Preview Questions What were the causes that led to WWI? Why did the United States enter the war? How did the war end erode European dominance on the world? Results and Aftermath
The Road to WWI Main causes leading to war Nationalism Militarism/Industrialization Alliances The spark that ignited the war Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand *What is Nationalism? The unique cultural identity of a people based on patriotism or pride for one’ nation or ethnic group.
Causes of WWI Nationalism Political experts believed Nationalism would help Europe and that the new and old nations would work together and create a peaceful Europe. They were wrong. The nationalism within the neighboring nations led not to cooperation, but to competition and rivalries with between established countries. Also, some national/ethnic groups began to seek their own independence from their oppressors.
Causes of WWI Alliances All of Europe’s great powers had been divided into 2 major alliances. • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy made up the Triple Alliance. • France, Great Britain, and Russia made up the Triple Entente. Each country was guided by its own self- interest and success and when angered, they became eager for revenge.
Causes of WWI Militarism The heightened tensions in Europe led to an increase in militarism, or aggressive preparations for war. European armies doubled in size between 1890 and 1914. • The Russian, German, and French armies totaled over 3 million men. • Many began to use a conscription, or a military draft. As the armies grew, so did the influence of military leaders. • Complex “all or nothing” plans were put in place. • European political leaders were forced to make decisions for military instead of political reasons.
Causes of WWI Nationalism, Militarism, and the formation of Alliances all played a role in starting of WWI, but it was another crisis that would ultimately be the spark that started the war…Anyone know the “spark”?
Serbian Problem• Serbia was determined to free Bosnia from Austria- Hungary control and create a large, independent Serbian kingdom.
The Spark In 1914, a Serbian terrorist group assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the future heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary.
Austria-Hungary Response Austria-Hungary wanted to attack Serbia after the assassination, but Serbia had the protection of Russia and A-H feared a Russian response. They turned to their own ally, Germany for support. Germany responded with a “blank check” saying that A-H had the full support of Germany – even if it meant war with Russia. What happened next? Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
Russia Responds Russia was determined to support Serbia’s cause. Russian Czar ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army, but the leader of the Russian army insisted that “partial” mobilization was impossible as they have only practiced “full” mobilization. Based on this claim, the Russian Czar ordered full mobilization of the Russian army. What happens next?
Germany Responds Germany responded quickly as they considered Russia’s action as an act of war. Germany warned Russia to halt its mobilization, but Russia ignored the warning. Germany declared war on Russia.
Germany Responds Like Russia, German’s military leaders had only prepared for “full” war and “full” mobilization of their army. Although they were only at war with Russia, their military plan was designed to be a two-front war. – Half the troops to the Russia (East) border and half the troops to the France (West) border. Therefore, Germany also declared war on France.
Great Britain’s Response Part of Germany’s plan was to march troops through the neutral country of Belgium to get to the French Border. Britain claimed this act violated Belgium’s neutrality. Britain was also looking out for its own self-interest that if Germany won the war, they would become more powerful then Britain. Britain declared war on Germany.
Chain Reaction: All the GreatPowers of Europe were at war. Bosnia .
Europe at War: 1914-1915 Most thought the war would be over in weeks. The war raged on however with many stalemates. Many troops were involved in trench warfare. *What was trench warfare?
Gas Warfare•Poison gasses (Chlorine and mustard gas) were introduced to help break the stalemates of trench warfare. • Blinded solders walking in line
War in the Air Another way to help break the stalemates in the trenches was the introduction to planes to the battlefield. At first, they were used to simply spot the enemy’s position. Pilots used to fire at each other with handheld pistols. Mounted machine guns were soon added as well as the capability to drop bombs.
War at Sea: Britain vs. Germany The U.S. remained neutral but was keeping an eye on the naval war between Germany and Britain. The U.S. was soon alarmed at the Germany’s use of submarine warfare especially when Germany sunk a British passenger ship carrying 1,100 civilians including 100 Americans. To avoid a response from the U.S., Germany suspended any further civilian ship attacks.
German sinking of theBritish passenger shipLusitania.
Entry of the United States Britain and Germany continued their war at sea, but after 2 years of little progress Germany went back to their unrestricted submarine warfare on British passenger ships. The United States entered the war in April of 1917.
Propaganda To increase support for the war, governments used propaganda. Propaganda – Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause. With propaganda, governments hoped: – It would bring more men to enlist in the army – Increase support from civilians in the home front.
WWIPropagandaposters What are they trying to say?
What do thesepropaganda postersshow? Women influencing men to join using guilt?
American woman and child drowning after the sinking of the LusitaniaWhat do thesepropaganda posters say?
What do thesepropagandaposters say?Encouragingwoman to helpin the factories? Almost all domestic production came to a stop as all attention was turned to making war materials.
Help support the warabroad by conservingat home
Total War: The Home Front As the war continued not only were more soldiers needed, but more supplies as well. In an effort to maximize resources some European nations set up planned economies. – Governments took over all transportation and industries – Government set all prices for products and all wages for workers – All food and materials were rationed *How is this different than war today? Are us civilians affected the same way?
Total War: The Home Front The difference between soldiers at war and civilians at home were narrowed and all citizens were considered part of the nation’s army. “The men and women who remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less part of the army than the men beneath the battle flags.” - President Woodrow Wilson
WWI: Affect on Women Although the war was hard on everyone, it did create some positive new roles for women. Women had to take over the jobs left behind by men even in jobs that were once considered beyond their capacity. These changes would directly affect the women’s rights movement. Women in Britain, Germany, Austria, and the Unites States gained the right to vote immediately after the war.
Disaster following the war 8 – 10 million dead Millions of refugees Influenza outbreak (1918-1919) – 20 million lives Environmental destruction
World War I Casualties10,000,000 9,000,000 Russia 8,000,000 Germany 7,000,000 Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 France 5,000,000 4,000,000 Great Britain 3,000,000 Italy 2,000,000 Turkey 1,000,000 US 0
AFTERMATH AND PEACE Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points – No secret treaties – Freedom of the seas – Countries need to reduce arms – Colonial powers should consider feelings of the people living there – League of Nations
A Flawed Peace Paris Peace Conference – U.S., Britain, France – Formation of a League of Nations • U.S. Refused to join • France receives Alsace and Lorraine • Britain acquires new territories in Africa and Middle East – Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919) • Germany forbidden to have an Air Force, allowed a small Army and Navy (100,000 men, 6 Battleships) • Germany forced to pay reparations and accept guilt of war • Development of new territories: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
Two Periods of Peace and Adjustment 1919-1923: Painful recovery and readjustment – Severe inflation plagues *Germany & Russia 1924-1929: Growing peace and prosperity – Germany joins the League of Nations – Reparations become easier to stomach League of Nations remains a failure without U.S. involvement
TREATY OF VERSAILLES1. Reduce size of German army2. Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France3. Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years4. Poland became independent5. War guilt clause – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the allies6. Other Boundry changes 1. Austria-Hungary broke apart
TREATY OF VERSAILLES Huge problems with treaty – no one truly happy Germany could not pay World wide depression Treaty of Versailles one of the biggest failures. Lack of strength and structure leads to WWII
Russian Revolution Russia was unprepared both militarily and technologically for the total war of WWI. Incompetent military leaders and lack of industrialization. Soldiers sent into battle unarmed and told to pick up a rifle from a dead comrade. Between 1914-1916, two million Russian troops were killed and another 6 million were wounded or captured. – By 1917, the Russian soldiers had lost their will to fight and the people grew upset with the regime.
Failed Communism As Russia’s Economy slowly declines, more and more people demand food Lenin announces the New Economic Policy – Allows peasants to own land and sell crops – Private merchants to trade – Private workshops to produce goods and sell them
Outbreak of Russian Civil War Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution (1918-1921) – Division between Communists and Tsarists 1920: Ukrainian Communists declare the independence of a Soviet Republic of Ukraine – 1922: Soviet Rep. of Ukraine merges with Russia to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – 1922: Soviet republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan join the USSR – Russia gains control of tsarist peoples
Russian Civil War 1918 Political opponents contest Communists Taking Sides: – Reds = Communists – Whites = Moderates (assistance from Allies) Fighting destroys Russia for 3 years – Starvation & economic depression
Outcome of Civil War Lenin & Communists maintain power & defeat the Whites in 1921 1922 Communists rename Russia the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R. or Soviet Union) Communists remain in power until end of the Cold War (1989)
A Socialist State Bolsheviks become the Communists End private ownership of property Distribute land among the peasants Workers control factories & mines Officials: – Leon Trotsky = Foreign Affairs – Joseph Stalin = National Minorities
A new Communist State Death of Lenin in 1924 leads to bitter rivalries for power Leon Trotsky (commander of Red Army) Joseph Stalin (general secretary of the Communist party) 1929: Joseph Stalin emerges as the leader of the Communist party , and prepares to industrialize the nation
Revolution in Asia Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901) – Chinese desire to remove foreign influence from China – Qing wages war on Imperialist Expansion/ Westernization – Revolution in 1911 leads to formation of Chinese Republic
Transformations in the Middle East Super powers create a compromise for expansion – Mandate System focus on self-determination – Class C Mandates • Treated as colonies (South Africa, German Islands) – Class B Mandates • Ruled for benefit of the inhabitants – Would receive autonomy at some future time – Germany’s African colonies – Class A Mandates • Developed, only under administrative advice, promise of independence (Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon)
Arab Lands in Question– A phony independence European presence viewed as occupation NOT liberation Changes to Arab Lands post WWI – Loss of Nomads – Urbanization – Westernization (education, dress, jobs) – Balfour Declaration of 1917 • Encourages Jews to settle in Palestine • Jews (minority) take Arab (majority) lands
Restructure of Europe1. Became countries 1. Czechoslovakia 2. Yugoslavia 3. Romania 4. Poland 5. Lithuania 6. Latvia 7. Estonia 8. Ottoman Empire broke apart – Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon
Military Casualties in World War I: 1914-1918Germany 1,935,000 United States 116,516Russia 1,700,000 Bulgaria 87,495France 1,368,000 Belgium 45,550Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 Serbia 45,000British Empire 942,135 Greece 23,098Ottoman Empire 725,000 Portugal 8,145Italy 680,000 Montenegro 3,000Romania 300,000 Japan 1,344 Military Deaths: app. 9 million TOTAL DEATHTOLL: 20-25 Million