Chapter 23 The New Deal


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  • Alfred LandonFranklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Who won the election of 1936?Roosevelt won all states except for Maine & Vermont this shows the growing support of the people for Roosevelt’s New Deal programs
  • Chapter 23 The New Deal

    1. 1.  The New Deal23 CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the impetus for FDR’s New Deal legislations and the impact these policies had on the American nation
    2. 2. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression OVERVIEW After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs to combat the Depression. Americans still benefit from programs begun in the New Deal, such as bank and stock market regulations and the Tennessee Valley Authority. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Glass-Steagall Act • Federal Securities Act • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) • Huey Long • deficit spending • New Deal ASSESSMENT MAP
    3. 3. 23 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T How would you begin to revive the economy? Examine the Issues It is 1933, the height of the Great Depression. Thousands of banks and businesses have failed, and a quarter of the adult population is out of work. Now a new president takes office, promising to bring relief to the ailing economy. • What can be done to ease unemployment? • How can the government help failing industries? HOME • What would you do to restore public confidence and economic security?• How would you get money to pay for your proposed recovery programs? The New Deal
    4. 4. What Should Be Done to Cure the Depression?  Read each of the following suggested ways to fix the economy.  Pick the top three ideas that you think are best and label them 1, 2, &3  Pick the three ideas you think are the worst and label them 8, 9, & 10.
    5. 5. Election of 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democratic Candidate reformer Herbert Hoover Republican Candidate Incumbent (residing) President
    6. 6. Who won the Election of 1932? Who were the two presidential candidates in the 1932 election? Who won the election of 1932? Which political party was the winning candidate apart of? Why might this candidate have won by such a large majority?
    7. 7. Franklin Delano Roosevelt  Thirty-Second President  1933-1945 Suffered from polio & was partially paralyzed from the waist down. He was able to stand with the help of leg braces. Campaigned vigorously to prove he could undertake the job of President despite his disability
    8. 8. BrainTrust A group of carefully picked advisers including professors, lawyers, & journalists that helped FDR set policies to alleviate the problems of the Depression.
    9. 9. New Deal Goals of the New Deal: 1. relief for the needy 2. economic recovery 3. financial reform FDR’s programs designed to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression.
    10. 10. First Hundred Days What month is the president elected in? When is the president inaugurated (sworn in) into office today? First 3 months of Roosevelt’s administration (March-June 1933) A burst of congressional legislation (laws) to address problems of the Depression. Significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy.
    11. 11. AWise Economist Asks A Question 1. What do squirrels do with acorns in the summer & fall? 2. Did the man “squirrel” away his money? 3. What happened to his savings? 4. What does this cartoon tell us about Americans faith in the banking system? 5. What can be done to restore Americans confidence?
    12. 12. FDR Fireside Chat How does FDR use the fireside chat? What type of language does he use? What was the focus of his first talk? detail.cfm?aid=a_000760&oid=ob_000 064 o.php?title=FDR_Fireside_Chat&video_id =89365&vpkey=
    13. 13. Banking Reform  Widespread bank failures had caused Americans to loose faith in the banking system.  March 5, 1933 Roosevelt declared a “Bank Holiday”  Closed the banks to prevent further withdrawals & reorganization
    14. 14. ExitTicket Complete the, “Let’s Make A Deal” Worksheet. Identify the specific problems Roosevelt will need to address as president. Brainstorm possible solutions to each problem.
    15. 15. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression OVERVIEW After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs to combat the Depression. Americans still benefit from programs begun in the New Deal, such as bank and stock market regulations and the Tennessee Valley Authority. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Glass-Steagall Act • Federal Securities Act • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) • Huey Long • deficit spending • New Deal ASSESSMENT MAP
    16. 16. Group Activity  Insert make your own fireside chat or New Deal program poster.  See rubric for evaluation criteria.
    17. 17. Emergency Banking Relief Act: Authorized the Treasury Department to inspect the country’s banks. Sound could reopen, insolvent-remain closed How does this help to cure the economy? Restored confidence in banks
    18. 18. Glass-Steagall Act Established the FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to provide federal insurance for individual bank accounts.
    19. 19. Regulating Banking & Finance  Federal Securities Act- required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable  Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)-regulate the stock market and prevent insider trading.
    20. 20. 21st Amendment  Repealed prohibition so that government could raise revenue by taxing alcohol.
    21. 21. Rural Assistance  Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- sought to raise crop prices by lowering production which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of land unseeded.
    22. 22. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Government provided subsidies for limits on production of corn, wheat, cotton, pork, & tobacco  If farmers reduced their supply then prices would increase Slaughtered 6 million hogs In return for withdrawing land, farmers received “rental” payments from the AAA Paid $200 million to plow under 10 million acres of cotton
    23. 23. Agricultural Adjustment Act  _000759&oid=ob_000064  declared unconstitutional in 1936  Revived in 1938 with modifications to meet Court challenge
    24. 24. Tennessee Valley Authority TVA  Designed to develop & improve the Tennessee River Valley region  Created thousands of jobs & other benefits to an impoverished region  Which seven states benefit most directly from TVA
    25. 25. Built damns to prevent floods
    26. 26. Constructed hydroelectric power plants to attract more industry and provide electricity to homes Power companies didn’t like the government production and sale of power they claimed it was unfair
    27. 27. Civilian Conservation Corps  Put almost 3 million young men aged 18- 25 to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, & helping prevent soil erosion and flood control projects. 5&oid=ob_000064
    28. 28. Planted 200 million tress in the Great Plains to prevent another Dust Bowl
    29. 29. PublicWorks Administration  Created in 1933 when Depression was at its most severe and economic system of U.S. was near “complete collapse”  Provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools & community buildings  Funded $3.3 billion to put people to work building roads, public buildings, improving waterways, and other projects  34,000 public projects
    30. 30.  The poster claims that P.W.A. efforts were aimed at turning relief into what?  What examples of P.W.A. activities are found in Texas?  What primary activity was taking place off the west and east coast of the U.S.?  What public-works activity involved the Mississippi River?
    31. 31. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)  Established codes of fair business practices  Set prices of products to ensure fair competition  Established standards for working hours & a ban on child labor  Guaranteed workers rights to unionize and bargain collectively.
    32. 32. Home Owners Loan Corp (HOLC)  Provided government loans to homeowners who faced foreclosure because they couldn’t make their loan payments.
    33. 33. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  Furnishes loans for home mortgages and repairs
    34. 34. Federal Agency Emergency Relief (FERA)  $500 million to provide direct relief for the needy  Food & clothing for the unemployed, aged, & ill
    35. 35. Keynesian Economics  Deficit Spending- spending more money then the government takes in to stimulate the economic recovery by putting money in the hands of consumers to make it possible for them to buy goods & services and thus fuel economic growthBritish economist John Maynard Keynes
    36. 36. Opposition to the New Deal  New Deal isn’t doing enough!- liberals  New Deal is doing too much!- conservatives  Opposition from the Supreme Court
    37. 37. New Deal Isn’t Doing Enough!  Many Americans were still desperately poor  Worst off were blacks & farmers  Key figures were:  Huey Long  Father Coughlin  Dr. Francis Townsend
    38. 38. New Deal Critic: Dr. Francis Townsend  Retired California Physician  Suggested a $200 per month pension for people over 60  Open jobs for younger unemployment  Funded by a national transaction sales tax
    39. 39. New Deal Critic: Father Charles Coughlin  Catholic radio priest in Detroit Michigan in 1930’s  10 million listeners  Criticized FDR in weekly radio program  Critical of New Deal  International conspiracy of bankers  Fascist; Anti-Semitic
    40. 40. National Union for Social Justice  Every person capable of work should receive a fair, living, annual wage  Nationalizing some public resources  Private ownership of property but controlling it for public good  Right for workers to form unions & govt support & protection  Human rights over property rightsFather Charles Coughlin
    41. 41. New Deal Critic: Huey Long  Governor of Louisiana & U.S. Senator  Populist who championed the working class & the poor  “The Kingfish”  Critic of FDR’s New Deal for not doing enough to redistribute wealth  Promoted “Share the Wealth” program  Shot & killed by Dr. Carl Weiss in 1936  ?v=hphgHi6FD8k&feature=rela ted
    42. 42. “Share Our Wealth”  1. Federal govt give every family an allowance of not less than 1/3 the average family wealth of the country  No family have a fortune more than 100-300 times the average family fortune  Capital levy tax on income over $1 million  2. No person have an income less than $2,000-$2,500 annually  3. Limit/regulate working hours to prevent overproduction and allow workers time for recreation, education, etc.  4. Old Age Pension for people over 60 years old  Guarantee all citizens a car, a house, a pension, & an education  Popular with the poor
    43. 43. The New Deal is Doing Too Much!  Business Community & Republicans  ND too complicated, too many codes & regulations  Govt shouldn’t support unions & wages, that is the job of the market  ND like Stalin’s 5 year Plan  Wealthy worked hard, high taxes discourage people from working hard, & gave money to people who did little for it.
    44. 44. The New Deal is Doing Too Much!  Govt schemes like TVA unfair competition since private companies aren’t funded by govt
    45. 45. What is FDR wearing? What does his clothing represent? What is FDR pointing at? What compass did FDR want to change? Why? How might the cartoonist feel about FDR’s power as president? •FDR is behaving like a dictator
    46. 46. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 1. List problems that President Roosevelt confronted and how he tried to solve them. continued . . . Massive unemployment Bank holiday; treasury inspection; deposit insurance Federal work programs Paying farmers to slow crop production Lack of confidence in banks Low crop prices HOME Problems Solutions MAP ASSESSMENT
    47. 47. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 2. Of the New Deal programs discussed in this section, which do you consider the most important? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • The FDIC boosted confidence in banks • The CCC provided aid for unemployment and helped the environment. • the type of assistance offered by each program • the scope of each program • the impact of each program HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . . MAP
    48. 48. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 3. Do you think Roosevelt was wrong to try to “pack” the Supreme Court with those in favor of the New Deal? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • No: Given the crisis of the Depression, it was necessary for FDR to restructure the Court. • Yes: FDR’s proposed “Court-packing bill” would violate principles of judicial independence and the separation of powers. HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . . MAP
    49. 49. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 4. The New Deal has often been referred to as a turning point in American history. Cite examples to explain why. ANSWER The New Deal helped the failing banking system, restored people’s hope in the future, provided assistance to farmers and those in need of housing, and provided people with jobs. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1 MAP
    50. 50. S E C T I O N 2 The Second New Deal Takes Hold HOME OVERVIEW The Second New Deal included new programs to extend federal aid and stimulate the nation’s economy. Second New Deal programs continue to assist homebuyers, farmers, workers, and the elderly in the 2000s. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT • Social Security Act • Eleanor Roosevelt • Works Progress Administration (WPA) • National Youth Administration • Wagner Act
    51. 51. Who were the two candidates running for president in the election of 1936? Who won the popular vote in the election of 1936?
    52. 52. Election of 1936  Democratic convention in Philadelphia overwhelmingly re- nominated Roosevelt  Governor Alfred M. Landon of Kansas was nominated as the candidate for the Republican Party  William Lemke ran as a third party candidate
    53. 53. Election of 1936  Kansas Governor Alfred Landon  Moderate Republican  Follower of Teddy Roosevelt, supported some regulation of business  A poor speaker compared to the charm and political astuteness of Franklin Roosevelt
    54. 54. What do the results of the election of 1936 tell us about FDR’s presidency?
    55. 55. Eleanor Roosevelt  A social reformer who combined her humanitarian impulses and her political skills  Served as an important advisor to FDR in domestic policy  She traveled the country observing social conditions & reminding the president about the suffering of the nation’s people  She urged FDR to appoint women to government positions
    56. 56.  Unemployment still high Production still lagging FDR called on Congress to provide more relief for both farmers and workers Second New Deal
    57. 57. Farm Security Administration (FSA)  Loaned more than $1 billion to help tenant farmers become landholders  Established camps for migrant farm workers  Hired photographers to take pictures of rural towns & farms & their inhabitants
    58. 58. Wagner Act  Created in 1935  Named after its sponsor Robert F. Wagner  Federal government protected the rights of workers to join unions& use collective bargaining  Government could investigate employers, issue cease & desist orders if unfair practices were brought to light.
    59. 59. Fair Labor Standards Act  Set maximum number of working hours at 44 hours/week  Set minimum wages  Banned hazardous work for those under 18  Set rules for employment of workers under 16 years old
    60. 60.  • In 1935, only 12.6% of American farms had electricity • Government financed & worked with electrical companies to bring electricity to isolated areas. • By 1949, 90% of America’s farms & rural areas had electricity Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
    61. 61. Federal Art Project  Paid artists a living wage to produce public art and sought to increase public appreciation of art.  Artists created posters, taught art in schools, and painted murals on walls of public buildings
    62. 62. S E C T I O N 2 The Second New Deal Takes Hold 2. Why might the Social Security Act be considered the most important achievement of the New Deal? Think About: ANSWER The Social Security Act provided immediate aid to the unemployed, the elderly, the disabled, and families with dependent children. It was the New Deal program with the largest scope, affecting thousands of people, over many years. • the types of relief needed in the 1930s • alternatives to government assistance to the elderly, the unemployed, and the disabled • the scope of the act HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 2
    63. 63. S E C T I O N 3 The New Deal Affects Many Groups New Deal policies and actions affect Americans in all walks of life. The Democratic Party forms a new political coalition. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME
    64. 64. S E C T I O N 3 The New Deal Affects Many Groups HOME TERMS & NAMES • Mary McLeod Bethune • New Deal coalition • Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) • John Collier • Frances Perkins ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW New Deal policies and actions affected various social and ethnic groups. The New Deal made a lasting impact on increasing the government’s role in the struggle for equal rights. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW
    65. 65. Gains Made by African Americans  Increased political voice through greater access to the president  Organizations created for tenant farmers  Mary McLeod Bethune advisor to FDR on minority affairs  William H Hastie and Robert C Weaver appointees to Department of Interior
    66. 66. Problems Faced by African Americans  Segregation  Racial violence  Racism  Discrimination in all areas of life  Poll taxes  FDR not committed to full civil rights, afraid of upsetting white democratic voters  FDR refused to approve anti lynching law
    67. 67.  Mexican Americans Mexican Americans worked on farms in Texas, California, & Arizona Valued for their low cost labor during the 1920’s. Became targets of hostility during the Great Depression. During the 1930s, 400,000 persons of Mexican decent, many U.S. citizens, were deported to Mexico. Why do you think Mexican Americans were met with hostility during the Depression? Why did white workers accuse minorities of taking their jobs?
    68. 68. John Collier  Appointed by FDR as commissioner of Indian affairs  Helped create the Indian Reogranization Act which allowed for autonomy instead of assimilation  Helped restore reservation lands to tribal ownership
    69. 69. Gains Made by Labor Unions  Better working conditions because of Wagnner Act and other prolabor legislation  Increased bargaining power  Dramatic increase in union membership from 3 million in 1933 to 10 million in 1941  Labor unions pledged votes to FDR relection
    70. 70. Problems of Unions  Strike violence (i.e. Memorial Day Massacre in Chicago 1937)  Big business opposition to labor unions  Sit down strikes prevented owners from calling in strike breakers called scabs to work, shut down factory production
    71. 71. Coalition Groups  Southern whites  Urban groups in Northern cities like Boston, NY, Philadelphia, Chicago  Immigrants  Religious and ethnic groups (Catholics, Jews, Italians, Irish, Polish, & Slavic) Supported Roosevelt New Deal labor laws and work-relief programs aided urban poor FDR made persuasive appeals to urban voters FDR appointed many officials of urban-immigrant backgrounds to important government positions
    72. 72. S E C T I O N 3 The New Deal Affects Many Groups 2. What steps did women make toward equality during the 1930s? Think About: ANSWER Women appointed to government positions; more women employed outside the home; expanding opportunities in the workplace; women activists and organizers continued . . . • the role of women in government • hiring practices in federal programs HOME ASSESSMENT • women’s opportunities in business and industry
    73. 73. S E C T I O N 3 The New Deal Affects Many Groups 3. In your opinion, did organized labor become too powerful in the 1930s? Think About: ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • Yes: Strikes interfered with business and labor disputes and sometimes resulted in violence. • No: Unionization resulted in better working conditions. continued . . . • why workers joined unions • how unions organized workers HOME ASSESSMENT • the role of unions in politics
    74. 74. S E C T I O N 3 The New Deal Affects Many Groups 4. Why did urban voters support President Roosevelt? ANSWER New Deal labor and relief programs helped the urban poor. Roosevelt made direct appeals to urban voters during his campaign. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 3
    75. 75. S E C T I O N 4 Culture in the 1930s Motion pictures, radio, art, and literature all blossom during the period of the New Deal. KEY IDEA OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT HOME
    76. 76. S E C T I O N 4 Culture in the 1930s HOME TERMS & NAMES • Gone With the Wind • Richard Wright • The Grapes of Wrath• Grant Wood • Orson Welles ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW Motion pictures, radio, art, and literature blossomed during the New Deal. The films, music, art, and literature of the 1930s still captivate today’s public. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW
    77. 77. What are some ways in which pop culture is spread?
    78. 78. W hat are some examplesof pop-culture from today?
    79. 79. What are attitudes, values, & beliefs?
    80. 80. Annie v=Qx3ZfesQKhM&feature=relat ed W hat doesDaddy Warbucksdo with hismoney? Daddy Warbucksisphilanthropic businessman that adoptsan orphan child unlike greedy businessmen of the 1920’s. Annie runsinto evil forcessuch ascheating Mrs. Hannigan, gangsters, & crookswho represent corruption.
    81. 81. Man ControllingTrade Sculpture by Michael Lantz located in front of the Federal Trade Commission in Washington DC businessneeded to be regulated/stopped/ controlled by the government
    82. 82. S E C T I O N 4 Culture in the 1930s 2. What type of movies do you think might have been produced if the government had supported moviemaking as part of the New Deal? ANSWER Movies that focused on social and political accomplishments, and documentaries about the Dust Bowl and the Depression. HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . .
    83. 83. S E C T I O N 4 Culture in the 1930s 3. How did the entertainment industry affect the economy? ANSWER Entertainment, especially movies and radio, was a lucrative industry during the Depression. New movie theatres had regular patrons; nearly 90 percent of Americans owned radios by 1940. HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . .
    84. 84. S E C T I O N 5 The Impact of the New Deal The New Deal affects American society not only in the 1930s but also in the decades that follow. KEY IDEA OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT HOMEGRAPH
    85. 85. S E C T I O N 5 The Impact of the New Deal HOME TERMS & NAMES • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) • parity ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW The New Deal affected American society not only in the 1930s but also in the decades that followed. Americans still debate over how large a role government should play in American life. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW GRAPH
    86. 86. S E C T I O N 5 The Impact of the New Deal 2. Some critics have charged that the New Deal was antibusiness and anti-free enterprise. Explain why you agree or disagree with this charge. Think About: ANSWER Agree: The New Deal weakened free enterprise business by increasing regulations, taxes, union membership, and wages. Disagree: It increased government spending, improved the economy, provided hope, and aided free enterprise. continued . . . • the expanded power of the federal government • the New Deal’s effect on the economy HOME ASSESSMENT • the New Deal’s effect on the American people GRAPH
    87. 87. S E C T I O N 5 The Impact of the New Deal 3. How successful do you think Franklin Roosevelt was as a president? ANSWER Success: Roosevelt’s New Deal programs addressed the crisis of the Depression and helped the country recover. Failure: Roosevelt did not support civil rights for African Americans. New Deal legislation stifled free enterprise and individual initiative. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 5 GRAPH
    88. 88. 23 The United States The World 1940 President Roosevelt is elected a third time. 1935 Congress passes the Social Security Act. 1935 Mussolini leads Italian invasion of Ethiopia. British Parliament passes the Government of India Act. 1937 Labor unions begin using sit-down strikes. 1937 Japan invades Northern China. Hindenburg disaster 1939 The Wizard of Oz is released in movie theaters. 1939 Germany invades Poland. TIME LINE HOME 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt is inaugurated. 1933 Hitler and the Nazi party come to power in Germany. 1936 President Roosevelt is reelected. 1936 Civil war begins in Spain. 1938 Route 66 is completed, linking Chicago, Illinois, to Los Angeles, California. 1934 Congress creates the SEC to regulate the stock market. Indian Reorganization Act is passed. The New Deal