   Acquired Immunodeficiency    Syndrome   HIV is the virus that causes AIDS   Disease limits the body’s ability to    ...
 “HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME”   A specific type of virus ( a retrovirus)   HIV invades the helper T cells, macroph...
   HIV infections are    considered pandemic by    the World Health    Organization(WHO).   As of 2010 approximately    ...
   HIV retrovirus is divided into    :-                                 H1                         HIV                   ...
   HIV ENTERS THE BLOOD STREAM    THROUGH   Open cuts   Breaks in the skin   Mucous membranes   Direct injection   C...
   SEXUAL CONTACT: male-to-male                    male-to-female/vice-versa                    female-to-female   BLOOD...
   Short, flu-like illness occurs 1-6 weeks    after infection   No symptoms at all   Infected person can infect other ...
 Last for an average of 10 years This stage is free from symptoms There may be swollen glands The level of HIV in bloo...
   The symptoms are mild   The immune system deteriorates   Emergence of opportunistic infections &    cancers
   The immune system weakens   The illnesses become more severe    leading to an AIDS diagnosis
   Requires a blood or oral    fluid sample   HIV test detects the    body’s antibody response    to HIV infection   Th...
   Those recently exposed should be retested at least six    months after their last exposure   Screening test (EIA/ELIS...
   Treatment with anti – retroviral drugs    e.g.- Azidothymidine.   ABACAVIR- a nucleoside analog reverse    transcript...
 Awareness & educations Avoid sex with strangers Use condoms Use of sterile needle Careful during blood transfusion ...
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
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Hiv

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Hiv

  1. 1.  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system No permanent cure
  2. 2.  “HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME” A specific type of virus ( a retrovirus) HIV invades the helper T cells, macrophages and dendrite cells to replicate itself It directly or indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells
  3. 3.  HIV infections are considered pandemic by the World Health Organization(WHO). As of 2010 approximately 34 million people have HIV globally. Of these approximately 16.8 million are women and 3.4 million are less than 15 years old. It resulted in about 1.8 million death in 2010, down from 3.1 million in 2001. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. South & South East Asia is the second most affected; in 2010 this region contained an estimated 4 million cases.
  4. 4.  HIV retrovirus is divided into :- H1 HIV H2 It is a retrovirus Consist of 9,749 nucleotides in its 2 identical ssRNA genome Contain reverse transcriptase
  5. 5.  HIV ENTERS THE BLOOD STREAM THROUGH Open cuts Breaks in the skin Mucous membranes Direct injection COMMON FLUIDS THAT ARE A MEANS OF TRANSMISSION Blood Semen Vaginal secretions Breast milk
  6. 6.  SEXUAL CONTACT: male-to-male male-to-female/vice-versa female-to-female BLOOD EXPOSURE: injecting drug use/needle sharing occupational exposure transfusion of blood products PERINATAL: transmission from mom to baby breastfeeding
  7. 7.  Short, flu-like illness occurs 1-6 weeks after infection No symptoms at all Infected person can infect other people
  8. 8.  Last for an average of 10 years This stage is free from symptoms There may be swollen glands The level of HIV in blood drops to very low levels HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  9. 9.  The symptoms are mild The immune system deteriorates Emergence of opportunistic infections & cancers
  10. 10.  The immune system weakens The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
  11. 11.  Requires a blood or oral fluid sample HIV test detects the body’s antibody response to HIV infection The test does NOT detect the HIV virus
  12. 12.  Those recently exposed should be retested at least six months after their last exposure Screening test (EIA/ELISA) vs. confirmatory test (IFA) EIA/ELISA(reactive) REPEAT EIA/ELISA(reactive) IFA(reactive) POSITIVE FOR HIV TEST
  13. 13.  Treatment with anti – retroviral drugs e.g.- Azidothymidine. ABACAVIR- a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) There is currently no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS
  14. 14.  Awareness & educations Avoid sex with strangers Use condoms Use of sterile needle Careful during blood transfusion Avoid drugs and alcohol

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