Causes of the Civil War: SlaveryPresentation Transcript
Imagine that an alien ship has landed in your community. You are captured and transported to a place unlike anything that you have ever experienced. You don’t understand anything about their geography or culture. You are enslaved. You think about escaping. Make a list of possible obstacles that you would face if you decided to actually attempt an escape.
Cause # 3: Slavery
How did Africans arrive in America?
A. Middle Passage – passage across the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa to the Americas the was the route of the African American slave trade
B. Africans were crowded and chained cruelly aboard slave ships.
Slave-Owning Population (1850)
Changes in Cotton Production 1820 1860
Slaves Using the Cotton Gin
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
A. Slaves were responsible for clearing land and planting and harvesting crops. An African-American woman is shown here balancing a basket of cotton on her head on a farm in Augusta, Georgia. (1870)
Poster announcing a slave auction in Virginia, USA, 1823
Slave Auction: Charleston, SC-1856
A. Owners could separate families by selling husbands, wives, and their children to different buyers. Five generations of a family born into slavery on a South Carolina plantation.
Slave Master Brands Slave muzzle
Slave tag, SC Slave leg irons Slave shoes
Missouri Compromise, 1820
The Missouri Compromise
Approved in 1820; Maine entered the Union as a free state, and Missouri entered as a slave state
Prohibited slavery north of 36°20' latitude (the southern border of Missouri), and included Louisiana Territory lands west of Missouri
Temporarily solved slavery controversy between the states
A. The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the group of laws referred to as the “Compromise of 1850”
Source: The Nystrom Atlas of United States History
B. In this compromise, California became a free state and the slave trade, but not slavery itself, was abolished in the District of Columbia
C. Slavery was allowed in the newly organized territories of Utah and New Mexico
D. A new Fugitive Slave Act increased penalties for assisting runaway slaves
Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
A. Required all citizens to aid in the capture of runaway slaves.
B. Any person caught helping a fugitive slave could be fined a $1,000 dollars and put in jail for 6 months.
C. Northerners, especially abolitionists strongly opposed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 .
Runaway Slave Ads
An iron mask with hooks around the neck to stop slaves running away or resting. The mask also stops the slaves from eating or drinking due to a flat piece of metal which goes into the mouth. The shackles and spurs would also have made it difficult for captured slaves to run away.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin- 1852 book
A. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
B. Was a novel that showed the evils of slavery and the injustices of the Fugitive Slave Law.
C. Thousands of copies sold- changed the way northerners looked at slavery. They now saw slavery as a moral issue not a political issue.
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854
A . P roposed that slavery in the Kansas territory was to be determined by popular sovereignty.
B. Northerners were outraged because in effect it repealed the Missouri Compromise.
Dred Scott V. Sanford (1857)
A. Scott was a slave from Missouri. His master had taken him to Illinois where abolitionists helped him sue for his freedom because slavery was illegal in Illinois.
B. Chief Justice Roger Taney decides the case:
1. Scott could not file a lawsuit because he was not a person, he was property.
2. Congress did not have the power to outlaw slavery in any territory!!
Resisting Slavery A. Many slaves tried to escape to the North. Few were successful.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
A. 1831: Nat Turner and six fellow slaves launched a slave rebellion.
B. They killed 57 whites before Turner was captured and executed. (Hanged)
C. As a result of this rebellion:
1. Southerners tightened restrictions on slaves.
2. Southerners lashed out at abolitionists, blaming them for Turner’s actions.
MAP OF THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
A. This was a movement to help escaped slaves make their way from the slave-owning southern states up through the northern states, and eventually into Canada.
B. This was accomplished by secretly transporting slaves from one safe house to another, steadily moving north until freedom was secured.
C. The Underground Railroad became even more active once the Fugitive Slave Act was passed.
Quilt Patterns as Secret Messages The Monkey Wrench pattern, on the left, alerted escapees to gather up tools and prepare to flee; the Drunkard Path design, on the right, warned escapees not to follow a straight route .
D. Took away nearly all rights of slaves
Slaves could not carry weapons, make any contact with white people
People who tried to teach people of color were punished; slaves could not work any job involving reading and writing
Slaves had little time to talk together
Follow the Drinking Gourd Discussion Questions
How would the Underground Railroad been different for the slaves had there been no volunteers willing to help out?
What did the volunteers have to risk by helping out? If you lived in that time period, would you have been willing to risk everything to help people escape slavery?
How would escaping slaves hide out during the day and what risks did they face in the daytime?
How would escaping slaves find or receive food?
How would changes to the weather or geographical land changes affect slave travel?
What advantages and disadvantages would slaves have by traveling at night?