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The pancreas


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kayla DANIELLE AND MARY naman toh

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The pancreas

  1. 1. The Pancreas Mary Lee and Danielle Lu Chiu
  2. 3. What is the pancreas? <ul><li>an oblong flattened gland located deep in the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>an integral part of the digestive system that often goes unnoticed until problems occur </li></ul>
  3. 4. Parts of the pancreas <ul><li>Uncinate process </li></ul><ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Neck </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Tail </li></ul>
  4. 5. Where are the pancreas located? <ul><li>located in the abdomen, tucked behind the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>to visualize the position of the pancreas, try this: touch the thumb and &quot;pinkie&quot; finger of your right hand together, keeping the other three fingers together and straight. Then, place your hand in the center of your belly just below your lower ribs with your fingers pointing to the left. Your hand will be at the approximate level of your pancreas </li></ul>
  5. 6. Main functions <ul><li>production of hormones that regulate blood glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>to produce and secrete digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate </li></ul>
  6. 7. Pancreas as part of the digestive system <ul><li>Functions by reducing the acidity of stomach contents as it enters the duodenum. </li></ul><ul><li>It does this by shooting out a mixture of proteins and sodium bicarbonate. </li></ul><ul><li>This mixture, containing inactive enzymes and bicarbonate, is stored in a duct from the pancreas leading into the duodenum. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic enzymes are continuously produced by the pancreas, and stored until food is sensed in the small intestine. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Pancreas (exocrine pancreas) <ul><li>Once food has been mulched and partially digested by the stomach, it is pushed into the duodenum. </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas adds its own digestive juices and enzymes to the food, via a small duct attached to the duodenum. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is said to belong to the 'exocrine pancreas' </li></ul>
  8. 9. Endocrine (hormonal) pancreas <ul><li>The pancreas makes the hormone insulin, which helps to control blood sugar levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin is manufactured by a small clump of pancreatic cells called the 'islets of Langerhans'. </li></ul><ul><li>High blood sugar levels prompt the release of insulin from the islets of Langerhans, so that the sugars can pass into cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine pancreas also makes glucagon, another hormone involved in the regulation of blood sugar. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Symptoms <ul><li>Pain in the upper abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) </li></ul><ul><li>Back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Bloating </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive upsets </li></ul><ul><li>Passing foul-smelling and fatty feces. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Disorders <ul><li>Acute pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic pancreatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul>
  11. 12. Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classed as a metabolism disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A disease that is multi-systematic . It can affect everything from the heart to the eyes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What causes it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either the body does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Its effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the biggest and deadliest is the heart disease. Heart disease includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atherosclerosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart palpitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>heart attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypertension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the more common signs of kidney problems as associated with diabetes is swelling of the extremities particularly the legs and the feet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is known as edema and it is a sign that the body is retaining fluid. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Types of diabetes <ul><li>All types of diabetes are treatable, but Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes last a lifetime; there is no known cure. The patient receives regular insulin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can occur at any age. However, it is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mainly injected insulin, plus some dietary and exercise adherence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Type 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most common form of diabetes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When you have this, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually occurs slowly over time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can also develop in people who are thin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more common in the elderly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family history and genes play a large role in this type. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work closely with your doctor, nurse, and dietitian to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing your weight and eating a well-balanced diet are important. Some people with type 2 diabetes can stop taking medications after losing weight (although they still have diabetes). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Things to remember <ul><li>The pancreas has dual roles; it is an organ of the digestive system and of the endocrine system. </li></ul><ul><li>The exocrine pancreas produces enzymes that help to digest food, particularly protein. </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine pancreas makes the hormone insulin, which helps to control blood sugar levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders of the pancreas include acute or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and diabetes. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Thank you for listening!