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100% Renewable Energy Solutions: The Danish Policies and Experience

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Henrik Lund's presentation for CoEnercat in Barcelona February 12th 2019

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100% Renewable Energy Solutions: The Danish Policies and Experience

  1. 1. 100% Renewable Energy Solutions The Danish Policies and Experience   Henrik Lund Professor in Energy Planning Aalborg Universitet The 16th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling 9-12 September 2018 in Hamburg, Germany
  2. 2. Aalborg University, Denmark Jutland/Denmark: • > 40% wind power (local owners) • High share of the world’s offshore power • 30% Distributed Generation • 50% of electricity supplied by CHP • >50% District Heating • 10% of Natural Gas produced from Biogas
  3. 3. Renewable Energy Systems A Smart Energy Systems Approach to the Choice and Modeling of 100% Renewable Solutions 1. Edition in 2010 2. Edition in 2014 New Chapter on Smart Energy Systems and Infrastructures
  4. 4. The long-term Objective of Danish Energy Policy Expressed by former Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen in his opening speech to the Parliament in 2006 and in several political agreements since then: To convert to 100% Renewable Energy Prime minister 16 November 2008: ”We will free Denmark totally from fossil fuels like oil, coal and gas” Prime minister 16 November 2008: ”… position Denmark in the heart of green growth”
  5. 5. 100% Renewable Energy 2050 …… but how…???!!
  6. 6. Energi System Analyse Model www.EnergyPLAN.eu
  7. 7. Smart Energy Systems
  8. 8. Smart Energy Systems: Hourly modelling of all smart grids to identify synergies! … and influence of different types of energy storage..!
  9. 9. Smart Energy Systems www.energyplan.eu/smartenergysystems/
  10. 10. Energy Storage Pump Hydro Storage 175 €/kWh (Source: Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs, and Benefits. Electric Power Research Institute, 2010) Natural Gas Underground Storage 0.05 €/kWh (Source: Current State Of and Issues Concerning Underground Natural Gas Storage. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 2004) Oil Tank 0.02 €/kWh (Source: Dahl KH, Oil tanking Copenhagen A/S, 2013: Oil Storage Tank. 2013) Thermal Storage 1-4 €/kWh (Source: Danish Technology Catalogue, 2012)
  11. 11. www.journals.aau.dk/index.php/sepm
  12. 12. IDA Energiplan 2030
  13. 13. 100% Renewable Energy in 2050 Primær energiforsyning 100% VE i år 2050, PJ 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 Ref 2030 IDA 2030 IDA 2050 Bio IDA 2050 Vind IDA 2050 Eksport VE-el Solvarme Biomasse Naturgas Olie Kul Biomass potentials and consumtion in IDA 2030, PJ 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 DEA potential IDA 2030 Max potential Waste Energy crops Slurry fibre fraction Slurry biogas Wood Straw
  14. 14. CEESA Project 2011/2012
  15. 15. CEESA Project 2011/2012 Transport: Electric vehicles is best from an energy efficient point of view. But gas and/or liquid fuels is needed to transform to 100%. Biomass: .. is a limited resource and can not satisfy all the transportation needs. Consequence … Electricity from Wind (and similar resources) needs to be converted to gas and liquied fuels in the long-term perspective…
  16. 16. Electricity (111 PJ) Conversion Process││ │ │Transport Fuel Electric Grid1 Electricity (100 PJ) │Transport Demand 294 Gpkm 323 Gtkm OR Resource Resource Electricity (111 PJ) Conversion Process││ │ │ Electricity (100 PJ) │ Transport Demand 313 Gpkm Freight is not applicable Transport Fuel ORElectric Grid1 Electrolyser1 Biomass [Cellulose] (65 PJ) Electricity (83.5 PJ) Methane (100 PJ2 ) H2 (60.5 PJ) Steam Gasifier Chemical Synthesis Hydrogenation 1.9 Mt Syngas Resource Conversion Process││ │ ││ Transport Demand 61 Gpkm 36 Gtkm Transport Fuel OR H2 O (2.6 Mt) 4.5Mt Marginal Heat 3 (7.6 PJ) Power Plant 6 PJ 3 0.6 PJ 83 PJ 59 PJ Electrolyser1 Biomass [Glucose] (60 PJ) Electricity (83 PJ) Methane (100 PJ2 ) H2 (60.5 PJ) Anaerobic Digester Chemical Synthesis CO2 Hydrogenation 4.5 Mt Resource Conversion Process││ │ ││ Transport Demand 61 Gpkm 36 Gtkm Transport Fuel OR H2 O (2.3 Mt) Biogas (50 GJ) 2.3 Mt OR Biomass1 (77 PJ) Methanol/DME (100 PJ5 ) Electricity (178 PJ) CO2 (7 Mt) Co-electrolysis4 Carbon Sequestration & Recycling3Electricity2 (7.3 PJ) Chemical Synthesis Syngas (139 PJ) H2 O (5.7 Mt) Resource Conversion Process││ │ ││ Transport Demand or 50 Gtkm 83 Gpkm Transport Fuel Electricity HeatPower Plant Electrolyser6 Chemical Synthesis Fermenter Hydrogenation Chemical Synthesis Electricity (307 PJ) H2 (149.4 PJ) Straw (401.7 PJ) H2 (72.2 PJ) Methanol/DME (62.6 PJ2 ) Ethanol (100 PJ) Methanol/DME (337.5 PJ2 ) CO2 (4.4 Mt) H2O (15.5 Mt) Hydrogenation Low & High Temperature Gasification7 Resource Conversion Process││ │ │Transport Fuel OR Transport Demand │ 52 Gpkm 67 Gpkm 31 Gtkm 39 Gtkm4 279 Gpkm 169 Gtkm OR OR Lignin (197.7 PJ) C5 Sugars (92.8 PJ) Biomass (40.2 PJ) Power Plant 115 Mt 1 Mt Marginal Heat1 (50.2 PJ) 303.6 PJ 3.4 PJ3 3.5 Mt
  17. 17. CEESA Project 2011/2012 Smart Energy Systems: Integrated use of Power-To-Heat, Power- To-Transport and Power-To-Gas/Liquid fuel RES integration: Hourly balance of wind etc. by use of thermal and gas/fuel storage. (Least-cost solution) No electricity storage … except from batteries in cars…
  18. 18. Publication Smart Energy Europe www.EnergyPLAN.eu/SmartEnergyEuro pe Report Online Paper Published
  19. 19. More information: http://energy.plan.aau.dk/book.php www.EnergyPLAN.eu www.4DH.dk www.energyplan.eu/smartenergysystems/ www.henriklund.eu www.heatroadmap.eu www.energyplan.eu/SmartEnergyEurope

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