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Causes of the Civil War: Slavery
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Causes of the Civil War: Slavery

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  • 1.
    • Imagine that an alien ship has landed in your community. You are captured and transported to a place unlike anything that you have ever experienced. You don’t understand anything about their geography or culture. You are enslaved. You think about escaping. Make a list of possible obstacles that you would face if you decided to actually attempt an escape.
  • 2. Cause # 3: Slavery
  • 3. How did Africans arrive in America?
  • 4. A. Middle Passage – passage across the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa to the Americas the was the route of the African American slave trade
  • 5. B. Africans were crowded and chained cruelly aboard slave ships.
  • 6. Slave-Owning Population (1850)
  • 7. Southern Population
  • 8. Southern Agriculture
  • 9. Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860
  • 10. Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
  • 11. Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
  • 12. A. Slaves were responsible for clearing land and planting and harvesting crops. An African-American woman is shown here balancing a basket of cotton on her head on a farm in Augusta, Georgia. (1870)
  • 13. Poster announcing a slave auction in Virginia, USA, 1823
  • 14. Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
  • 15.  
  • 16. A. Owners could separate families by selling husbands, wives, and their children to different buyers. Five generations of a family born into slavery on a South Carolina plantation.
  • 17. Slave Master Brands Slave muzzle
  • 18. Slave tag, SC Slave leg irons Slave shoes
  • 19. Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • 20. The Missouri Compromise
    • Approved in 1820; Maine entered the Union as a free state, and Missouri entered as a slave state
    • Prohibited slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of Missouri
    • Temporarily solved slavery controversy between the states
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • A. The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the group of laws referred to as the “Compromise of 1850”
    Source: The Nystrom Atlas of United States History
  • 23.
    • B. In this compromise, California became a free state and the slave trade, but not slavery itself, was abolished in the District of Columbia
    • C. Slavery was allowed in the newly organized territories of Utah and New Mexico
    • D. A new Fugitive Slave Act increased penalties for assisting runaway slaves
  • 24. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
    • A. Required all citizens to aid in the capture of runaway slaves.
    • B. Any person caught helping a fugitive slave could be fined a $1,000 dollars and put in jail for 6 months.
    • C. Northerners, especially abolitionists strongly opposed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 .
  • 25. Runaway Slave Ads
  • 26.  
  • 27. An iron mask with hooks around the neck to stop slaves running away or resting. The mask also stops the slaves from eating or drinking due to a flat piece of metal which goes into the mouth. The shackles and spurs would also have made it difficult for captured slaves to run away.  
  • 28. Uncle Tom’s Cabin- 1852 book
    • A. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • B. Was a novel that showed the evils of slavery and the injustices of the Fugitive Slave Law.
    • C. Thousands of copies sold- changed the way northerners looked at slavery. They now saw slavery as a moral issue not a political issue.
  • 29. Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854
    • A . P roposed that slavery in the Kansas territory was to be determined by popular sovereignty.
    • B. Northerners were outraged because in effect it repealed the Missouri Compromise.
  • 30. Dred Scott V. Sanford (1857)
    • A. Scott was a slave from Missouri. His master had taken him to Illinois where abolitionists helped him sue for his freedom because slavery was illegal in Illinois.
    • B. Chief Justice Roger Taney decides the case:
    • 1. Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a person, he was property.
    • 2. Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory!!
  • 31. Resisting Slavery A. Many slaves tried to escape to the North. Few were successful.
  • 32. Nat Turner’s Rebellion
    • A. 1831: Nat Turner and six fellow slaves launched a slave rebellion.
    • B. They killed 57 whites before Turner was captured and executed. (Hanged)
    • C. As a result of this rebellion:
      • 1. Southerners tightened restrictions on slaves.
      • 2. Southerners lashed out at abolitionists, blaming them for Turner’s actions.
  • 33. MAP OF THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
  • 34. THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
    • A. This was a movement to help escaped slaves make their way from the slave-owning southern states up through the northern states, and eventually into Canada.
    • B. This was accomplished by secretly transporting slaves from one safe house to another, steadily moving north until freedom was secured.
  • 35.
    • C. The Underground Railroad became even more active once the Fugitive Slave Act was passed.
    Harriett Tubman Source: http://www.mdslavery.net/html/flight/freeindex.html
  • 36. SAFE-HOUSE
  • 37. Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route .
  • 38. Slave Codes
    • D. Took away nearly all rights of slaves
    • Examples:
    • Slaves could not carry weapons, make any contact with white people
    • People who tried to teach people of color were punished; slaves could not work any job involving reading and writing
    • Slaves had little time to talk together
  • 39. Follow the Drinking Gourd Discussion Questions
    • How would the Underground Railroad been different for the slaves had there been no volunteers willing to help out?
    • What did the volunteers have to risk by helping out? If you lived in that time period, would you have been willing to risk everything to help people escape slavery?
    • How would escaping slaves hide out during the day and what risks did they face in the daytime?
    • How would escaping slaves find or receive food?
    • How would changes to the weather or geographical land changes affect slave travel?
    • What advantages and disadvantages would slaves have by traveling at night?