Unit 6 conjunctions

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  • 1. Conjunctions Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases or sentences. What do the conjunctions below connect ? John and Mary laughed. Do you want to eat or drink anything? It’s sad but true. John stayed home, for he was very sick. John smiled, yet he was not amused. He shouted, so I shouted back. I never said yes, nor will I ever say yes. N V Adj. S S S S
  • 2. Conjunctions
    • Conjunctions can only relate items of the same category :
    Sam and Bill *Sam and walked Happy or sad *Happy or hotdog He ate but he wasn’t full. *He ate but pizza. N and N *N and V Adj. or Adj. *Adj. or N S but S *S but N
  • 3. Coordinating Conjunctions
    • Coordinating conjunctions relate items of equal value to the meaning of the sentence as a whole :
    • 1. John and Mary ate pizza.
    • 2. He enjoys walking or running.
    • 3. They are smart and funny.
    • “ and ” and “ or ” are the two most common coordinating conjunctions.
  • 4. Coordinating Conjunctions
    • The other coordinating conjunctions are :
    You may think of the two items connected by a coordinating conjunction as simply having “ AND ” in between them. But So Yet Nor (For) John laughed but Mary didn’t. The H.W. was easy, so she did it fast. He smiled, yet she cried. I am not hungry, nor is he thirsty.
  • 5. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • Subordinating conjunctions connect ONLY sentences , which are NOT of equal value.
    • Example : He smiled because she arrived .
    • - Each of the sentences is called a clause .
    • - The clause starting with the subordinating conjunction is the Subordinate Clause .
    • - The other clause is the Main Clause .
    • - Note that here we cannot put “ AND ”.
  • 6. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • The main clause could precede the subordinate clause:
    • 1. John ate while he watched a movie .
    • Usually, but not always, the main clause could also follow the subordinate clause:
    • 2. While he watched a movie , John ate .
  • 7. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • Question words are subordinating conjunctions , if they connect two clauses :
    • 1. He wants to know who came to the party .
    • 2. She studies when she is not tired .
    • 3. They asked what is coming up next .
    • 4. He wonders whether it’s sunny out .
    • 5. She doesn’t know where he went .
    • 6. They can’t decide which is the best band .
    • 7. He wants to know why she is crying .
    • - Notice these are NOT actually questions!!!
  • 8. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • The following question words are NOT conjunctions , since they don’t connect two clauses :
    • Who did you meet?
    • Why is she sad?
    • What are they eating?
    • Where is he going?
    • Which band does he like more?
    • When is your next class?
  • 9. Subordinating Conjunctions
    • Other common subordinating conjunctions are:
    That Before/after Since Once Until Unless If Although He thinks that apples are tasty. Before she ate lunch, she ran. Since he was a boy, he’s lived here. Once they heard it, they came. We laughed until it was over. I won’t come unless she comes too. If she comes, I will come. I came, although she didn’t come.
  • 10. Correlative Conjunctions
    • Some conjunctions are made up of two words, which are NOT adjacent- These are correlative conjunctions .
    • Examples :
    • Either John or Mary ate the pizza.
    • I like to both swim and dive.
    • If the sun is up, then it’s time to go out.
    • The movie was neither great nor terrible.
  • 11. Correlative Conjunctions
    • These are the most common correlative conjunctions of English:
    • Either/or
    • Neither/nor
    • Both/and
    • If/then
  • 12. Correlative Conjunctions
    • Notice that the following conjunctions are NOT Correlative :
    • I don’t want to go even if it’s raining.
    • Even though he ate an hour ago, he is hungry.
    • She cried, as if something terrible happened.
    Here, the two words of the conjunction are adjacent . In correlative conjunctions , the two words are never adjacent!
  • 13. In the exercise that follows : 1. identify the conjunctions. 2. Say what kind of conjunction it is. 3. If it is a subordinating conjunction, identify the main clause and the subordinate clause.
  • 14. Identify the conjunctions
    • 1. This book was not well-written, nor was it interesting.
    • 2. Whenever we go to the beach, we take along suntan lotion, so that we don’t burn.
    • 3. Neither rain nor snow will prevent the mail from being delivered.
    • 4. The butcher and his son opened the store at 7 A.M., though no one came in before 8.
    • 5. While talking to my boss was both necessary and important, it was not quite fun.
  • 15. Identify the conjunctions
    • 6. She prefers to travel by train, even though trains could be costly.
    • 7. If Liana is accepted by Columbia, then she will live near campus.
    • 8. He wants to lease either a Honda or a Toyota, yet he can’t decide which.
    • 9. Are you interested in this one or that one?
    • 10. I am going to solve this crossword puzzle, even if it takes me the whole evening.
  • 16. Homework
    • Read and do all the exercises of unit 6