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Treaty of Versailles Revision

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PPT from Campsmount's History Dept. focusing on supporting student's revision for the Treaty of Versailles.

PPT from Campsmount's History Dept. focusing on supporting student's revision for the Treaty of Versailles.

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  • 1. GCSE Revision Paper 1
  • 2. Paper 1
    • International Relations 1918-1945
    • Treaty of Versailles
    • League of Nations
    • Road to War
    • Depth Study Germany 1918-1945
    • Early Weimar Germany
    • Rise of Hitler and the Nazis
    • Consolidation of Power
    • Life in Nazi Germany
  • 3. Treaty of Versailles
    • Cause problems for the future generations, lead to another war
    • Allies knew it was too harsh, but the best they could do
    • Germany would want revenge in the future
    • Germany resisted and hated the TofV
  • 4. Background
    • 1.  Make sure that you know the STORY of the Paris Peace Conference .
    • 2.  Make sure that, for each of the Big Three, you can explain:
    • ●   WHAT they wanted
    • ●   How successful they were in getting what they wanted.
    • ●   Their IMPORTANCE within the conference/peace process
  • 5. Aims of the Big Three
    • All three men wanted to stop a war ever happening again, but they did not agree about how to do this. They wanted different things from the peace, and they did not get on well.
  • 6. Aims of the Big Three
    • Georges Clemenceau (France)
    • David Lloyd George (Britain)
    • Woodrow Wilson (USA)
  • 7. What they wanted:
    • Clemenceau
    • 1.   blamed Germany = punishment/ ‘ hard justice ’
    • 2.   angry = revenge.
    • 3.   wanted to ’ make Germany pay ’ for the Damage = reparations
    • 4.   threatened = wanted independent Rhineland/ get Alsace-Lorraine/
    • 5.   peace = wanted Germany weak and crippled .
    • Lloyd George
    • 1.   compromise
    • 2.   had promised Parliament/November 1918 election that he would punish/make Germany pay, but did not want revenge like France
    • 3.   protect British Empire (=Mandates)/ British navy (=German navy)
    • 4.   trade
    • 5.   peace: did not want to create anger in Germany which would lead to war in the future.
    • Wilson
    • 1.   14 Points (know some details)
    • 2.   a better world ‘ safe for democracy ’
    • 3.   fair peace
    • 4.   self-determination
    • 5.   International Co-operation (League of Nations)
  • 8. What they got:
    • Wilson
    • LIKED/GOT
    • •   League of Nations
    • •   self-determination for Poland, Czechoslovakia etc,
    • DISLIKED
    • •   many of his 14 points were ignored
    • •   Britain opposed freedom of seas
    • •   only defeated powers were made to disarm
    • •   colonies were given no say in their future
  • 9. What they got: Clemenceau LIKED/GOT •   Clause 231 •   disarmament •   Reparations •   Getting back Alsace-Lorraine •   getting mandates DISLIKED •   Saar (only got for 15 years) •  Wanted an independent Rhineland, not just demilitarised.
  • 10. What they got:
    • Lloyd George
    • LIKED/GOT
    • •   reducing German navy
    • •   getting German colonies as British mandates
    • DISLIKED
    • •   Wilson ’ s ideas about colonies and freedom of the seas
    • •   Clemenceau ’ s harshness
    • •   JM Keynes said that reparations would cause another war
    • •   Harold Nicolson thought the Treaty ‘ neither just nor wise'.
  • 11. Importance of the Big Three
    • Wilson
    • 1.   Gave the Conference its moral authority (14 points) - regarded as great and good man from America, bringing a new world order
    • 2.   Secured the LoN - influenced world peace for two decades/ brilliant new PRINCIPLE of 'collective security' still seen today (in UN).
    • 3.   'Self-determination' was the dominating principle of foreign affairs for the next two decades -  countries like Estonia, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia owed their existence to him.
    • 4.   Almost ruined the conference because he fell out with Clemenceau
    • 5.   Failed to get US Congress to agree ToV or LoN - so made sure they both failed
  • 12. Importance of the Big Three
    • Clemenceau
    • 1.   Demanding war-guilt/ reparations/ Rhineland angered the Germans and gave Hitler his platform.
    • 2.   Almost ruined the conference because he fell out with Wilson
    • 3.   Got back Alsace-Lorraine for France, and Saar for 15 years
    • 4.   Got Germany disarmed and Rhineland demilitarised - and so set the scene for politics in Europe (e.g. France could invade in 1920, 1921 AND 1923) until Hitler re-armed in 1935 and re-occupied the Rhineland in 1936.
  • 13. Importance of the Big Three
    • Lloyd George
    • 1.   Increased the British empire by getting the mandates
    • 2.   Secured the British navy by getting the German navy reduced to 6 ships - and the rest given to Britain, defeated Wilson's ideas for freedom of the seas
    • 3.   Continually mediated between Wilson and Clemenceau
    • 4.   His determination to get a lasting peace got a Treaty which survived 20 years
    • 5.   Managed to please the electorate (to 'make Germany pay') YET Germany made a trade treaty with Britain in 1924.
  • 14. Exam Questions
    • Explain what David Lloyd George wanted from the Treaty of Versailles. [6]
    • Explain the aims of the ‘ Big Three ’ at the Paris Peace Conference. [9]
    • How satisfied were the Big Three with the Treaty of Versailles? [10]
    • This is interchangeable and you could be asked about either of the ‘ Big Three ’ . You must include not only what they wanted, but also WHY he wanted it.
    • B. Here you must deal with all 3 and you need to compare them. Use your language to make this clear “ This is different to Clemenceau... ” and “ Wilson wanted a much fairer Treaty than Lloyd George, who was in the middle ”
    • C. Again – here you must compare each person but the focus is now on the results of the Treaty . You MUST emphasise the word COMPROMISE .
  • 15. How satisfied were the Big Three with the Treaty of Versailles? [10]
    • Clemenceau was the most satisfied with the Treaty of Versailles. Clemenceau saw Germany, though defeated, as always posing a future threat to French security if she was not totally crippled as a nation. So whilst he was satisfied with some of the land and military settlements, he was much less satisfied with a reparations settlement (much lower than one the French suggested) which he felt might give the Germans the chance to recover economically and therefore pose a future threat to France.
    • Wilson was the least satisfied of the Allied leaders as most of his ideas for a lenient Treaty were ignored. Although the League of Nations was set up and Poland achieved self-determination, many other countries were controlled as mandates by Britain and France. Germany was also crippled with reparation payments and military restrictions, which Wilson felt was too damaging.
    • All 3 had different aims at Versailles so all were forced to compromise – meaning neither was completely satisfied.
  • 16. The Treaty Itself
    • Make sure that you know:
    • 1.  the DETAILS of the Treaty of Versailles .
    • 2.  WHAT they Germans felt about it
    • 3.  The RESULTS/IMPORTANCE of the Treaty
  • 17. The Terms
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5.
    • Extra
  • 18. The Terms
    • War Guilt : clause 231- Germany accepted blame ‘ for causing all the loss and damage ’ of the war.
    • Military Restrictions:
    • •   army: 100,000
    • •   no submarines
    • •   no aeroplanes
    • •   6 battleships
    • •   Rhineland de-militarised
    • Territorial Losses: In all, Germany lost 10% of its land, all its colonies, 12% of its population, 16% of its coalfields, half its iron and steel industry.
    • Lost Colonies, Danzig, Saar Coalfields and Alsace-Lorriane
    • Reparations: £6,600 million – in instalments, until 1984
    • League of Nations: set up: first 26 articles of the Treaty (and of St Germain, Neuilly, Trianon) were the Covenant of the LoN
    • Extra:
    • forbade Anschluss
    • Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independent states.
  • 19. Reaction of Germany
    • “ UNFAIR ”
    • •   no part in the Conference talks
    • •   forced to sign
    • •   few of 14 Points in the Treaty.
    • •   based instead on Armistice
    • Led to ...
    • •   riots in Berlin after the signing
    • •   Kapp Putsch (1920) to try to overturn the Treaty
    • •   led to the 'Stab-in-the-back' legend, and hatred of the 'November criminals' = Weimar government lacked support
  • 20. Reaction of Germany
    • Guilt : humiliation, never accepted – Hindenburg denied it in 1927 – first public challenge.
    • Reparations : too big for the weakened economy, Allies were trying to starve German children – led to Dawes Plan
    • Military : unreasonable, left Germany defenceless and gave Hitler a moral cause.
    • Land Loss: humiliation, against ‘ self-determination ’ and weakened the economy – gave Hitler a moral cause.
    • L of N: an insult, meant Germany was an outcast – led to increased anger against both the Allies and the ‘ November Criminals ’ .
    • Extra: forbidding Anschluss was against ‘ self-determination ’ , made Germany even more Nationalistic.
  • 21. Importance of the Treaty of Versailles
    • B ig Three negotiated Versailles - it had all the authority of the Allies.   Other countries sent delegations to them = an IMPOSED treaty, not a negotiated treaty.
    • O utlined principles (self-determination/Guilt/Army reduced/Reparations/loss of land) - the treaties of St Germain, Neuilly and Trianon were designed by officials who simply copied the principles of Versailles.
    • L eague of Nations was set up by Versailles - set political agenda for next 20 years/ a force for peace/ forerunner of the United Nations of today
    • M ajor Powers - it said how GERMANY was to be treated. Drew the political map of Europe for the next 20 years.
    • A fterwards, Versailles led to Hitler and World War II:
    • Unfairness of Treaty outraged Germans (see above ) and led them to hate the Weimar politicians ('November Criminals' who had 'stabbed the army in the back', and to support Hitler when he promised to overthrow it.
    • Severity of reparations caused 1923 crisis in Germany/ led to Dawes Plan.   Hitler could still get support by promising to stop paying them in 1933.
    • Unfairness of Treaty demoralised Britain and France and gave force to 'appeasers' who thought Hitler's claims were 'reasonable'
    • Failure of US to ratify/support it led to the failure of the LoN and peace.
  • 22. Exam Questions
    • Explain why Germany was made to pay reparations . [6]
    • The following were all equally important reasons why Germany hated the Treaty of Versailles:
    • (i) limitations on its armed forces;
    • (ii) war guilt;
    • (iii) the loss of land.
    • Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer, referring only to (i), (ii) and (iii). [10]
    • This is interchangeable and you could be asked about either of the terms of the treaty. You must fully explain 2 reasons why reparations was enforced.
    • B. Here you must deal with all 3 and you need to compare them. Use your language to make this clear. “ Germany hated the imposing of war guilt most of all the terms of the TofV because... ” “ Although Germany hated losing land because it left them economically weak it was not as humiliating as accepting total blame for the war ” .
  • 23. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]
  • 24. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]
  • 25. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]
  • 26. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]
  • 27. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]
  • 28. The message of this source is... Details in the source which put across this message are... At the time... What is the message of this source? Use details from the source and contextual knowledge to explain your answer. [6]