • A new teaching project
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 3. Key Energy Issues
    • Critical, long term, challenging
    • Many unexplored & unexploited synergies
    • Potential for high impact research
    • Future demand
    • Environmental impact
    • Security
  • 4. © Imperial College London Page
  • 5. Environmental effects will define the agenda © Imperial College London Page Source: University of Berne and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration In D. King, Royal Society, 29 March 2004 CO2 levels - last 60,000 years Air, particulates, …
  • 6. Unsustainable impact © Imperial College London Page $10-20 trillion capital investment in energy needed by 2030
  • 7. Global Demand 2030: +60% (3/4 non OECD) © Imperial College London Page Demand exceeds Capacity !
  • 8. Demand by sector © Imperial College London Page Other (residential services, farming) Industry Power (electricity) Trasport
  • 9. Security of supply – fossil sources: distribution of uses and reserves do not match © Imperial College London Page
  • 10. 2/3 of energy is “lost” !!!! © Imperial College London Page
  • 11. The carbon challenge © Imperial College London Page
  • 12.
    • How is Imperial Responding ?
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 13. © Imperial College London Page Imperial College – No. of full time academic staff Page no./ref © Imperial College London Nuclear Oil & Gas Photovoltaics Transport Power generation and utilities Energy policy Fuel Cells Fusion and high energy physics Impact on air, water, soil Waste management ~250
  • 14. © Imperial College London Page Imperial College Energy Futures Lab Launched 2 November 2005
  • 15. © Imperial College London Page Energy Futures Lab
    • Energy one of three strategic research priorities
    • ~ £20M pa. in funding, > 200 projects, ~ 250 staff & teams
    • The Energy Futures Lab established to:
    • Understand and solve wide ranging and cross-cutting energy problems via an interdisciplinary approach.
    • Work with industry, Government and funding agencies to focus one of the world’s top research Institutions on key energy issues.
    • Raise the profile of Imperial’s energy research, within and external to the College.
    • Stimulate innovation & technology transfer in the energy sector.
  • 16. Management Board
    • Nigel Brandon – Executive director
    • Tariq Ali – Business development
    • David Begg – Business School
    • James Durrant
    • Sandro Macchietto – MSc director
    • Chris Hankin – Engineering Faculty
    • Peter Nixon
    • Peter Pearson
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 17. © Imperial College London Page
  • 18. © Imperial College London Page
    • UK Energy Research Centre – Research Council
    • Future Electrical Networks – EPSRC
    • Fuel Cells – EPSRC
    • Keeping the Nuclear Option Open – Research Council (largest UK grant in the nuclear sector for 30 years).
    • Distributed Generation platform grant – EPSRC
    • Nuclear Engineering Doctorate programme – Research Council
    • Photovoltaics – Industry
    • Incubator for low Carbon technology – Carbon Trust
    • Bio-energy systems – Research Council
    • Carbon capture and storage – Research Council, Industry, DTI
    • Strategic partners in the energy sector include BP, Shell, Rolls-Royce, Air Products, ABB, Schlumberger, Oakridge National Lab.
    Some large energy projects led by Imperial College
  • 19. KNOO Keeping the Nuclear Option Open
    • UK context (20% of elettricity in 2005  0 in 15-20 years)
    • Part of TSEC (Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy)
    • Consortium (university & industry)
    • Monitoring
    • Waste treatment/disposal
    • New generation reactors
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 20. © Imperial College London Page Some activities in the Energy Futures Lab
    • Large interdisciplinary projects
    • Energy Futures Forum meetings on nuclear, sustainable energy and photochemical routes to hydrogen.
    • Strategic reports in the energy sector for industry.
    • Scholarships - Imperial College alumnus: 6 PhD scholarships in Energy Futures for Israeli students
    • International relationships developed in the Far East and Europe.
      • Al Masdar programme, Abu Dhabi - Imperial a founding academic partner.
    • New MSc course in Sustainable Energy Futures
  • 21. © Imperial College London Page BP Urban Energy Systems Project Launch project £4.5M from BP. This project will explore how money and energy could be saved in the future if cities integrated the systems that supply them with resources.
  • 22. © Imperial College London Page Shell-Imperial Grand Challenge on Clean Fossil Fuels A multi-million pound joint, strategic research programme. Imperial College and Shell to jointly develop processes to enhance the extraction of difficult hydrocarbons with minimal release of greenhouse gases. Launched by Dr Jan van der Eijk, Group Chief Technology Officer, Shell International, February 2007.
  • 23. © Imperial College London Page EPSRC Programme on New and Renewable Solar Routes to Hydrogen Announced in April 2007, start October 07 Five year, £4.2M programme To harvest solar energy to produce renewable and cost effective hydrogen as an alternative energy source . Biological and chemical solar driven methods (materials, reactors, systems) for producing hydrogen which can be used to operate fuel cells. Scientist and engineers from four Departments across Imperial. Will develop materials, reactors and systems
  • 24. © Imperial College London Page
    • 20 th Century Energy projections
    • never
    • asked where energy is consumed
    • exposed the future as urban energy
    • recognised cities as sources innovation in energy demand
    • So what if they did?
    Urban Energy Project
  • 25. © Imperial College London Page Pumped water 10 6 Metros freeways Oil/el vehicles coal based lighting Coal htg ? Historically cities are problem solving machines adapting industrial solutions Population 1900 1800 10 7 Innovators?
  • 26. © Imperial College London Page Future Cities Face Challenges Big impacts on production and consumption Including urban energy systems
    • City services provision much more flexible than before
    • Infrastructure more ‘similar’ than once thought
    • More information available to run cities
    Local generation Equity Competition Water Waste Power Oil Congestion
  • 27. Urban Energy Systems © Imperial College London Page Risparmi energetici stimati : 20-45% Engineering (civil, chemical & systems) Environmental policy Business School
  • 28. © Imperial College London Page 20-25% Efficient? Process Integration applied to cities as systems
  • 29. New Tools to handle city level data fast © Imperial College London Page Traffic density to heat island GIS plot Light data proxy for urban activity Three types of city?
  • 30. Shell-Imperial “Grand Challenge” Clean Fossil Fuels © Imperial College London Page
  • 31. Key technology: Capture and storage of CO2 (CCS) © Imperial College London Page Source: Martin Blunt – Imperial College
    • How to separate CO 2 ?
    • Where does it go ?
    • manage CO2 overall cycle
  • 32. Clean Power plants Oxy-combustion of Coal CO 2 compression-purification system © Imperial College London Page Pulverised Coal + O 2 CO 2 CO 2 , H 2 O SOx, NOx, Hg, N 2 … Rest Flue Gas Sequestr. EOR, …
    • £2.8M project, DTI/Industry funded, 12 Industrial companies & 2 Universities
    • Goals:
    • confirmation of reaction/purification chemistry over range of T & P
    • provision of data to enable development of reliable kinetic model
    • validation on pilot test rig
    • feasibility of commercial scale
    Oxy combustion CO 2 purific. & separation
  • 33. Clean coal: gassification + CCS © Imperial College London Page Co-combustion with biomass, Poli-generation, Synthesis fuels
  • 34. Transport = oil © Imperial College London Page Minimise impact Find alternative forms
  • 35. Sustainable Biofuels LCA – Well-to-Wheel analyses
    • Accounts for all the GHG emission up to the vehicles’ wheels
    • Current UK accounting is ‘tailpipe’ CO2
    • Leads to complications trying to allocate WTT GHG emissions
    © Imperial College London Page (courtesy of J. Woods, Imperial College)
  • 36. ATMOSPHERIC CO 2 Ethanol CO2-Capture by Photosynthesis e.g. Crop Growth End Use e.g. combustion in vehicles Carbon Capture & Sequestration CO 2 Gas Markets Leakage? GHGs GHGs GHGs Fossil Energy Fossil Energy Fossil Energy Co-products Other Inputs e.g. water GHGs
  • 37. Ethanol & GHGs © Imperial College London Page All figures for 2010+ PISI vehicles
  • 38. Biofuels - lignocellulosic conversion
    • 80% of above ground biomass is in the cell walls (residues)
    • Current world motor fuel energy consumption (10 20 J/yr)
    • Could be met from 125 M ha or 10% of global arable land 1
    © Imperial College London Page 1 Based of biomass yield of 40 odt/ha/yr, higher heating value of 20 GJ/odt and 60% carbon content into biofuel.
  • 39. Bio-refinery © Imperial College London Page
  • 40. The flexible biorefinery © Imperial College London Page BM 1 Biofuel Chemicals Materials Heat & power Remediation BM 2 ………… . ………… . BM n Biomass class Biorefinery processes Products Ragauskas et al (2006)
  • 41. Key research challenges © Imperial College London Page Process integration Novel biofuels Chemicals Efficient LC processing Biomass processability Biomass yield Genetics & breeding Plant engineering Process engineering Chemistry Combustion science Analytical technology ……… Environment, ecology …..
  • 42. The Porter Institute and Porter Alliance © Imperial College London Page
  • 43. The Porter Institute and Porter Alliance © Imperial College London Page Over 100 scientists, engineers, mathematicians and policy experts. Principal contributors: Tariq Ali , Michael Bevan, Mervyn Bibb, Iain Donnison, Thorsten Hamann, Yannis Hardalupas, Angela Karp , David Klug , Richard Lane ( Natural History Museum ), David Leak, Richard Murphy, Nilay Shah , Monique Simmonds ( Kew ), Alex Taylor, Gail Taylor ( Southampton ), Colin Turnbull, Tom Welton and Jeremy Woods
  • 44. © Imperial College London Page Frameworks & Risk Assessment Quantifying System Sustainability In silico model of biofuel chain(s) [Integrating, Quantifying, Measuring and Guiding] Systems Modelling & Decision Tools Systems Modelling & Decision Tools Research Concepts Concept(1 plant ) Concept(2 process ) Concept(3 biofuel ) Concept(n) 1 st Generation 1 (1) Generation 1 (2) Generation 1 (3…) n th Generation n (1) Generation n (2…) Deliverable(s) Componets(1-n)
    • Mass Balance + flows (C, N, O, P, K, Cl, S, etc)
    • GHG balances
    • Energy balances
    • Emissions
    • [data from Platforms]
    • Micro economics
    • Macro economics
    • Social Parameters
    • Externalities
    • Scale issues
    • Sustain-ability Assurance
    Whole-chain solutions Micro Macro
  • 45. The sustainability matrix © Imperial College London Page Power generation Remediation Chemical Secondary biofuel Primary biofuel Secondary conversion Primary conversion Front end process Feedstock Process
  • 46. The sustainability matrix © Imperial College London Page Process Energy balance Carbon balance Nitrogen flows Phosphorus flows Water demand Stress tolerance …… Ecological impacts Economics Social impacts Land usage issues Public acceptability Policy issues Regulation …… Score sheet Quantitative/’hard’….Quantitative/regional……….Variable/political/’soft’
  • 47. Development of better “plants” © Imperial College London Page Ragauskas et al. Science, Vol 311, 484-489, Jan 2006 e.g. 1. increase expression of rate limiting enzymes to increase light energy capture 2. Increase Nitrogen metabolism
  • 48. © Imperial College London Page New and Renewable Solar Routes to Hydrogen Announced in April 2007, start October 07 Five year, £4.2M programme To harvest solar energy to produce renewable and cost effective hydrogen as an alternative energy source . Biological and chemical solar driven methods (materials, reactors, systems) for producing hydrogen which can be used to operate fuel cells. Scientist and engineers from four Departments across Imperial.
  • 49. Reverse engineering photosynthesis © Imperial College London Page   Spinach LHCII–PSII supercomplex with fitted X-ray and cryo-EM structures “ Light Harvesting in Photosystem I Supercomplexes”, Melkozernov, Barber, Blankenship Biochemistry, 45 (2), 331 -345, 2006.
  • 50. © Imperial College London Page Nuclear Energy Non-Fossil Energy ( Solar , Water, Wind) Fossil Energy Routes to Hydrogen Production Heat Mechanical Energy Electricity Electrolysis Thermolysis Biophotolysis Fermentation Biomass Chemical Conversion Carbon dioxide Hydrogen adapted and modified from J.A.Turner, Science 285, 687(1999) Photoelectrolysis
  • 51. © Imperial College London Page Energy gap of 14TW by 2050! Combined area of black dots would provide total world energy demand
  • 52. © Imperial College London Page Energy Futures Lab Systems Engineering Innovation and Technology Transfer Basic Science Functional materials development Chemistry Life Sciences Device scale up Reactor analysis, design, build and test Reactor modelling Engineering Reactor materials Biomimetic
  • 53. Electricity grid of the future Robust Wide-Area Control Supported by ABB © Imperial College London Page A ±75 MVA Statcom at East Claydon in the NGT System Prototype Micro-Grid Supported by Supergen FutureNet
  • 54. Integrated systems – multiscale modelling © Imperial College London Page
  • 55. Example - Fuel Cells
    • Strengths
    • Materials
    • Thermodynamics
    • Electrochemistry
    • Modelling and simulation
    • Scale-up & Manufacturing
    • Systems integration
    • Two Spin-offs
      • Ceres Power
      • Process Systems Enterprise
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 56. PSE clients © Imperial College London Page Americas (31%) Air Products BP Chemicals Dow Chemicals Honeywell INEOS UOP Johns Manville SQM United Technologies RC United Technologies Power Procter & Gamble Toyota Motor Company EMEA (33%) Acetate Products Arkema BP Chemicals BP Exploration BASF Bayer TS Cargil Cerestar ICI Uhde Inventa Fischer Linde Engineering S ü d-Chemie Wolff Cellulosics Atomic Weapons Estbl. Ceres Power FLS Automation Friesland Coberco GlaxoSmithKline Merck Nexia Solutions Nestle Voith APAC (36%) LG Chem Mitsubishi Chemical Organo Chemicals Taiyo Nippon Sanso Maruzen Petrochemical Samnam Petrochemical SK Corp AIST Kawasaki Heavy Industry Nissan Ebara Samsung SDI Sugar Australia Toshiba Fuel Cell Power Systems Toyota Motor Company
  • 57. © Imperial College London Page Spring – 5 intensive modules Autumn - 3 foundation courses + Distinguished Seminars Course Energy Systems Technology Energy Economics and Policy Urban Energy Systems Clean Fossil Fuels Low Carbon Technologies Energy Transmission and Storage Sustainable Transport Summer – Interdisciplinary Research Project Methods for Analysis of Energy Systems MSc in Sustainable Energy Futures Your energy future, today A New, Integrated, 1-yr Course 11 Departments in 3 Faculties Global issues, Whole systems, Sustainability Taught by leaders in energy research and industry For the next generation of energy leaders Applications now – start Oct 2007
  • 58. In conclusion
    • Big challenge
    • Imperial at the forefront in devising answers
    • Lots of exciting research
    • New organisational forms
    • Join in !!
    © Imperial College London Page
  • 59. Questions?
  • 60. © Imperial College London Page