HIV/Aids

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Presentation on HIV/Aids

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HIV/Aids

  1. 1.  Introduction History Origin HIV Virus Life Cycle Types of HIV Viruses Statistics Transmission Prevention Treatment ICTC Responsibilities
  2. 2.  Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) The virus and disease are often referred to together as HIV/AIDS It destroys cells of the immune system Attacks T-cells or CD4 cells that are designed to fight infections and diseases
  3. 3.  In the early 1980s, the first recognized cases of AIDS occurred June 5, 1981, when the U. S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. In the beginning, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease In the general, the term GRID, which stood for gay-related immune deficiency, had been coined By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness
  4. 4.  The Hunter Theory The Oral Polio Vaccine Theory The Contaminated Needle Theory The Conspiracy Theory
  5. 5.  It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV viral transfer between animals and humans takes place SIV became HIV in humans
  6. 6.  It is the most commonly accepted theory SIV was transferred to humans as a result of chimps being killed and eaten their blood getting into cuts or wounds on the hunter SIV on a few occasions adapted itself within its new human host and become HIV
  7. 7.  virus was transmitted via various medical experiments The oral polio vaccine called Chat was given to millions of people Then it was cultivated on kidney cells taken from the chimps infected with SIV in order to reproduce the vaccine later affected large number of people with HIV
  8. 8.  African healthcare professionals were using one single syringe to inject multiple patients without any sterilization in between This could have rapidly have transferred infection from one individual to another resulting in mutation from SIV to HIV
  9. 9.  HIV was manufactured as part of a biological warfare programme to wipe out large numbers of black and homosexual people
  10. 10.  HIV particles are much too small to be seen through an ordinary microscope HIV particles surround themselves with a coat of fatty material known as the viral envelope (or membrane). Projecting from this are around 72 little spikes Just below the viral envelope is a layer called the matrix, which is made from the protein p17 The viral core (or capsid) is usually bullet- shaped and is made from the protein p24 Inside the core are three enzymes required for HIV replication called reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease
  11. 11.  Entry HIV can only replicate inside human cells The process typically begins when a virus particle bumps into a cell that carries on its surface a special protein called CD4 The spikes on the surface of the virus particle stick to the CD The contents of the HIV particle are then released into the c Reverse Transcription and Integration Once inside the cell, the HIV enzyme reverse transcriptase converts the viral RNA into DNA This DNA is transported to the cells nucleus, where it is spliced into the human DNA by the HIV enzyme integras
  12. 12.  Transcription and Translation when the cell becomes activated, it treats HIV genes in much the same way as human genes First it converts them into messenger RNA Then the messenger RNA is transported outside the nucleus, and is used as a blueprint for producing new HIV proteins and enzymes Assembly, Budding and Maturation Among the strands of messenger RNA produced by the cell are complete copies of HIV genetic material. The HIV particles are then released or bud from the cell The newly matured HIV particles are ready to infect another cell and begin the replication process all over again
  13. 13.  major difficulty in finding a cure for HIV is its genetic variability, which is very high The main reason for this is variability is the fast replication cycle of the virus producing as many as with the generation of 109 to 1010 virions per day The situation gets more complex, in case if a single cell is simultaneously infected by two or more different strains of HIV.
  14. 14.  There are two types of HIV HIV-1 and HIV-2 Both types are transmitted by sexual contact, through blood, and from mother to child both the strains are equally dangerous. Therefore, both should be avoided at any cost. The prevention modes are the same in both the cases. irrespective of which strain is it, do not let HIV in any form affect you.
  15. 15. HIV 1 HIV 2 While HIV1 is the most common strain  HIV2 is the less common strain and is not and is found in the majority of HIV found very often. infection cases  HIV2 is mainly concentrated to areas of Western Africa. HIV2 cases are mainly HIV1 can be found across all the places of found in countries like, Senegal, Nigeria, as the world well as the Ivory Coast  HIV2, being less common Due to this HIV1 strain, since it is most common so it reason, there has not been much medical have more Antiretroviral treatments development HIV1 is faster in progress and weaken the  HIV2 has been found to be slow in progress Immunity at much faster rate and has been found to weaken the immune system at a much slower rate HIV1 is more infectious that HIV2  HIV2 is less infectious in the earlier stages Remains the same in all stages  later stages, it is HIV2 which does more damage
  16. 16. Estimate RangePeople living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 34 million 31.6-35.2millionProportion of adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 50 47-53who were women (%)Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2010 3.4 million 3.0-3.8 millionPeople newly infected with HIV in 2010 2.7 million 2.4-2.9 millionChildren newly infected with HIV in 2010 3,90,000 3,40,000-4,50,000AIDS death in 2010 1.8 million 1.6-1.9 million
  17. 17.  In 2009 it was estimated that 2.4 million people were living with HIV in India which equates to a prevalence of 0.3%. While this may seem low, because Indias population is so large it is third in the world in terms of greatest number of people living with HIV With a population of around a billion a mere 0.1% increase in HIV prevalence would increase the estimated number of people living with HIV by over half a million.
  18. 18.  Unprotected sexual intercourse. Injection drug use. From an infected mother to her infant. Blood transfusions
  19. 19.  Unprotected sexual intercourse with infected person either heterosexual or homosexual
  20. 20.  The risk of acquiring HIV from a blood transfusion today is estimated to be 1 in 4 for every 600,000 transfusions The risk of acquiring HIV from an organ transplantation is probably similar Today, blood and organ banks screen out most potential donors at risk for HIV infection in advance
  21. 21.  HIV can be transmitted from mother to her child during pregnancy during birth breast-feeding• about 1 in 4 or 5 babies born to HIV- infected women became infected• when treatment is taken, the HIV transmission rate from a mother to her baby is greatly reduced
  22. 22.  Using shared, unsterile needles and syringes carries a high risk of HIV transmission Sharing cookers, cottons, and water for mixing/bleaching can also transmit HIV After use, small amounts of blood can remain in the used needles, syringes, cookers, and cottons
  23. 23.  Kissing, hugging, handshaking Sneezing, coughing, sharing glasses/utensils, etc Injections or surgery with STERILE needles and tools Safer sex using condoms Tears, sweat, saliva, vomit, feces or urine Using toilets, drinking fountains, public swimming pools Insect bites Working, socializing or living with a person with HIV
  24. 24.  Sexual Transmission Infection through blood Mother to child
  25. 25.  Abstain from sex or delay first sex Be faithful to one partner Use of condoms
  26. 26.  Needle exchange Sterilized equipments Secure blood transfusion
  27. 27.  Prevent unwanted pregnancies Antiretroviral drugs given to her Avoid breast feeding to child Best feeding options
  28. 28.  The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person’s life. The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the body at a low level. Drugs are known as: antiretrovirals ARVs anti-HIV or anti-AIDS drugs There are more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs but not all are licensed or available in every country NRTIs and NNRTIs are available in most countries
  29. 29.  Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre(ICTC) Integrated counseling and testing services HIV counseling HIV testing and quality assurance Infection control and protection of staff Training of staff ART center
  30. 30.  Poverty Unawareness Lack of Education Risky behavior Society norms and values Attitude Governmental reforms
  31. 31.  Government Responsibilities Social Responsibilities Individual Responsibilities
  32. 32.  Prevention is better than cure so let’s not be ashamed to talk about AIDS HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it.

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