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  • Study the photograph. How would you describe the battlefield? Destroyed, torn apart, desolate, barbed wire fence, flipped over tanks, evidence of explosions of artillery, mines, or bombs What about the soldiers? They are advancing (offensive) or retreating (defensive) carrying rifles.
  • What is the root of the word nationalism? How can a nationalism be a good thing? How can nationalism be harmful or dangerous?
  • Which countries were competing for power in Europe?
  • What animal does the central figure look like? Which country does it represent? What is England appear to be doing? This cartoon is an illustration of which policy?
  • Which countries are depicted in the cartoon? What are the countries doing? What policy is the cartoon illustrating?
  • What is the root of the word militarism? What do you think militarism means?
  • What are expenditures? Which country increased defense expenses the least? Which country increased defense expenses the most? What does the chart on defense expenditures tell us?
  • What is an alliance or an ally? What are the names of two main alliances? Which color on the map indicates the entente powers? Which countries were part of the Entente alliance? Which color on the map indicates the central powers? Which countries were a part of the central powers? What do you notice about the location of the central powers?
  • Which color on the map indicates the Triple Alliance? Which countries are apart of the Triple Alliance? Which color on the map indicates the Triple Entente? Which countries are apart of the Triple Entente? What would happen if any two of the rival countries had a conflict?
  • Which country switched sides during the war?
  • Which country had the largest army? How many soldiers did Russia have? Which country had the smallest army? If you were Germany which country would you attack first based on this bar graph and why?
  • If you were Germany, which enemy is on to your East? (Russia) If you were Germany, which enemy is on to your West? (France) If you were Germany, what challenges or difficulties does it pose to have an enemy to both your east & west? (being attacked in two directions, fighting a war on two fronts, having to divide the army) Recall the size of each countries army. If you were Germany, which country would you attack first? Why
  • What is the Schlieffen plan? What was the purpose of the Schlieffen plan? (For Germany to surprise attack France & defeat them, then focus on fighting Russia to the east.)
  • What was the Western front? Recall movie from freshman year All is Quiet on the Western Front Which two countries to the fighting on the Western front primarily take place in?(France & belgium) What style of warfare primarily used on the western front? (trench) Why were tWhat is a stalemate?
  • Why were the trenches created? (stalemate) What is a stalemate? (neither side was gaining/winning, tie) What is trench warfare? (dig tunnels/trenches into the ground and fight from inside the trenches) What might it be like inside of a trench? (Sights, sounds, smells, feel, taste) What is no man’s land?
  • What might it be like inside of a trench? (Sights, sounds, smells, feel, taste)
  • Locate the western & eastern front. The eastern front is located between which two countries? What are some examples of battles that took place on the Western front? What are some examples of battles that took place on the eastern front?
  • If you were a citizen hearing these statistics how might you feel about the war?
  • Which groups in society might be opposed to the war? Why?
  • Who is the soldier supposed to represent? (Germany) How can you tell? (The helmet) What is the soldier doing? (bayonetting a baby) Who created this cartoon & why? (the British, to show the enemy as brutal & to generate support for the war)
  • What is a blockade? (To surround so nothing can enter or exit the country) What might be some effects of a blockade? (cut of food, munitions, & force surrender) Who issued the blockade? Why? (the British, to force the Germans to surrender)
  • How does Germany respond to the British blockade? What is a U-Boat? What is the advantage of being a submarine? How can you distinguish an ally versus an enemy ship?
  • What was the Lusitania? What happened to the Lusitania? Why did the Germans sink the ship? How might Americans react to the sinking of the Lusitania?
  • What is this notice about? (A formal warning to passengers traveling in the Atlantic under a British flag) Who issued the warning? (The Imperial German government)
  • What is commerce? According to Wilson’s request to Congress for a declaration of war, why should the United States fight the war? A) protect commerce/trade B) world peace C) liberation/freedom of people D) make the world safe for democracy According to Wilson, what isn’t the United States fighting for? A) selfish reasons B) conquest or dominion
  • Why could poison gas only be used under certain weather conditions? How many men were needed to man a machine gun? Why? How does this change the nature of warfare? Is it a fair weapon? Does the end justify the means? Why were machine gun crews more likely to be killed when captured than foot soldiers?
  • What is long range artillery? How many men were needed to work long range artillery? How much do you think long range artillery weighed?
  • What is an armored vehicle? What are armored vehicles used for today? (banks) What are the disadvantages of armored vehicles? (slow, awkward, clumsy, can’t turn around)
  • How do you destroy a tank?
  • What are planes primarily used for at the start of WWI? (reconnaissance)
  • What is a submarine? What is the German word for submarine? What is a submarines primary weapon? What is the advantage of being a submarine? Why didn’t German submarines issue warnings before attack?
  • What is another name for a Zeppelin? What does a Zeppelin look like? (a blimp) What makes it float? What type of gas? (hydrogen) What are the characteristics of that hydrogen? flammable What is it used for? (transport bombs) Why no longer used? (Easy targets)
  • What is a flame thrower? What are flame throwers used for? (clear forest/path to move military) What is in the canister on your back? (gas) What are grenade launchers used for?
  • What is mechanized warfare? When did it begin? What are the effects of mechanized warfare?
  • What is this an image of? What caused trench foot?
  • Why does Russia withdraw from WWI? What was going on in Russia?
  • Which country surrenders first? Which side we they on?
  • What is a cease-fire? What happened on the 11 th hour of the 11 th on the 11 th day? What is an armistice? What holiday is celebrated on November 11 th every year?
  • Which country suffered the most casualties? Which country suffered the fewest casualties? Why?
  • How many total military deaths from WWI? Why might so many civilians have died? How many people were injured? How many refugees? (what is a refugee?) How much did the war cost? How many men did the U.S. loose?
  • What is a conscientious objector? Why were objectors court marshaled or imprisoned?
  • What is rationing? Why were good rationed? Which items might be rationed & why?
  • Who are the big four? Which four countries do they represent?
  • If you were France what would be your goal or objective at the Peace conference & why?
  • If you were Britain what would be your goal or objective at the Peace conference & why?
  • If you were Italy what would be your goal or objective at the Peace conference & why?
  • If you were the US what would be your goal or objective at the Peace conference & why?
  • What are the first 4 points & why were they created?
  • What do points 6-13 all have to do with? (territorial changes) What is the guiding idea behind each of these territorial cahnges? What is self determination?
  • What is Wilson’s 14 th point? What is a League of Nations?
  • Who signed the Treaty of Versailles? Who did not sign the Treaty of Versailles? What war did the Treaty of Versailles end?
  • What were terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
  • What were terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Was the Treaty of Versailles fair?

Wwi Wwi Presentation Transcript

  • 1914-1918:The World at War By: Jackie White 11th Grade U.S. History II
  • Learning Objective Students will be able to identify the long term causes of World War I (The Great War).
  • K-W-L What do you already know about WWI? What do you want to know more about? What did you learn?
  • Long TermCausesof WWI
  • What is Nationalism? A deep or extreme devotion to one’s own country. It can serve as a force to unify a country. However, it can cause competition between nations seeking to over power each other.
  • How did Nationalism Lead to WWI? By the turn of the 20th century (1890’s) a fierce rivalry developed between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, & France.
  • What is Imperialism? A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries especially politically, economically, or socially.
  • How did Imperialism lead to WWI?The nations ofEuropecompetedfiercely forcolonies inAfrica andAsia.
  • What is Militarism? glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.
  • How did militarism lead to WWI? In the 1890’s a 1910-1914 Increase dangerous arms in Defense race began due Expenditures to the belief that France 10% in order to be Britain 13% truly great you Russia 39% needed to have a Germany 73% powerful military. By 1914 all the Great Powers had large standing armies except for Great Britain, which had the world’s largest navy.
  • System of Alliances Agreements between countries to aid or defend each other in event of war/conflict. By 1907, there were two rival camps in Europe. A dispute between any two rival countries would
  • System of Alliances In 1879, Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Three years later, Italy joined to form the Triple Alliance. In 1904, Britain formed an entente or alliance with France and Russia called the Triple Entente.
  • Alliance Game
  • System of AlliancesTriple Entente: Triple Alliance: Great Britain Germany France Austria-Hungary Russia Italy
  • Two Armed Camps!Allied Powers: Central Powers:
  • The Major Players: 1914-17 Allied Powers: Central Powers:Nicholas II [Rus] Wilhelm II [Ger] George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Enver Pasha [Turkey] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Franz Josef [A-H]
  • The“Spark”
  • The Balkan Peninsula, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  • Assassination of Archduke Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital in Sarajevo.
  • Assassination of Archduke As his royal entourage drove through the city, a Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip, stepped from the crowd & shot the Archduke & his wife Sophie.
  • The Assassin Gavrilo Princip was a member of the Black Hand, an organization that promoted Serbian nationalism.
  • Beginning of World War I Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, who was allies with Russia. Germany was allied with Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia
  • Timeline Activity Read the following events that led to the outbreak of WWI. Number each event in order of which happened first, second, third, etc. (1,2, 3)
  • Europe in 1915 Complete the map activity
  • The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”
  • S o ld ie r s M o b iliz e d 14 12 10 8M illio n s 6 4 2 0 F ra n c e G e rm a n y R u s s ia B r it a in
  • Europe in 1914http://mapsof.net/map/map-europe-alliances-1914
  • The Schlieffen PlanWWI began byGermanyattackingFrance byinvadingthrough neutralBelgium
  • What is the Western Front?Two linesof deeptrenchesdevelopedin France.Allies onone side &Germanson theother.
  • Trench Warfare“no man’s land”- area between opposing trenches
  • Trenches “no man’s land”
  • A Multi-Front War
  • Verdun – February, 1916  German offensive.  Each side had 500,000 casualties.
  • The Somme – July, 1916 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  • Opposition to WWI Naturalized citizens: because they had close ties to their homeland Socialists: viewed the war as an imperialistic struggle for colonies Pacifists: believed that all wars are evil Parents: didn’t want their sons to experience the horrors of warfare & death
  • Britain Britain emphasized accounts of German aggression in its news reports to the U.S. Gave the U.S. large orders for war materials and took out large loans from the U.S.
  • The British Blockade Britain blocked the German coast to prevent weapons and other military supplies from getting through, however they expanded their definition of contraband to include food. Germany had difficulty importing food by 1917 famine stalked the country. 750,000 Germans starved to death as a result of the blockade.
  • Germany’s Response Counter blockade with German U-Boats (Unterseeboot, German word for submarine) would sink any ship in British waters (not always possible to warn passengers of an attack)
  • German’s Attack Lusitania May 7, 1915 Germany U-Boat sank British merchant ship the Lusitania killing 128 Americans. Germans argued that the liner was carrying ammunitions. (which was true) Americans were outraged.
  • The Sinking of the LusitaniaNotice! Travelers intending to embark on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that astate of war exists between Germany and her allies and Great Britain and her allies;that the zone of war includes the waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, inaccordance with formal notice given by the Imperial German Government, vesselsflying the flag of Great Britain or of any of her allies, are liable to destruction in thosewaters and that travelers sailing in the war zone on ships of Great Britain or her alliesdo so at their own risk. Imperial German Embassy
  • The Zimmerman Telegram What did Germany intend to begin on February 1 1917? What did Zimmermann propose if the United States went to war with Germany during WWI? If this telegram wasn’t intercepted, what do you think might have happened?
  • Zimmermann Note A telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted and decoded by the British. Proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany in the event that the U.S. joined the war on the Allied side. In return Germany promised to help Mexico gain back the lost territories of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
  • America Joins the Allies
  • Bellwork: Imagine the year is 191. A bitter war is raging in Europe-a war that has been called a threat to civilization. At home people are urging America to get involved while others are calling for the country to isolate itself and avoid the fight. Do you think America should join the war? When should the U.S. intervene in the affairs of another country? When American lives are threatened, how should the government respond? How would you react if the U.S. entered a World War? Would you volunteer to serve in the military, protest the nation’s involvement, or refuse to go?
  • American Power Tips the Balance of PowerLearning Objective: Understand how U.S. entry & newtechnologies impact the war and be able to describe the effects ofmechanized war.Main Idea: Why It Matters Now: Terms & Names:The United States During World War I, the Eddie Rickenbackermobilized a large army & United States military Selective Service Actnavy help the Allies evolved into the Convoy systemachieve victory. powerful fighting force it American Expeditionary remains today. Force Conscientious objector armistice
  • Woodrow Wilson Declares War “Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind. …We are glad…to fight… for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples…The world must be safe for democracy…We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indeminities… It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war…But the right is more precious than peace.”
  • The YanksAre Coming!
  • How does the U.S. Raise an U. S. Army not Army? prepared for. 200,000 men in service few with combat experience U.S. passed Selective Service Act in 1917 required men to register in order to be randomly selected for 24 million men registered military service 3 million were called up 2 million went to Europe 1.5 million actually saw combat
  • U.S. Army 1 out of 5 soldiers were foreign born Most had not attended high school Trained for 17 hours/day Target practice, bayonet drills, kitchen duty, grounds maintenance Real weapons were in short supply so soldiers trained with fake weapons (rocks for and grenades, wooden poles instead of rifles)
  • How did US Soldiers help win the war? Allied forces exhausted and demoralized after 2 ½ years of fighting U.S. troops provided energy and enthusiasm American Expeditionary Force (AEF) arrived in France as reinforcements but operated as an independent fighting force that helped to stop the German advance led by General John J. Pershing “dougboys” nickname given to American infantrymen because the belts they wore were polished with pipe clay or dough.
  • American Troops OffensiveU.S. helped stop the German advance and throwback the GermansAlvin York- famous American war hero, killed 25Germans with only a revolver and rifle
  • How did the U.S. Build a Naval Force?U.S. had to transport men, food, and equipment overseas U.S. government needed to expand its fleet: 1. Exempted shipyard workers from the draft 2. Created a PR campaign that emphasized the importance of shipyard work 3. Used prefabrication techniques where standardized parts were built elsewhere and assembled in the yard, reducing construction time 4. Government took commercial and private ships and converted them
  • How did U.S. Navy Help Turns the Tide? German U-Boat attacks on merchant ships threatened the war effort. Created the convoy system in which a group of heavily guarded destroyers escorted merchant ships across the Atlantic. Broke German blockade by cutting shipping losses in half
  • NewTechnologies
  • Poison Gas Invented by a German Chemist originally to fertilize farmlands, later used during warfare, caused blinding, blistering, and chokingMachine GunFires ammunitionautomatically, wipedout waves ofattackers. Fired up to600 rounds per minute
  • Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  • French Renault TankArmored combat vehicle introduced by the British inthe Battle of Somme in 1916, slow and clumsy atfirst.
  • British Tank at Ypres
  • The AirplaneFirst used for reconnaissance (spying) taking pictures behind enemy lines.Later planes began carrying mounted guns and dropping bombsDogfights- individual air combats where pilots sat in open cockpits andshot at each other with pistols
  • Video The Flying Aces of WWI Eddie Francesco Eddie “Mick”Rickenbacher, US Barraco, It. Mannoch, Br. Rene Pauk Manfred vonWilly Coppens de Fonck, Fr. Richtoffen, Ger. Holthust, Belg. [The “Red Baron”]
  • SubmarinesIntroduced by the Germans in 1914Known as U-Boats from the German wordUnterseeboot (Under Sea Boat)Primary weapon was a torpedo, a self-propelled underwater missile,Unrestricted warfare
  • U-Boats
  • Curtis-MartinU. S. Aircraft Plant
  • The Zeppelin
  • Flame Throwers GrenadeLaunchers
  • New Hazards of War mechanized warfare- began during WWI with the introduction of machine guns, tanks, & airplanes led to horrific injuries “shell shock” soldiers nervous systems were shattered by noisy shelling (Called PTSD today)
  • New Hazards of WarTrench throat-a painful infection of the gums and throat Trench foot- caused by standing in trenches with wet socks caused toes to turn blue or red, become numb, and start to rot. Treatment include amputation.
  • War Is HELL !! Doctors learned more about how to treat injuries and wounds, especially fighting infection.Soldiers with gunshot wounds tothe face were helped by a Frenchsurgeon who used skin grafttechniques to heal wounds,helped found the field of plasticsurgery
  • Sacrifices in WarHow does war impact veteran’s physicalor emotional conditions?What challenges if any does the soldierface returning to civilian life?What is the attitude in the communitythe veteran returns to?
  • Anticipation Guide Complete the anticipation guide individually and record your responses on your sheet. Share one response with a neighbor. Select 2 questions to discuss as a class. Move around the room to indicate level of agreement with each statement. Discuss as a group the reasons for your decision. Select a spokesperson to share the groups reasoning with the class.
  • Wilfred OwenWilfred Owen was born in England, onMarch 18, 1893. He worked as a studentteacher at Wyle Cop School while preparingfor his matriculation exam for the Universityof London. After failing to win a scholarshiphe found work as a teacher of English in theBerlitz School in Bordeaux.Although he had previously thought ofhimself as a pacifist, in October 1915 heenlisted in the Artists Rifles. Commissionedas a 2nd Lieutenant, he joined theManchester Regiment in France in January,1917. While in France Wilfred Owen beganwriting poems about his war experiences.
  • In the summer of 1917 Owen suffered from aconcussion at the Somme after a shell landedjust two yards away. After several days in abomb crater with the mangled corpse of a fellowofficer, Owen was diagnosed as suffering fromshell-shock.While recovering at Craiglockhart War Hospitalhe met the poet Siegfried Sassoon. Owenshowed Sassoon his poetry who advised andencouraged him. So also did another writer at thehospital, Robert Graves. Over the next fewmonths Owen wrote a series of poems, includingAnthem for Doomed Youth, Disabled,Dulce et Decorum Est and Strange Meeting. Hewas urged to return to the front to find morematerial for his poetry. He returned to the front inSeptember of 1918 and was killed on November4, 1918, one week before the armistice thatended the war. He was 25 years old.
  • Disabled by Wilfred OwenListen & Watch the video clip of the poem “Disabled” by Wilfred Owen being read. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEeo6tU4jZA&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2D0vI7VasXE&feature=related Listen and look for answers to the following questions: How does war impact veteran’s physical or emotional conditions? What challenges if any does the soldier face returning to civilian life? What is the attitude in the community the veteran returns to?
  • Disabled by Wilfred Owen Count off by 5’s. All the 1’s to the first stanza, 2’s do the 2nd stanza, 3’s the third stanza, etc. Write on the paper what about the stanza:  Strikes you, moves you, stands out to you?  What associations does a specific word or phrase bring?  What challenges does he face?  What can you observe about the veteran’s physical or emotional conditions?  What challenges if any does the soldier face returning to civilian life?  What can you infer about the attitude of the community the veteran returns to? Each group can present their stanza to class or groups can rotate around the room to other stanzas and read what other students wrote and add more comments.Go back to the anticipation guide and you initial reactions. Did you change your original thoughts? Explain why or why not by using information from the poem to support your position.
  • Activity Write another stanza to the poem or create your own poem about veteran/s experiences during WWI. The stanza/poem must should refer to one of the following:  the veteran/s physical and emotional condition  challenges the veteran/s faced in returning to civilian life  the attitude of the community the veteran returned to.
  • What is the American Red Cross? Red Cross -American volunteers cared for the sick and wounded
  • Russia Withdraws 1917 civil unrest in Russia-due to lack of fuel & food forces the Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne & the government to collapse 1917 5.5 million Russian soldiers wounded, killed, or taken prisoner, war weary they refused to fight any longer 1917 Communist leader Vladimir Lenin seized power 1918 Lenin signed a truce with Germany, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ended war btw them
  • Collapse of Germany July 1918 The Allies & Germans clashed at the second Battle of Marne 2 million American troops helped the Allied forces began to advance steadily toward Germany Central Powers crumbled November 3, 1918 Austria- Hungary surrendered to the Allies
  • Allied VictoryGermany agreed to a cease-fire and signed an armistice, or truce, that ended the war.The armistice is signed on November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am ending World War IArmistice- agreement to stop fighting11th day of the 11th month at the 11th hour later becomes Veterans Day
  • World War I Casualties10,000,000 9,000,000 Russia 8,000,000 Germany 7,000,000 Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 France 5,000,000 4,000,000 Great Britain 3,000,000 Italy 2,000,000 Turkey 1,000,000 US 0
  • 9,000,000 Soldiers Dead
  • Final Toll of WWI World War I bloodiest war in history up to that time 9 million military 11 million civilians 20 million injured 10 million refugees Cost $338 billion U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle and 62,000 from disease
  • The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
  • Opposition to War Effort Conscientious objector- a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds. “Thou shall not kill.” 3,500 men obtained legal objector exemptions 500 objectors were court marshaled and imprisoned
  • America in WWI US entered WWI in 1917, 3 years after the war started Total war- countries devoted all of their resources to the war effort. Government took control of the economy, told factories what & how much to produce Every able bodied civilian was put to work
  • America in WWI Many goods were in short supply Rationing- the limiting of the amounts of goods people can buy imposed by the government when goods are in short supply
  • Free Speech During Wartime Should students have the right to find fault with or speak out against the school? Why? Do students have the right to oppose the school rules? Why? Should American citizens have the right to find fault with, speak out against, or oppose government actions? Why? What about during wartime?
  • Espionage & Sedition Acts June 15, 1917 Congress passed a law the prohibited any attempt to cause insubordination (unwillingness to accept orders from authority) among military personnel or for interfering with military draft or recruitment. Should citizens be allowed to refuse the military draft? Why or why not?
  • Espionage & Sedition Acts Congress forbade Americans to use, “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the US government, flag, or armed forces during wartime. It also allowed the Postmaster General to refuse to deliver mail to dissenters of government policy. Do you think the Sedition Act is unconstitutional? (Does it violate the First Amendment right to freedom of speech?) Why or why not?
  • Schenck v. United States (1919) Charles Schenck distributed leaflets that called the military draft a, “deed against humanity” & compared the draft to slavery. He urged draftees to assert their rights. Schenck was accused of violating the sedition act (actions or words intended to provoke or incite a rebellion against government authority.) Is he innocent or guilty?
  • Freedom of Speech During Wartime Are some limits on freedom of speech necessary or should anyone be allowed to say anything they want whenever they want? Can you think of any reasonable examples of limitations on freedom of speech at school, during war, etc.?
  • Espionage & Sedition Acts Government suppressed anti war activity & censored news about the war People feared honest reporting about the war would turn people against it
  • African Americans in WWI 400,000 African Americans served in segregated units and were assigned non combat duties 369th infantry was an all black regiment that saw more fighting than any other regiment Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts received France’s Croix de Guerre “cross of war”
  • Women in WWI Could not enlist Joined the Army Corps of Nurses Were denied rank, pay, & benefits Served as nurses, secretaries, & phone operators
  • Women & the War Thousands of women replaced men in factories, offices, & shops Women built tanks, & munitions, plowed fields, paved streets, and ran hospitals Supplied troops with food, clothing, & weapons
  • Propaganda Propaganda- One sided information designed to persuade to keep up morale and support for the war In nations throughout Europe, striking, colorful posters urged for support for the war by painting the enemy as monsters and the allies as heroes.
  • WWI Propaganda Posters
  • The Allies Meet at Versailles January 18, 1919
  • The Big Four Woodrow Wilson US Georges Clemenceau of France David Lloyd George of Britain Vittorio Orlando of Italy
  • Georges Clemenceau (France)  Determined to disarm and weaken Germany  Punish Germany  Occupy both sides of the Rhine River  Germany to pay for the suffering the war caused
  • David Lloyd George (Britain)  Wanted to maintain Britain’s naval superiority  Opposed Wilson’s freedom of the seas  Wanted to crush Germany’s navy
  • Vittorio Orlando (Italy)  Wanted to gain territory in Austria that was secretly promised to Italy in 1915
  • Woodrow Wilson (US)  Wanted to establish a just and long lasting peace through the implementation of his Fourteen Point Plan
  • Wilson’s Fourteen Points The first 4 points were designed to remove the cause of conflict 1. End to secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Free trade 4. Reduce size of national armies & navies 5. Adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial people
  • Wilson’s 14 Points The 6-13 points were specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations. The guiding idea behind these points was self determination Self determination- allowing people to decide for themselves what type of government they wished to have
  • Fourteenth Point “a general association of nations” that would protect “great and small states alike.” Wilson hoped for an organization that could peacefully negotiate solutions to world conflicts. League of Nations- an organization that could peacefully negotiate solutions to world conflicts.
  • Treaty of Versailles  Agreement between Germany & the Allied Powers was signed on June 28, 1919  Ended WWI
  • Treaty of Versailles Called for the creation of a League of Nations League of Nations- international association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations Representatives from 32 Allied & neutral nations Germany & Russia were excluded Russia’s early withdrawal from the war & its revolutionary leadership made it an outcast
  • Treaty of Versailles Punished Germany!! Germany lost substantial territory Germany had severe military restrictions Article 231 “war guilt clause” Germany had to accept sole responsibility for causing war Germany had to make reparations (pay for the cost of the war) to the Allies $33 billion All of Germany’s territory in Africa & pacific were declared mandates & administered by the League of Nations
  • Europe Before WWI
  • Europe After WWI  Which Central Powers nation appears to have lost the most territory?  On which nation’s former land are most of the new countries created?
  • Creation of New Nations Treaty of Versailles was just one of 5 treaties negotiated by the Allies Western powers signed separate treaties with each of the defeated nations: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, & the Ottoman Empire Huge land losses for Central Powers Several new countries were created out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, & Yugoslavia were recognized as independent nations Ottoman Empire forced to give up almost all of their former empire
  • Creation of New Nations  Palestine, Iraq, & Transjordan formerly apart of the Ottoman Empire came under British control  Finland, Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania formerly apart of Russia became independent nations  Romania & Poland gained Russian territory
  • Ottoman Empire 1919
  • Treaty of Versailles OUTCOMES: “A Peace Built on Quicksand” Did little to build a lasting peace US rejected the treaty, objected League of Nations (stay out of European affairs) worked out a separate treaty w/ Germany “war guilt clause” left a legacy of bitterness in Germany Other countries in African & Asia felt cheated & betrayed because the Allies disregarded their desire for independence
  • Treaty of Versailles OUTCOMES: Japan & Italy entered war to gain territory, got less land then they wanted In a little more then two decades the treaties legacy of bitterness would plunge the world into another catastrophic war WORLD WAR II
  • Legacy of World War I in US U.S. emerges as world’s greatest industrial power Strengthens U.S. military Expanded power of federal government Movement of African Americans into northern cities Entrance of 1 million women into the workforce Intensifies anti-immigrant and anti-radical sentiments among Americans
  • Legacy of WWI in Europe Massive destruction and loss of life in Europe Political instability and violence for decades First Communist state established in Russia Militant fascists seize power in Germany, Italy, & Spain “It cannot be that two million (Germans) should have fallen in vain…we demand vengeance!’ Adolf Hitler
  • COST OF WAR 8.5 million soldiers died 21 million were wounded Civilians died of starvation & disease War cost European countries $338 billion Destroyed acres of farmland, homes, villages, & towns
  • How to Prepare for Final Exams Resources: textbook, notes, worksheets, quizzes, & tests Don’t cram the night before, spread out studying Stay organized Get a good night’s sleep Have a healthy breakfast Be on Time BRING YOUR TEXTBOOK!!
  • Mandatory Essay Both the Vienna Settlement & the Treaty of Versailles were peace treaties that ended significant European and world conflicts. Describe TWO ways in which these treaties were similar in goals or outcomes. Describe TWO ways in which theses treaties were different in goals or outcomes. Explain which of the two treaties resulted in a longer lasting peace.
  • Decision Makers CONGRESS OF  TREATY OF VIENNA VERSAILLES Representatives of the  32 countries 5 “Great Powers” represented Prussia, Austria,  Led by the “Big Britain, France, & Four” Russia  David Lloyd George Led by Klemens von  Georges Clemenceau Metternich  Vittorio Orlando  Woodrow Wilson
  • GOALS  CONGRESS OF  TREATY OF VIENNA VERSAILLES Prevent future  Wilson-achieve a FRENCH aggression long lasting peace Restore balance of  Clemenceau/Georg power in Europe e-punish Germany Restore royal and strip it of its families to their war making power thrones
  • War Guilt/Reparations  CONGRESS OF  TREATY OF VIENNA VERSAILLES Fearing revenge  Allies forced the victorious Germany to sign nations were easy articles 231 & 232 on France (war guilt & reparations)  France was given the Saar coal fields as compensation
  • Military Restrictions  TREATY OF  CONGRESS OF VERSAILLES VIENNA  Limited the size of France was allowed Germany’s army to to keep a standing 100,000 soldiers & army officers  Prohibited Germany from importing or manufacturing war materials  The building of warships, aircraft, & tanks was forbidden
  • Territorial Changes  CONGRESS OF  TREATY OF VIENNA VERSAILLES To balance power, the  Germany lost its weaker countries territories in Africa & around France were Asia strengthened/created  Ottoman Empire lands Switzerland gained were declared mandates Independence and controlled by German Confederation Britain  Independent Nations United Kingdom of the Netherlands were created Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Austria, Hungary
  • Legacy/OUTCOMES  CONGRESS OF  TREATY OF VIENNA VERSAILLES Created an age of  Left a legacy of peace in Europe bitterness, betrayal, & through the Concert of hatred that would erupt Europe Europe into WWII Diminished the power  The Germans were not of France allowed to discuss these Increased the power of terms but had to Britain & Prussia sign/agree to them
  • “Art” ofWorldWar I
  • “A Street in Arras”John Singer Sargent, 1918
  • “Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  • “Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  • “Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  • “Paths of Glory”C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  • German Cartoon:“Fit for active service!”, 1918
  • WartimePropaganda Posters
  • Australian Poster
  • American Poster
  • Financing the War
  • German Poster Think of Your Children!
  • Womenand the War Effort
  • Financing the War
  • For Recruitment
  • Munitions Workers
  • French Women Factory Workers
  • German Women Factory Workers
  • Working in the Fields
  • A Woman Ambulance Driver
  • Red Cross Nurses
  • Women in the Army Auxiliary
  • Russian Women Soldiers
  • Spies “Mata Hari” Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle German Spy!
  • Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
  • Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western 1914 1922 Armenia in Turkey Erzerum 215,000 1,500 Van 197,000 500 Kharbert 204,000 35,000 Diarbekir 124,000 3,000 Bitlis 220,000 56,000 Sivas 225,000 16,800       Other Armenian-populated Sites     in Turkey Western Anatolia 371,800 27,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 309,000 70,000 European Turkey 194,000 163,000 Trapizond District 73,390 15,000 Total 2,133,190 387,800