Physical Science Chapter 8

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  • 1.
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    How to Use This Presentation
  • 2. Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
  • 3. Table of Contents
    • Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding
    • Section 2 Ionic Bonds
    • Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds
    Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding
  • 4. Bellringer
    • Use the chemical formulas below and the periodic table, if necessary, to identify the atoms found in the following substances:
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 – Glucose (a sugar)
    • C 2 H 5 OH – Ethyl alcohol
    • Then on the periodic table, locate each element that you identified. Write what you know about each compound. How are these compounds similar to or different from one another? How are these compounds different from the elements that they are composed of? Write your answers in your Science Journal.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 5. What You Will Learn
    • Chemical bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances.
    • Valence electrons are used to form chemical bonds.
    • The number of valence electrons in an atom determines whether the atom will form bonds.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 6. Combining Atoms Through Chemical Bonding
    • Chemical bonding is the joining of atoms to form new substances.
    • An interaction that holds two atoms together is called a chemical bond.
    • When chemical bonds form, electrons are shared, gained, or lost.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 7. Electron Number and Organization
    • The number of electrons in an atom is the same as the atomic number of the element.
    • Electrons in an atom are organized in energy levels.
    • Most atoms form bonds using only the electrons in the outermost energy levels.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 8. Electron Number and Organization , continued
    • A valence electron is an electron that is found in the outermost energy level of an atom and that determines the atom’s chemical properties.
    • The atoms of each element within a group on the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 9. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 10. Valence Electrons Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 11. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 12. To Bond or Not to Bond
    • The number of valence electrons determines if an atom will form bonds.
    • The outermost energy level of an atom is full if the level contains eight electrons.
    • Atoms of some elements need only two electrons to fill their outermost level.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 13. To Bond or Not to Bond , continued
    • Atoms that have eight electrons in their outermost level are nonreactive. So, they do not form bonds.
    • Atoms that have fewer than eight valence electrons usually form bonds.
    Section 1 Electrons and Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 14. Bellringer
    • Compounds that contain ionic bonds, including common table salt, are called salts. Brainstorm uses for salts, things that contain salts, or words and phrases containing the word salt.
    • Record your ideas in your Science Journal.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 15. What You Will Learn
    • Ions of different elements can combine by forming ionic bonds.
    • Positive ions and negative ions form when atoms lose or gain electrons.
    • Ionic compounds form solids by building up a repeating pattern called a crystal lattice.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 16. Forming Ionic Bonds
    • An ionic bond forms when valence electrons are transferred from one atom to another atom.
    • In an ionic bond, one atom has lost electrons and the other atom has gained electrons.
    • An atom is neutral when the number of electrons equals the number of protons.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 17. Forming Ionic Bonds , continued
    • Ions are charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons.
    • If an ion has more protons than electrons, it is a positive ion.
    • If an ion has more electrons than protons, it is a negative ion.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 18. Ionic Bonding Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 19. Forming Positive Ions
    • During chemical changes, the atoms that lose electrons form positive ions because these atoms have more protons than electrons.
    • Because atoms of most metals have few electrons in their outermost energy level, metal atoms tend to lose valence electrons and form positive ions.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 20. Forming Positive Ions , continued
    • Energy is needed to remove electrons from atoms.
    • The elements in Groups 1 and 2 react very easily because the energy needed to remove electrons from their atoms is so small.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 21. Forming Negative Ions
    • During chemical changes, the atoms that gain electrons form negative ions because there are more negative charges than positive charges.
    • Because the outermost energy level of nonmetal atoms is almost full, the atoms of nonmetals tend to gain electrons and form negative ions.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 22. Forming Negative Ions , continued
    • The name of the negative ion that is formed usually ends with –ide.
    • Energy is released when most nonmetal atoms gain electrons.
    • The more easily an atom gains an electron, the more energy the atom releases.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 23. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 24. Forming Ionic Compounds
    • When ionic bonds form, the opposite charges of the ions cause the ions to stick together. But the compound formed is neutral because the charges cancel each other.
    • When a metal and a nonmetal combine by ionic bonding, the resulting compound has different properties than the metal and nonmetal did.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 25. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 26. Ionic Compounds
    • The ions that make up an ionic compound are bonded in a repeating three-dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice. The crystal lattice is built up so that the positive ions are nearest to the negative ions, forming a solid.
    • Ionic compounds are brittle and highly soluble, with high melting and boiling points.
    Section 2 Ionic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 27. Bellringer
    • Examine the drawings of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Each model shows the arrangement of electrons in the atom.
    • In your Science Journal, create a drawing that shows how these three atoms can be arranged to give each atom a full outer energy level. What kind of molecule have you drawn?
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 28. What You Will Learn
    • Covalent compounds form when atoms of elements share electrons.
    • Molecules are particles of covalent compounds and can be simple or complex.
    • Atoms of metals are held together by metallic bonds.
    • Metallic bonding gives metals certain properties.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 29. Covalent Bonds
    • A covalent bond forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. Most things around you are held together by covalent bonds.
    • Covalently bonded atoms form a particle called a molecule. A molecule is the smallest particle of a compound that has the chemical properties of the compound.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 30. Covalent Bonds , continued
    • An electron-dot diagram is a model that shows only the valence electrons in an atom.
    • Electron-dot diagrams can help you predict how atoms might bond.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 31. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 32. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 33. Covalent Compounds and Molecules
    • Molecules made up of two atoms are called diatomic molecules.
    • Elements that are found in nature as diatomic molecules are called diatomic elements.
    • In a molecule of any diatomic element, the shared electrons are counted as valence electrons for each atom.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 34. Metallic Bonds
    • A metallic bond is a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons in the metal. Positively charged metal ions form when metal atoms lose electrons.
    • Metallic bonds extend throughout the metal in all directions because the outermost energy levels of the atoms overlap. So, valence electrons are free to move throughout the metal.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 35. Metallic Bonds Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 36. Properties of Metals
    • Metallic bonding allows metals to conduct electric current. Electrons move within a wire because the valence electrons are free to move throughout the metal.
    • Because electrons move freely around metal ions, the atoms in metals can be rearranged. As a result, metals can be reshaped.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 37. Properties of Metals , continued
    • The properties of ductility and malleability describe a metal’s ability to be reshaped.
    • Metal objects can be bent without being broken because electrons constantly moving around and between the metal ions maintain the metallic bonds no matter how the shape of the metal changes.
    Section 3 Covalent and Metallic Bonds Chapter 8
  • 38. Concept Map Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. electrons metallic bonds chemical bonds covalent bonds ions molecules
  • 39. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concept Map
  • 40. Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concept Map
  • 41. End of Chapter 8 Show Chemical Bonding Chapter 8
  • 42.
    • 1. Choose the appropriate form of the word constituent for the following sentence: “The compound has properties that differ from the properties of the elements that _____ it.”
      • A. constituent
      • B. constituting
      • C. constitute
      • D. constitutes
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 43.
    • 1. Choose the appropriate form of the word constituent for the following sentence: “The compound has properties that differ from the properties of the elements that _____ it.”
      • A. constituent
      • B. constituting
      • C. constitute
      • D. constitutes
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 44.
    • 2. Which of the following words means “the make up of parts of a whole”?
      • A. structure
      • B. ion
      • C. bond
      • D. constituent
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 45.
    • 2. Which of the following words means “the make up of parts of a whole”?
      • A. structure
      • B. ion
      • C. bond
      • D. constituent
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 46.
    • 3. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word chemical ?
      • A. poison
      • B. artificial
      • C. property
      • D. substance
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 47.
    • 3. Which of the following words is the closest in meaning to the word chemical ?
      • A. poison
      • B. artificial
      • C. property
      • D. substance
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 48.
    • 4. Which of the following words means “to pick out”?
      • A. discuss
      • B. identify
      • C. review
      • D. analyze
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 49.
    • 4. Which of the following words means “to pick out”?
      • A. discuss
      • B. identify
      • C. review
      • D. analyze
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 50.
    • 5. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word compound ?
      • A. partner
      • B. fabrication
      • C. combination
      • D. recipe
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 51.
    • 5. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word compound ?
      • A. partner
      • B. fabrication
      • C. combination
      • D. recipe
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 52.
    • 6. A _____ forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
      • A. covalent bond
      • B. ionic bond
      • C. valence electron
      • D. nonmetal ion
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 53.
    • 6. A _____ forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
      • A. covalent bond
      • B. ionic bond
      • C. valence electron
      • D. nonmetal ion
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 54.
    • 7. Ionic bonds form when atoms pull electrons away from other atoms. If an atom loses electrons, what is the charge of the resulting ion?
      • A. negative
      • B. positive
      • C. neutral
      • D. unchanged
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 55.
    • 7. Ionic bonds form when atoms pull electrons away from other atoms. If an atom loses electrons, what is the charge of the resulting ion?
      • A. negative
      • B. positive
      • C. neutral
      • D. unchanged
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 56.
    • 8. The ions that make up an ionic compound are bonded in a repeating three-dimensional pattern. What is this pattern called?
      • A. chloride lattice
      • B. covalent lattice
      • C. crystal lattice
      • D. crystal pattern
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 57.
    • 8. The ions that make up an ionic compound are bonded in a repeating three-dimensional pattern. What is this pattern called?
      • A. chloride lattice
      • B. covalent lattice
      • C. crystal lattice
      • D. crystal pattern
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 58.
    • 9. The diagram below represents an oxygen atom. How many more valence electrons does the oxygen atom need to fill its outermost energy level?
      • A. 2
      • B. 4
      • C. 6
      • D. 11
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 59.
    • 9. The diagram below represents an oxygen atom. How many more valence electrons does the oxygen atom need to fill its outermost energy level?
      • A. 2
      • B. 4
      • C. 6
      • D. 11
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 60.
    • 10. What is a molecule?
      • A. the smallest particle of a substance that cannot be broken down any further by chemical reaction
      • B. a particle that forms when atoms gain or lose electrons
      • C. matter of particular or definite chemical composition
      • D. the smallest unit of a substance that keeps the physical and chemical properties of the substance
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 61.
    • 10. What is a molecule?
      • A. the smallest particle of a substance that cannot be broken down any further by chemical reaction
      • B. a particle that forms when atoms gain or lose electrons
      • C. matter of particular or definite chemical composition
      • D. the smallest unit of a substance that keeps the physical and chemical properties of the substance
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 62.
    • 11. Atoms of elements in _____ of the periodic table rarely form chemical bonds.
      • A. Group 1
      • B. Group 9
      • C. Group 17
      • D. Group 18
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 63.
    • 11. Atoms of elements in _____ of the periodic table rarely form chemical bonds.
      • A. Group 1
      • B. Group 9
      • C. Group 17
      • D. Group 18
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 64.
    • Use the diagram below to answer the next question.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 65.
    • 12. How many electrons are in the second energy level of the atom represented in the above diagram?
      • A. 2
      • B. 7
      • C. 8
      • D. 10
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 66.
    • 12. How many electrons are in the second energy level of the atom represented in the above diagram?
      • A. 2
      • B. 7
      • C. 8
      • D. 10
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 67.
    • 13. Which of the following sentences best describes electrons in relation to energy levels?
      • A. Electrons can be found in and between energy levels.
      • B. Electrons have definite energies, and they do not exist between energy levels.
      • C. Electrons exist inside the nucleus at definite energy levels.
      • D. Electrons can have an exact path within an energy level.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 68.
    • 13. Which of the following sentences best describes electrons in relation to energy levels?
      • A. Electrons can be found in and between energy levels.
      • B. Electrons have definite energies, and they do not exist between energy levels.
      • C. Electrons exist inside the nucleus at definite energy levels.
      • D. Electrons can have an exact path within an energy level.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 69.
    • 14. Protons are always found in the nucleus of an atom. What is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom called?
      • A. atomic number
      • B. atomic mass
      • C. mass number
      • D. atomic mass unit
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 70.
    • 14. Protons are always found in the nucleus of an atom. What is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom called?
      • A. atomic number
      • B. atomic mass
      • C. mass number
      • D. atomic mass unit
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 71.
    • 15. In the periodic table, elements that have similar properties are organized into vertical groups. The element argon is located in the group of elements known as the
      • A. alkali metals.
      • B. halogens.
      • C. noble gases.
      • D. transition metals.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 72.
    • 15. In the periodic table, elements that have similar properties are organized into vertical groups. The element argon is located in the group of elements known as the
      • A. alkali metals.
      • B. halogens.
      • C. noble gases.
      • D. transition metals.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 73.
    • 16. Which of the following is generally true of an element?
      • A. It cannot be melted into a liquid.
      • B. It has a characteristic density.
      • C. It conducts electric current.
      • D. It can be broken down into a simpler substance.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 74.
    • 16. Which of the following is generally true of an element?
      • A. It cannot be melted into a liquid.
      • B. It has a characteristic density.
      • C. It conducts electric current.
      • D. It can be broken down into a simpler substance.
    Chapter 8 Standards Assessment
  • 75. Chapter 8