Guiding conservation and
sustainable use through National
Prunus africana Management
Plans

Bioversity
Workshop
“Developme...
Prunus africana

•

Afromontane evergreen tree patchy
distribution at 600-3000 m a.s.l. particularly ≥
1700 - 3010 m. Mont...
Background: over-exploitation, respite & action
Cameroon example : worlds largest exporter (2007) after 15 years of intens...
Problem:

international trade leads to endangered status

•

Regulated since 1974 in Cameroon and 1972 in Madagascar but f...
1%

0.1%

66%

0.2%

>1%

27%

Main harvest zones

49%
4%

Prunus
africana
range and
trade
= Management plan

21%

= forme...
Hypothesis
1.

International, lucrative trade of a wild resource is
inherently unsustainable given livelihood
pressures.

...
•

•
•

•
•
•
•

•

Exploitation since 1972; periods of
centralisation & decentralisation, many
and few companies
Sofia No...
•1998 inventory (Sunderland & Tako 1999)

indicated high levels unsustainable harvest
•Historic ties Spain & Equatorial Gu...
1. Increase revenues of small and medium enterprises involved production
and commercialisation of Prunus africana

Aims

2...
Background

Field work

• Harvest zone selection – stakeholder interviews (2007)

• Inventory - transects 3 zones (2007-20...
• Responds to CITES 2006 Lima meeting requirements: based
on CITES Secretariat (2006) & Clemente Muñoz et al 2006)
• Innov...
Research
locations

Bamenda Highlands

West Province

THINKING beyond the canopy
Why use a participatory market chain approach?
• Understand demand & supply, volumes & values
• Map and analyse actors int...
INVENTORY

961466 trees surveyed in transects in 4 zones

Results

SCALE OF CULTIVATION GREATER THAN PREVOISULY KNOWN
•Pla...
POST HARVEST BARK REGENERATION STUDY

Results

710 trees at 14 sites in 4 zones: privately owned, permanent forest and Com...
PARTICPATORILY DEVELOPING A
NATIONAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

Results

Highlighted:
•
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

High livelih...
BASELINE & HOUSEHOLD VALUE CHAIN STUDY
•
•

•

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Results

Since 1970s Cameroon major exporter, 48% of w...
The reality now.....
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

•
•

?

Implementation of the Cameroon Plan now ongoing
(operational plan, harvest...
Learning points
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•
•

Prunus africana like other NTFP trade in Cameroon is under appreciated &
insufficientl...
Thank you!

www.cifor.cgiar.org
v.ingram@cgiar.org
The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
is one of the 15...
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Guiding conservation and sustainable use through a national Prunus africana Management Plan, Cameroon

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Guiding conservation and sustainable use through a national Prunus africana Management Plan, Cameroon

  1. 1. Guiding conservation and sustainable use through National Prunus africana Management Plans Bioversity Workshop “Development of strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of Prunus africana to improve the livelihood of smallscale farmers” 25-29 October 2010 Yaoundé, Cameroon Verina Ingram Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Central Africa v.ingram@cgiar.org THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Prunus africana • Afromontane evergreen tree patchy distribution at 600-3000 m a.s.l. particularly ≥ 1700 - 3010 m. Montane forests scarce (1.4% of all African forests: 1% Cameroon & 1.1% Eq.Guinea forests) • Cherry like fruit eaten & dispersed by 20+ species; 50% are Afromontane endangered &/or endemic e.g. P. Africana one of 13 critical species in Cameroon montane forests. • Major harvest areas have high degradation & deforestation rates e.g. Cameroon (0.37% pa [0.0017 ha/pa], with 52% forest loss in last 52 years [Kilum Ijum]), Madagascar & Kenya • Multiple timber (fuel, tools, carving ) & NTFP uses (bark for human & veterinary medicine) • Major international trade: 9622 tons worldwide 2001-2007. Principal ingredient in prostatic hyperplasia pharmaceuticals (Europe) & health supplements (US & China) THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Background: over-exploitation, respite & action Cameroon example : worlds largest exporter (2007) after 15 years of intense harvesting Self-imposed moratoriums and suspensions following 2007 EU trade suspension. Allows an ecological respite but also adverse effects on livelihoods of unknown impact In response to these changes, lobbies reflecting the diverse and conflicting interests emerged across African exporting nations. A participatory developed national management plan has been the route chosen to respond to concerns by actors in the Cameroon trade chain The route from an endangered species towards domestication, analysing the planning process for conservation and sustainable management is presented for Cameroon, Madagascar and Equatorial Guinea. Paradoxical context in which this non-timber species is found, traded and used, means that risks and opportunities for successful conservation and trade through proposed National Management Plans need to be critically examined. THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Problem: international trade leads to endangered status • Regulated since 1974 in Cameroon and 1972 in Madagascar but for revenue maximisation, rather than conservation logic • Despite long lived & ability to withstand repeated bark harvest – demand increased dramatically 600% in last 40 years • The shift from subsistence to international trade raised concerns about overexploitation of wild stocks Leading to – Appearance on the IUCN Red List (Endangered) in 1998 – Trade restrictions (CITES Appendix II listed ) in 2005 – ‘Special Forestry Product’ classification in Cameroon in 2006 – EU suspension of international trade November 2007 – CITES suspension of DRC, Eq. Guinea & Tanzania as non compliant with Article IV. Others countries implemented voluntary suspension February 2009 • • • • But national stocks of wild P. africana largely un-quantified and cultivated stocks completely unknown in Cameroon Conflicting interests; conservation vs. immediate livelihood needs Regulations not enforced nor harvest monitored, and market arrangements counterproductive to sustainable trade THINKING beyond the canopy Photo: K Stewart
  5. 5. 1% 0.1% 66% 0.2% >1% 27% Main harvest zones 49% 4% Prunus africana range and trade = Management plan 21% = former trade & % world 1% exports 1995-2007 16% 1% = border trade 1% = traditional medicinal use & trade 7% 6% = main importers & % world imports 1995-2007 Source: Cunningham 2008, Hall et al .2000, CITES WCMC 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Hypothesis 1. International, lucrative trade of a wild resource is inherently unsustainable given livelihood pressures. 2. Management impossible without knowledge of resource availability and sustainable post harvest regeneration period 3. Actors and issues in chain unknown to each other → market arrangements with conflicting interests & leading to (unknown) unsustainable harvests. 4. A participatory developed management plan involving all actors in the chain could respond to pressures to create a sustainable Prunus africana commerce and reconcile conflicting pressures. Kongo CF, Kilim CF, December 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • Exploitation since 1972; periods of centralisation & decentralisation, many and few companies Sofia Northwest area overexploited by 1984, shift to Eastern reserves; by 1994 to many scattered sites, by 1999 returned to Sofia, injunction 2002 Both importer and exporter- due to Indena SpA factory in 1995 2003: finalised and valided ‘Plan d’action national pour la gestion durable du Prunus africana’: ecological (inventory & harvest guide), socioeconomic, genetic & legal measures Resulted by 2005 in limited permits Average 200t pa 2000-2007 2007: Trade suspended 2008: World Bank project proposed for regeneration and to develop management plan, expected end 2009 Plan not yet finalized Madagascar Tons imported 2001-2006 • 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Source WCMC CITES Database 2008 THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. •1998 inventory (Sunderland & Tako 1999) indicated high levels unsustainable harvest •Historic ties Spain & Equatorial Guinea + bark exports to Spain, lead to a pilot project on Bioko Island, promoted & funded by the General Directorate for Biodiversity, Ministry of Environment (CITES scientific Authority Spain), June 2004 • Exported from 1992 to 1998, ceased 19992002, 2005 last unsustainable harvest. 1992 – 1998 = average 210 tons pa exported • 2006 ‘’Evaluation of the Harvest of Prunus africana Bark on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea): Guidelines for a Management Plan’’ (University Cordoba), Spain conducted remote sensing, inventory , bark yield estimate, proposed a quota and harvest guidelines •This model promoted for other countries and areas (at CITES meeting Lima 2007 & Kenya 2008) • Plan not adopted- political reasons Equatorial Guinea THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. 1. Increase revenues of small and medium enterprises involved production and commercialisation of Prunus africana Aims 2. Manage resources sustainably for both current and future generations Build NTFP sector actors capacity in production and commercialisation Promote favorable legal & institutional environment for small & medium enterprises Improve production and harvesting techniques of NTFPs Develop sustainable market chains THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. Background Field work • Harvest zone selection – stakeholder interviews (2007) • Inventory - transects 3 zones (2007-2008) • Bark regeneration post-harvest study – 4 zones (2009) • 193 semi & structured interviews actors in chains & 5 market surveys (2007-2008) VCA 2007-2009 Action data collection Analysis Outputs • Participatory action research: SWOT, stakeholder analysis, 6 working sessions stakeholder groups & 1 all stakeholder workshop, participatorily developed management plan • Capacity building events; group organisation • Data analysis SPSS and Excel, TIAMA, interpretation satellite images, SWOT, GIS mapping • Preliminary findings verified in meetings & peer cross-checked • Value chain maps: Visualisations • Reports: Problem analysis workshop report, Inventory in NW & SW Cameroon, Guidelines for a National Management Plan for Prunus africana in Cameroon, Assessment sustainable harvest methods, Baseline study of Prunus africana chain, Domestication Guide (ICRAF), Harvest and inventory norms GTZ + CIFOR) • Actors’ grouping: Prunus Platform, Scientific Group supporting CITES Authority, • Policy brief: NTFPs in Cameroon & Product sheet: Prunus africana in Cameroon THINKING beyond the canopy Methodology: Cameroon • Literature review Lit. review
  11. 11. • Responds to CITES 2006 Lima meeting requirements: based on CITES Secretariat (2006) & Clemente Muñoz et al 2006) • Innovative for Cameroon and Africa • Pragmatic national management plan for the sustainable exploitation of Prunus africana in short & long term • Culmination of 3 year process based on: – Scientific evidence – Regulatory study – Negotiated policy – Indigenous knowledge – Stakeholder participation • Plan has general consensus from majority of stakeholders. THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Research locations Bamenda Highlands West Province THINKING beyond the canopy
  13. 13. Why use a participatory market chain approach? • Understand demand & supply, volumes & values • Map and analyse actors interactions, power relations, governance arrangements and pressures • Comprehend institutional and customary and legal framework and influence and implementation in practice • Understand livelihood and cultural aspects • By participating in developing the VC, actors validate , own and understand chain & issues THINKING beyond the canopy
  14. 14. INVENTORY 961466 trees surveyed in transects in 4 zones Results SCALE OF CULTIVATION GREATER THAN PREVOISULY KNOWN •Plantations ≥ 100 trees: average age 13 years (exploitable age) •Approximately 70% of planted trees never harvested •Nurseries more common in NW •Majority of plantations small (average 3 hectares) •≥22,280 trees known in 31 plantations, approximately 24% survive MORE TREES STANDING THAN PREVIOUSLY BELIEVED •Current national availability from 4 inventoried zones estimated 1078 tons of wet weight bark annually •Significant variation in forest exploitation & land use between sites, mainly forest converted to pasture & agricultural use REGENERATION •≥ 1,900,000 trees, multiple sites planted from1976 – 2009, average survival rate 32%, average 10 years old •2 categories: <30cm diameter = ‘regeneration stock’ and >30cm = ‘exploitation stock’ • Stocks differ widely: human impacts major threat. More smaller trees on Mt Manengouba means less stock available for exploitation DENSITY IS LOCATION SPECIFIC •Stocking densities vary from 15% Mt Cam to 95% Kilum-Ijum total stock 4 zones •Density varies significantly 1.6 – 11.4 stems/ha & heterogeneous across sites, related to vegetation type altitude a limiting distribution factor, size differences due to exploitation, human interventions and land use THINKING beyond the canopy
  15. 15. POST HARVEST BARK REGENERATION STUDY Results 710 trees at 14 sites in 4 zones: privately owned, permanent forest and Community Forests • Critical data lacking on tree recovery post harvest & sustainable rotation period for repeat harvests, seedling regeneration in exploited zones, tree status & health in plantations and wild at different altitudes. • Results indicate >60% of harvested P. africana trees over-exploited & 9.2 % well harvested (current harvest good practice). Bark recovery rates significantly affected by agro-ecological origins. (Ad=.12 .05; NW=.1 .03; SW=.06 .02cm/yr), indicating humid highlands in Adamaoua and NW optimal zones. Bark recovery rates reached 15% of original bark thickness in 1st & 2nd years after exploitation, & progressively dropped to inflection point (7%) between 7th & 8th year. A seven year rotation period therefore considered sustainable for repeated harvesting. Regional adjustment needed. Harvest from breast height diameter (30 cm) judged sustainable due to high bark recovering rate (8%/yr) and good mean bark thickness (1.3cm) upwards to the first branch. Growth rate faster (14 .5m compared to 9 .2m) at altitude <800m a.s.l., however insect attacks (94%) severe <1000m a.s.l.. Optimum zone for planting = ≥1000 m a.s.l.. • • • • THINKING beyond the canopy
  16. 16. PARTICPATORILY DEVELOPING A NATIONAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Results Highlighted: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • High livelihood importance in adjacent NW & SW villages Weak chain governance: Corrupt officials, unclear regulatory system & enforcement lacking Breakdown of traditional forest management regimes Little information exchange & market knowledge - uninformed harvesters & no controls Unknown resource quantity hindered management with pressures to supply and scares in international community – but based on little evidence Available stock only known with PAU inventories/Management Plans + registration private stock Protected areas harvest ban = conservation genetic stock & for regeneration Distinction between ‘wild’ & domesticated Prunus africana via Certificate of Origin Need for a new permit system devised and agreed as sustainable alternative to current system Consensus on introducing a scientific & practical inventory norm Conservative harvesting technique and certification agreed Revised monitoring & control by government and communities agreed Ongoing research needs consolidated & being addressed Coordination mechanisms e.g. Prunus Platform & Scientific Authority Group Awareness raising & education on CITES & regulations started Need to promote domestication and planting + regeneration program in wild. THINKING beyond the canopy
  17. 17. BASELINE & HOUSEHOLD VALUE CHAIN STUDY • • • • • • • • • • • • • Results Since 1970s Cameroon major exporter, 48% of worldwide trade since 1995 Average 1700 ton exported annually to international pharmaceutical and health businesses. Since 2000 exported to France (53%), Spain (31%) and Madagascar (11%), and small quantities to Belgium, China, India and the United States. Needs of pharmaceutical industry (chemical/genetic composition) not well understood Significant (up to 80% 40) proportion of household incomes in 2 main harvest areas from P. africana 98% of harvest sold, 2% own or local consumption Benefits to approximately 70,000 people, direct income to around 700 (Community forests, plantation holders, harvesters) & 11 small & medium enterprises Source of foreign exchange currency for Cameroon with export value ≈ 2,010,000 US$ in 19999 Producer level value annual average trade value (2007) 540,000 US$ Average price = harvesters 0.12-0.5 US$ kg, intermediaries 0.5 – 1 US$ Average export price 1.34 US$ kg, one company dominated market with 50% share About 25% of harvesters organised and trained in harvesting Predicted growing demand for prostate medications in Europe & US world indicating long term potential commerce, given continuation of trade and market retention despite the trade suspension THINKING beyond the canopy
  18. 18. The reality now..... • • • • • • • • • • • ? Implementation of the Cameroon Plan now ongoing (operational plan, harvest norms) Stakeholders shown openness to participate in formulating policy options Policy and regulatory extremes and inappropriate legal framework ripe for rationalisation Reflecting tree and land tenure is critical for sustainable exploitation & equity Employment and profitability increased by professionalising sector Importance of business, infrastructure & technical support Processing & storage important to add value locally (vertical integration) Domestication seen by all actors is key to sustainable supply Farmers generally maintaining stocks ‘ don't know basis’ but no significant planting occurring since 2008 Sustainable harvest techniques & domestication technologies offer potential to increase profits – but needs wide scale disseminating and enforcement NTFP Market Information System and actor Platforms initial positive results THINKING beyond the canopy
  19. 19. Learning points • • • • • • • • • Prunus africana like other NTFP trade in Cameroon is under appreciated & insufficiently captured in statistics Governance arrangements have major impact on income equity & distraction, access, control profit margins, Level of domestication provides good sustainability indicator for future Questions about which genetic resources to domesticate – given pharmaceutical industry preferences Promoting cultivation will be a decisive factor for long term success Long lived tree = need to wait for long term conservation & management results Power and relationships (lobby and government contacts) important in determining equity and access to resource Awareness and enforcement of new policy regime will be critical Roles of traditional, regulatory and devolved authorities need to be resolved to clarify management and governance responsibilities THINKING beyond the canopy
  20. 20. Thank you! www.cifor.cgiar.org v.ingram@cgiar.org The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) is one of the 15 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy

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