The pancreas

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The pancreas

  1. 1. The Pancreas Diseases of the Pancreas By Marjorie Smith
  2. 2. The Pancreas <ul><li>The pancreas is a unique gland </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas is both a exocrine and endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>It is a duct gland, pancreatic duct </li></ul><ul><li>It is a ductless gland, islet of Langerhans </li></ul>
  3. 3. Duct Gland <ul><li>As a duct gland or exocrine gland, the pancreas aids in digestion </li></ul><ul><li>It secretes pancreatic enzymes into the small intestines </li></ul><ul><li>It aids in digestion as a part of the digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>It is also an endocrine gland, too </li></ul>
  4. 4. Exocrine Gland <ul><li>As an exocrine gland, the pancreas aid in digestion </li></ul><ul><li>It secretes buffers and pancreatic enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>The buffers and pancreatic enzymes help in the digestive process </li></ul>
  5. 5. Buffers and Enzymes <ul><li>The buffers produce by the pancreas help neutralize the acidic chyme as it enters the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic enzymes help digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Buffers and Enzymes <ul><li>Without the buffers and enzymes, food is not digested and absorbed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to malnurtition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diarrhea </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ductless Gland <ul><li>As a ductless or endocrine gland, the pancreas regulates blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>Cells of the islet of Langerhans secretes these hormones </li></ul><ul><li>These hormones are responsible for increase and decrease blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes these hormones directly into the bloodstream </li></ul>
  8. 8. Endocrine Gland <ul><li>As a endocrine gland, the pancreas regulates blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>The islet of Langerhans is where these hormones are produced </li></ul><ul><li>There are two different cells that produce these hormones </li></ul>
  9. 9. Insulin and Glucagon <ul><li>The pancreas produce both insulin and glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin lowers blood glucose level </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon rises blood glucose level </li></ul>
  10. 10. Insulin and Glucagon <ul><li>Insulin is produced in the beta islet cells </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin causes the body to absorb glucose from the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin lowers the blood sugar levers </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon is produced in the alpha islet cells </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon causes the liver to release glucose </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the blood glucose levels to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon is antagonist of insulin </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diseases that Affect the Pancreas <ul><li>These diseases can cause the pancreas to over produce or under produce its products </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetic retinopathy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulinoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ketoacidosis </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Diseases that Affect the Pancreas <ul><li>Peripheral neuropathy </li></ul><ul><li>Acute pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Nephropathy </li></ul><ul><li>stroke </li></ul>
  13. 13. Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by the body inability to metabolize carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>This may lead to hyperglycemia and glycosuria </li></ul><ul><li>The body makes excessive amount of insulin or the body does not absorb the insulin produce into the cells </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus develops early in life </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as childhood or type 1 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas is not able to produce insulin in adequate amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus develops later in life </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as type 2 diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas produce normal to high levels of insulin </li></ul>
  15. 15. Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin for life </li></ul><ul><li>People with type 2 diabetes may take oral hypoglycemics to improve insulin function or insulin, if needed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Factors that Affect Diabetes Mellitus <ul><li>Risk factors for Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Over weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Certain racial and ethnic groups </li></ul>
  17. 17. Diagnostic Tests <ul><li>Blood tests are helpful in determining pancreas diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Blood tests include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose Tolerance test (GTT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radiographic tests are best to evaluate structure of pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computed tomography scan (CAT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoscopic ultrasound </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Diagnostic Tests <ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatigraphy (MRCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatophy (ERCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for evaluating the pancreatic duct </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Therapeutic Procedures <ul><li>Treatment of pancreatic diseases include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormone replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some instance surgery may be needed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Medications <ul><li>Medication may be used to treat diabetes mellitus and other pancreatic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid-acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate-acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral hypoglycemic agents and other forms of delivery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhaled insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transdermal insulin (patch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranasal insulin </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Medications <ul><ul><li>Rapid-acting: Humalog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-acting: Novolin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate-acting: Lente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-acting:Lantus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-mixed: Humulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OmniPod and Animas make insulin pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exubera is an inhaled insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellnovo is an insulin patch being used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass port (R) is being tested as an insulin delivery system </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Works Cited <ul><li>American Diabetes Association, Web. 9 Nov 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Common Disorders of the Pancreas ”. </li></ul><ul><li> National Pancreas Foundation Web. </li></ul><ul><li>9 Nov 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Fremgen, Bonnie F, Suzanne S. Frucht. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Terminology: A Living </li></ul><ul><li>Language . 4 th ed. New York. Pearson </li></ul><ul><li>Education, Inc. 2009. Print </li></ul><ul><li>Images.Search.yahoo.com. Web 9 Nov 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>OmniPod.com Web. 9 Nov 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Transdermal Basal Insulin Patch Study.ClinicalTrials.gov </li></ul><ul><li> Web. 9 Nov 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Types of Insulin for Diabetes Treatment”. WebMD. Web </li></ul><ul><li>9 Nov 2011. </li></ul>

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