History GCSE Revision powerpoint


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History GCSE Revision powerpoint

  1. 1. History Revision
  2. 2. German Alliances. <ul><li>Germany was a new country and both wanted and needed friends. </li></ul><ul><li>One of Germany’s aims was to take the British Empire. If they wanted this they would need friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser Wilhelm was leader of German and felt “encircled” by his enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s enemies were Russia and France. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany signed alliances first. As they were signed in secret France and Russia become increasingly suspicious and ended up signing their own treaty. This was called the Franco-Russian agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>The dual alliance was singed in 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>It was between Germany + Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>It was defensive treaty, and was singed in secret. </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>The triple alliance was signed in 1881. </li></ul><ul><li>It was between Germany, Italy and Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>It was also a defensive treaty signed in secret. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Questions <ul><li>Why did Germany start gathering friends? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were Germany’s enemies? </li></ul><ul><li>When was the dual alliance signed? </li></ul><ul><li>When was the triple alliance signed? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was in the dual alliance? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was in the triple alliance? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main features of German alliances. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Splendid Isolation <ul><li>Splendid Isolation is when a country is happy on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Lord Palmerston’s idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain had this policy for over 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1900’s splendid isolation ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain finally realised they may need some allies, just incase war broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>So they signed a treaty with Japan in 1902 which was only to do with trade. </li></ul><ul><li>And the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>Why choose splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>Saved money </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided sending soldiers to help allies. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain was already powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Had a large empire to concentrate one. They had India and the Suez canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Safe on an island with the best navy in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Why leave splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser wanted his “place in the sun.” </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was becoming increasingly jealous of Britain's empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany were building a new navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had been helping the Boers in Africa (GB’s enemies.) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany were forming secret alliances. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Questions. <ul><li>Who’s idea was splendid isolation? How long did splendid isolation last for? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Britain choose splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Britain leave splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Britain leave splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>What did they do when they left splendid isolation? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Splendid isolation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. British Alliances <ul><li>They sign a trade treaty with Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>And the Entente Cordiale with France In 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-Russian agreement was a treaty signed with Russia but again was NOT a defensive treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-Russian Agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms of the treaty were that GB take part of Persia and Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>It meant GB had another ally against Germany. </li></ul>Entente Cordiale. The terms were that GB take Egypt and France take Morocco. Also that both of them would share trading rights around Canada and the far east. It was not a defensive treaty. GB said they had a “moral obligation to help France.” Triple Entente. (GB, France, Russia) Russia joined the Entente after the Kaiser started causing trouble for GB and France in Morocco. Russia also wanted friends to stop the growing German empire spreading into their lands.
  7. 7. Questions <ul><li>Describe the terms of the Entente Cordiale. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the terms of the Anglo-Russian agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the terms of the Triple Entente. </li></ul><ul><li>Why were there two armed camps in Europe In 1914? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main features of British alliances before WW1. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Weltpolitik <ul><li>Weltpolitik means world policy. </li></ul><ul><li>The historian Fritz Fisher thought that the Kaiser had a master plan for Germany’s world domination. </li></ul><ul><li>He thought he would achieve things through imperialism, nationalism and militarism. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was a new country and had only formed in 1871. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser wanted to create a new national pride. </li></ul><ul><li>The national anthem sang about Germans above all others. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser believed in Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest.” </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser wanted: </li></ul><ul><li>his “place in the sun.” </li></ul><ul><li>An empire to rival the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Land in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>A greater empire (trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Von Bulow was the German foreign minister given the job of taking colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve nationalism and imperialism the Kaiser started to build up a stronger army and Navy. </li></ul>REMEMBER! Bismarck the old leader of Germany had followed peaceful policy. The Kaiser had forced him to resign.
  9. 9. Questions <ul><li>What does Weltpolitik mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Fritz Fisher? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Kaiser plan to get Imperialism? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Kaiser plan to get nationalism? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Kaiser get militarism? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main features of German foreign policy. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Naval and Arms Race. <ul><li>The Naval Race. </li></ul><ul><li>The naval race was a race to build dreadnoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>A dreadnought was a special type of battleship designed by British sailor Admiral Fisher. It had thicker armour, more guns and moved faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany passed naval laws in 1898 under the guidance of Admiral Fritz. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain had to build more as they followed the “two power standard.” </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the race, Britain had built 27 and Germany 17. </li></ul><ul><li>The British Public said “we want eight and we wont wait!” </li></ul><ul><li>It caused suspicion and rivalry between GB and Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arms Race </li></ul><ul><li>Germany built the biggest army. They had over 1.2 million men and had brought in conscription. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany spent more than any other country on the military. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser made his first speech to the army. “we were born for each other” </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser is trying to match Bismarck's great victories ( 1870 against France.) </li></ul><ul><li>The Krupp factories were making more weapons than anywhere in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany were stockpiling weapons. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Questions <ul><li>What is a dreadnought and who invented it? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Germany pass naval laws? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Britain follow? </li></ul><ul><li>How many dreadnoughts did both countries build? </li></ul><ul><li>How big was the German Army? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Kaisers first speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Krupp Factories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Moroccan Crisis. (Tangier) <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser wanted his place in the sun and wanted to build an empire In Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to build a port in Morocco at Adigar. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany wanted to test the Entente Cordiale (Britain and France) </li></ul><ul><li>Events: </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser went to Morocco to tell them they would support them if they wanted their freedom from France. This upset the French. At the Algreicas Conference Germany told France they had no right to own Morocco. Everyone their supported France (13 countries). Only Austria Hungary and Germany didn’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Joined the Entente Cordiale. (strengthened) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany now has three enemies. (humiliated) and got NO land in Africa. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Question. <ul><li>Where did Germany want? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did they want to build a naval base? </li></ul><ul><li>Which treaty did Germany want to test? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Kaiser tell Morocco and who did it upset? </li></ul><ul><li>At which conference did Germany tell France they had no right to own Morocco? </li></ul><ul><li>How many countries supported France and which did not? </li></ul><ul><li>Who joined the Entente Cordiale after this? </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Moroccan Crisis (Adigar) <ul><li>The causes were the same as the Tangier crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>Some people attacked the Sultan of Morocco. The French sent troops. Germany sent the Panther (gunboat) to Adigar. There excuse was to protect German businessmen. </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Edward Grey and other GB politicians protested against Germany so that they decided to back down. Germany said that they would back down as long as they could have the Congo. France said no! </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>At the Mansion house speech Britain said that they would not give Germany any land. They said it was a national honour. Germany got swap land. 100,000km2 of the Congo. The Kaiser wanted revenge. But he knew GB and France would stand together. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions. <ul><li>Who did some people attack? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Germany send and where to? </li></ul><ul><li>What was his excuse for doing this? </li></ul><ul><li>Who protested against Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Germany want and what did they get? </li></ul><ul><li>At what speech did Britain say that they would give Germany no land? Which treaty did this strengthen? </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Bosnia Crisis. <ul><li>Causes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnia was a new country and lots of others wanted it . </li></ul><ul><li>Russia wanted it to get access to the Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria Hungary wanted it to expand their empire as they were allowed to by the Treaty Of Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia wanted Bosnia to create a Greater Serbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Events. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia made a secret deal with Austria. Austria got Bosnia and Russia get access to the Mediterranean. But plans leaked. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria took over Bosnia anyways in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia had to deny the secret plans to protect the Slavs that they were supposed to be protecting. </li></ul><ul><li>An international meeting was called to sort it out. Russia wanted a meeting in Vienna but backed out when they found that GB and France would not support them. </li></ul>Results. Austria asked Germany to help. Russia backed down and Austria kept. Serbia begin to make plans to assassinate Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand. THIS LEAD TO WW1!
  17. 17. Questions. <ul><li>Why did others want Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Russia want Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Austria Hungary want Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Serbia want Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Who made a secret deal with who and what did it say? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Austria take Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Russia deny these plans? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Russia back out of a conference in Vienna? </li></ul><ul><li>Who did Austria as for help? </li></ul><ul><li>Who got Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Serbia start doing? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Assassination <ul><li>Austria: </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted a bigger Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought they were the Legitimate rulers of the Balkans. </li></ul><ul><li>Didn’t want other countries getting there freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia: </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamed of Pan-Slavism. (uniting all Slavs) </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamed of a “Greater Serbia” </li></ul><ul><li>Prime minister Pasic wanted to do this through talks. The black hand gang said to do it through Terrorism. </li></ul>What happened…. Archduke Franz Ferdinand from Austria comes to visit his troops of Austria in Bosnia. He goes to the capital Sarajevo with his wife Sophie. It was their wedding anniversary. Gavrillo Princip (Bosnian) has been trained by a terrorist gang called the black hand gang. (Serbia) Colonel Appi (leader of Serbia) wanted to be a part of greater Serbia. There were 8 in the plan of attack but some missed when they threw hand grenades. Ferdinand was in a open top car. And his route published in the local newspaper, the route get changed but nobody told the driver. He was shot in the neck, and his wife in the stomach. She was said to be pregnant.
  19. 19. Questions. <ul><li>Why did Serbia want Bosnia? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Gavrillo Princip? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Black hand gang? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Colonel Appi? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the BHG know where he was going to be? </li></ul><ul><li>Where was he and his wife shot? </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Schlieffen Plan <ul><li>Germany needed a plan to avoid a war on two fronts. They didn’t want to fight France and Russia at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Schlieffen planned to attack France and Russia in six weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>They planned the fall of Paris in 39 days. It was made in 1904, this was long before war broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>Count Von Schlieffen was the man who designed this plan. </li></ul><ul><li>He planned that 90% of the German army would attack France and the rest would attack Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Why did it fail? </li></ul><ul><li>Von Moltke and Von Bulow changed plan at the last minute. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to attack neutral countries like Belgium. GB helped Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Britain’s will go to war for a mere scrap of paper?” </li></ul><ul><li>The BEF slowed them down at the battles of Mons and Marne. </li></ul><ul><li>Belgian Civilians fought back and slowed the Germans down. </li></ul><ul><li>The&quot; Russian Steamroller” got their soldiers ready much quicker than the Germans thought. </li></ul>&quot;Paris for lunch, dinner at St.Petersburg,&quot; Kaiser
  21. 21. Questions. <ul><li>What is a war on two fronts and why is it bad? </li></ul><ul><li>How long did the Germany plan the attack of France and Russia in? </li></ul><ul><li>The fall of Paris in how many days? </li></ul><ul><li>When was the plan made and by who? </li></ul><ul><li>Who changed the plan? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries did Germany have to pass through? </li></ul><ul><li>Who defended Belgium? </li></ul><ul><li>Who slowed down the German army down? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Russian Steamroller surprise the Germans? </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Treaty of Versailles. <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson. (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>From the USA </li></ul><ul><li>Idealist </li></ul><ul><li>Said to be like “Jesus Christ” </li></ul><ul><li>14 point peace plan. (treat Germany fairly) disarmament, free elections and self determination, a free France and no secret treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>USA has only joined in 1917 and only lost 100,000 men. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the USA did not agree with his ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not sign treaty or join the league of nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Lloyd George (GB) </li></ul><ul><li>He was a moderate. (in private) and harsh in public. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted GB to have best navy in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>GB needed a strong Germany to trade with. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a liberal. </li></ul><ul><li>Won election in 1918 for saying that GB would be harsh. (squeeze the German lemon until the pips squeak.) </li></ul><ul><li>Public were saying “hang the Kaiser” </li></ul><ul><li>George Clemenceau (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Said to be like a tiger, he wanted revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>He was 79 and had seen France be invaded twice by Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace treaty was held in France so he was under a huge pressure to make it harsh. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 million cattle had died and France was devastated. </li></ul><ul><li>“ we have won the war now let us win peace” </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted Alsace and Lorraine back. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted Germany to reduce their army an pay damages. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Questions. <ul><li>What did Woodrow Wilson want? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Lloyd George want? </li></ul><ul><li>What did George Clemenceau? </li></ul>Why the pictures?
  24. 24. Terms of the Treaty. <ul><li>Economically. </li></ul><ul><li>Terms were not agreed until 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay reparations of 6,600 million. This led to more taxes for the people of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Forbidden to join with Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost the Saar (coal area) </li></ul><ul><li>Politically. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to accept blame (war guilt clause 231). They said this was unfair. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a dictat they were forced to sign or they were invaded. </li></ul><ul><li>The Kaiser had run away and left others to run the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Militarily. </li></ul><ul><li>No air force or submarines. </li></ul><ul><li>Only allowed an army of 100,000 with NO conscription. </li></ul><ul><li>Only allowed 6 battle ships and 6 cruisers. </li></ul><ul><li>No soldiers in the Rhineland. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of Maxim Machine guns. </li></ul><ul><li>Territorially </li></ul><ul><li>No Anschlus ( joining with Austria) </li></ul><ul><li>France got Alsace and Lorraine. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany lost land to create Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost the Saar and overseas colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost 1 million square miles of land and 6million people. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions. <ul><li>How much did Germany have to pay in reparations? </li></ul><ul><li>What did normal German people have to pay? </li></ul><ul><li>Which rich coal mining area did they loose to France? </li></ul><ul><li>Which war guilt said that Germany had to take the blame for the war. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a diktat? </li></ul><ul><li>What size army were Germany able to have? </li></ul><ul><li>How many battle ships and cruisers are they allowed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Anschlus? </li></ul><ul><li>Which to places were returned to France? </li></ul><ul><li>How much land and how many people did Germany loose? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Who achieved aims: TOV <ul><li>Lloyd George. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain remained having the best Navy in the world, (YES) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany were weak (NO) </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>USA did not sign the treaty because it was too harsh (NO) </li></ul><ul><li>Territory not split up, not self determination (NO) </li></ul><ul><li>George Clemenceau. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had a weak military, lost land and the reparations were too high. (yes) </li></ul><ul><li>If anything the treaty may have been more harsh than they wanted. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reactions: TOV <ul><li>Economically. </li></ul><ul><li>Upsets everyone because they have to pay taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s problems would make them bitter and want revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>France are pleased. </li></ul><ul><li>Politically. </li></ul><ul><li>Upsets everyone because they have to take the blame. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler uses this to get support. </li></ul><ul><li>It was NOT the fair treaty Wilson had talked about. </li></ul><ul><li>Others argued that Russia were forced to sign a harsh treaty (Treaty of Brest-Litvosk) </li></ul><ul><li>Militarily. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany can not defend themselves because their army is too small. </li></ul><ul><li>It helped the rise of Hitler as he offered help In restoring order in Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Territorially </li></ul><ul><li>Upsets Germans who now don’t live in Germany. (6million people) German colonies were just given to GB or France. </li></ul><ul><li>GB and Germany thought it would lead to other wars. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Questions. <ul><li>What did Germany suffer from? </li></ul><ul><li>Who had to pay more taxes? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Germany now want? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Hitler use this to his advantages? </li></ul><ul><li>What did people say about the treaty being too harsh? </li></ul><ul><li>Why could Germany not defend themselves? </li></ul><ul><li>How many people are upset about Germany loosing land the most? </li></ul><ul><li>Who got all of Germany’s colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Who thought it would lead to a future war? </li></ul>
  29. 29. League of Nations. <ul><li>Membership. </li></ul><ul><li>No Germany! They didn’t join until 1926. </li></ul><ul><li>No Russia – communism </li></ul><ul><li>NO USA – Warren Harding did not want to be involved in the “squabbles of Europe.” </li></ul><ul><li>42 members </li></ul><ul><li>GB/FRA main powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Covenant. </li></ul><ul><li>All f the members had to agree for something to go ahead. </li></ul><ul><li>No secret treaties. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Security. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly: met once a year – 42 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Council: 4 members GB/FRA/ITA/JPN. The had the power of VETO! </li></ul><ul><li>Powers </li></ul><ul><li>“ lion without teeth” </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Condemnation: shame people into stopping. </li></ul><ul><li>Enquiry: to find out who had done something wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Sanctions: stop trading with the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Military Force: each country in the league provide soldiers. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Questions <ul><li>Who was not in the League and why? </li></ul><ul><li>How many members in the League? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the major powers? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of the Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of the Council. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the power of VETO and who had the power. </li></ul><ul><li>What was the league often called? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Weaknesses in the League <ul><li>NO USA so no unity. This meant sanction failed and countries outside the league did not fear it. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries were more concerned with their own problems to be worrying about others. </li></ul><ul><li>No countries trusted each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly needed unanimous decisions so not much could be done. </li></ul><ul><li>No nobody would send soldiers. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Manchuria. <ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria because: </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was overpopulated, it didn’t have natural resources and it was suffering from an economic depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan blows up their own railway in a place called Mukden. They blamed this on the Chinese. Japan already has their soldiers on the border of Korean ready to attack Manchuria within 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese committed war crimes, atrocities, they attacked civilians and committed mass murder. Many civilians become refugees. </li></ul><ul><li>The League: </li></ul><ul><li>China appealed to the league for help and the public in England were disgusted by the images they saw. </li></ul><ul><li>A five man commission was sent led by Lord Lytton. They took a year to write the report and they said Japan had no right to invade. They said Manchuria should be free. </li></ul><ul><li>A vote was held. The league voted 40 to 1 condemning the action of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanction started but Japan traded with the USA and GB, as they did not want to upset trade in the far east. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan left the league in 1933 and invaded all of China. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Questions. <ul><li>Why did Japan invade Manchuria? What did Japan do? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the League do about it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who led the 5 man commission? </li></ul><ul><li>How long did they take to write the report? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Japan leave the league and what did they do after? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Abyssinia. <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Italy wants more land </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wants glory. </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinia is weak and fight with cavalry. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wants to re-create the Roman empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge for their loss in the Battle of Adowa in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini wants to be popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Events: </li></ul><ul><li>They claim that Italian soldiers were killed in a fight with Abyssinians at the border of Oasis town Wal Wal. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini sends an invasion force with tanks and gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Their leader Selassi asks for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions of the League </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Condemnation </li></ul><ul><li>1935 debate survey of GB attitudes to the league and collective security. So Sir Samuel Hoare makes a speech promising support. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoare and Laval write a report saying that Italy should get some of Abyssinia, they then resign, The GB public are shocked. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic sanctions fail because GB still trades coal and oil with Italy and they keep the Suez canal open. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone wants to keep Mussolini happy as they think he is a bigger threat than Hitler. </li></ul><ul><li>League votes: 40 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy leave the League. </li></ul><ul><li>They sign the Rome-Berlin axis with Germany. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Questions. <ul><li>What were the causes of the Abyssinian Crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Italy claim? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did they choose Abyssinia to attack? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Samuel Hoare say at the 1935 debate? </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t sanctions work? </li></ul><ul><li>Which treaty is signed after and between who? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hitler’s Aims. <ul><li>Hitler writes all of his aims in a book called Mein Kampf. (my struggle). He wrote this while in Landsburg Prison. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall his aim is to destroy the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>His early speeches in Beer halls were mainly about breaking the treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>A stronger Germany with a greater army and Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>A bigger and better empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to create a 3 rd Reich. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany to be “Self sufficient” </li></ul><ul><li>Lebensraum (living space) </li></ul><ul><li>More Land (EAST) like Poland and Russia (Joseph Stalin) </li></ul><ul><li>Racially cleanse Germany of Slavs and Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>He wants the Aryan Race to be the master race. </li></ul><ul><li>Destroying Jews who are Untermenschen. </li></ul><ul><li>Unite all German speaking People. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted Poland and Czechoslovakia as they were 4 million German speakers there. </li></ul><ul><li>They were 7 million in Austria. </li></ul>&quot;The treaty is worthless&quot;
  37. 37. Questions. <ul><li>What book did Hitler write his aims in and where was it wrote. </li></ul><ul><li>What was his main aim? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Hitler plan to get a Greater Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Hitler plan to get Lebensraum? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Hitler plan to unite all German speaking people? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Rearmament <ul><li>Secretly trains pilots/soldiers and submarine crews. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves the Disarmament conference in 1933. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretly builds 2500 planes </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription and army to 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Publically announces conscription and army to 550,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Signs Anglo Naval agreement, which lets them have 1/3 of GB’s navy size. </li></ul><ul><li>Signs a non-aggression pact with Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was he not stopped? </li></ul><ul><li>Many people in GB thought the treaty was too harsh anyways. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany should be allowed to build an army to protect themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The French wanted to stop Germany but no one would help them. </li></ul><ul><li>When he broke the law he followed in peace. </li></ul><ul><li>10 year non-aggression pact with Poland. This pleased Britain. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Questions. <ul><li>Who does he secretly train? </li></ul><ul><li>Which conference does he leave and when? </li></ul><ul><li>How many planes does he build? </li></ul><ul><li>What does he introduce? </li></ul><ul><li>What does he publically announce? </li></ul><ul><li>What pact does he sign and who with? </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t Britain stop him? </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t France stop him? </li></ul><ul><li>What pleased GB? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Saar and the Rhineland. <ul><li>Hitler wants land back that the Treaty of Versailles took from him. </li></ul><ul><li>He gets this back by doing things slowly and one at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The Saar. </li></ul><ul><li>The Saar Is a coal mining area in Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>It was ruled by the League of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler gets a Nazi called Spaniol to organise riots. This gets 15,000 people to say they want to be part of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>They hold a plebicde and 90.75% say they want to be a part of Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhineland. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rhineland was a demilitarised zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler sends 32,000 soldiers and police in there. </li></ul><ul><li>He says that this Is his “greatest gamble” this is because France could stop him with his army. </li></ul><ul><li>France and GB lat him do it. </li></ul><ul><li>They say he is “marching in his own backyard” </li></ul><ul><li>Plus they are more worried about what Mussolini is doing. </li></ul>Why wasn’t he stopped? GB thought the treaty was too harsh. He was just getting their own land back. Mussolini was seen to be a bigger threat. France felt safe behind a Maginot Line. GB was still recovering from a depression.
  41. 41. Questions. <ul><li>Why did Hitler want the Saar back? </li></ul><ul><li>Who does he get to organize riots? </li></ul><ul><li>How many people wanted to join back with Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the result of the Plebiscite (vote)? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Rhineland? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Hitler send to the Rhineland? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were people more worried about? </li></ul><ul><li>Why wasn’t he stopped? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Austria. <ul><li>One of Hitler’s aims was to unite all German speaking people. There were 7 million German speakers in Austria. Hitler wanted to join Germany with Austria. Hitler had tried to join with Austria before but Mussolini had protected them. Now that the Rome-Berlin axis had been signed Hitler was confident he could do what he wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler gave Austria a list of 10 demands. </li></ul><ul><li>He demanded that Seyss-Inquart should be given a top job In Austria (he was a Nazi) </li></ul><ul><li>A Plebiscite was held, but Hitler could not be sure he would get the result he wanted. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hitler said they shouldn’t be a plebiscite and Schuschnigg should resign. </li></ul><ul><li>If nothing happened Germany said they would attack Austria. </li></ul><ul><li>Schuschnigg resigned. </li></ul><ul><li>German troops came in march 1938., </li></ul><ul><li>Austria became part of the German Greater Reich. </li></ul><ul><li>Why wasn’t he stopped? </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini did nothing as expected. </li></ul><ul><li>GB and France only verbally protested. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was Austrian </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty was too harsh. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Questions. <ul><li>Why did Germany want Austria? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Germany think they could get away with invading Austria this time? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Seyss Inquart? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Hitler not want a plebiscite to be held? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Germany threaten Austria? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Schussing do? </li></ul><ul><li>When did the Germans come to Austria? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Austria become part of? </li></ul><ul><li>Why wasn’t Hitler stopped? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Appeasement. <ul><li>Appeasement was Neville Chamberlain’s idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Started during the 1930’s with Anschlus. </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain was a liberal who wanted a batter life for ordinary workers. </li></ul><ul><li>It was an idea of negotiation to avoid future wars. </li></ul><ul><li>For. </li></ul><ul><li>GB was not ready to fight. Over 900,000 mean died in ww1. </li></ul><ul><li>GB public did not want another war. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1930 GB has no allies, so would have to fight alone. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong Germany meant a barrier between Europe and the communism in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Against. </li></ul><ul><li>It encouraged Hitler to take more. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler made his aims clear in Mein Kampf so why didn’t anyone listen? </li></ul><ul><li>It have Hitler time to get more powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>It made the French and British look weak and powerless. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Questions. <ul><li>Who’s idea was appeasement? </li></ul><ul><li>When did it start? </li></ul><ul><li>What did NC want? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the main idea of Appeasement? </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments for…. </li></ul><ul><li>Arguments against….. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Sudeten Crisis <ul><li>It showed appeasement in action. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler said he wanted the Sudeten Land to reunite all German speaking people. However he was also interested in coal mines, iron ore factories and armament. </li></ul><ul><li>7 th September. </li></ul><ul><li>German Sudeten party demanded to join Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Sudedtenlanders were led by Nazi Konrad Henlein he was organizing riots. </li></ul><ul><li>German newsreels showed Czechs atrocities against Sudeten Germans. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler threatened to support them with military force. </li></ul><ul><li>15 September. </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain met Hitler at Berchtesgaden. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler promised that it was the “last problem to be solved” </li></ul><ul><li>And Chamberlain said that Hitler was “ a man who could be relied upon.” </li></ul><ul><li>22 nd September </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain met with Hitler at Bad Godesberg. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler made more demands. At first he refused but then decided that the Czechs were not a “great issue” which justified war. But just a “quarrel in a far away country.” </li></ul><ul><li>29 th September </li></ul><ul><li>GB and France meet Hitler and make a fact at Munich. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany got the Sudeten Land. </li></ul>1 st October. 1938 Hitler marched unopposed into the Sudeten Land.
  47. 47. Questions. <ul><li>What is the S.Crisis an example of? </li></ul><ul><li>Which aim was this crisis fulfilling? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Hitler interested in? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did Hitler meet Chamberlain on the 15 th September and what was said? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Chamberlain and Hitler meet at Bad Godesberg? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Hitler march into the Sudetenland? </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Munich Agreement. <ul><li>Chamberlain was seen as saviour because he had stopped war. However Churchill anted to do things differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Just a squabble in a far away country. </li></ul><ul><li>GB was not ready for war. The agreement would buy us time. </li></ul><ul><li>Appease Hitler and avoid another Great war. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a barrier against communism. </li></ul><ul><li>What? </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini organised a meeting and made sure Hitler got all of the Sudetenland and the Czechs were not consulted. </li></ul><ul><li>Success or Failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people thought that it encouraged him to keep taking more. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler “they are little worms I saw them at Munich” </li></ul><ul><li>German people thought it was a success. </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill “ we have suffered a total defeat” </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler said he had no more interest in Europe. British Public: yes 7% no 93% </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the people thought it was goo that we have avoided another war. </li></ul><ul><li>Looking with Hindsight we can see it was a bad idea. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Questions <ul><li>Describe Churchill, and Chamberlains views on Appeasement. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was it signed? </li></ul><ul><li>What did it say? Who organised the meeting? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Hitler say about GB and France? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the vote show and what were the results? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking back with hindsight what can we say? </li></ul>
  50. 50. 1939 And The Collapse Of Czechoslovakia. <ul><li>These things made war more likely: </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain realised appeasement would no longer work. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler signed the pact of steel. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler cancelled the non-aggression pact and the Naval agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain signed a treaty with Poland to protect their neutrality. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Munich agreement Hitler had signed the “Piece of Paper” with Chamberlain. It said that he would not demand anything else. </li></ul><ul><li>President Hacha (Czech) was forced to invite Hitler and his army into the country. This marked the end of Czechoslovakia. Hitler had also broke the promise to Chamberlain. He felt Hitler had lied to him and that he would have to be stopped another way. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time as invading the Czechs Hitler signed the pact of steel with Mussolini. It promised that they would support each other if one was in a war. This friendship gave Hitler the confidence to take more land. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler cancelling the naval agreement worried a lot of people in GB. It was obvious Hitler was about to take more land. </li></ul><ul><li>After seeing everything Chamberlain signed a pact with Poland. He knew Hitler would attack Poland next so by signing the treaty he knew that GB would be going to war. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Questions <ul><li>What happened to make war more likely? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the “piece of paper” say? </li></ul><ul><li>Who has the president of Czechoslovakia, and what was he forced to do? </li></ul><ul><li>When did Chamberlain realise that appeasement was not going to work? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the pact of steel and how did it make Hitler feel? </li></ul><ul><li>Which pacts and agreements did Hitler cancel? </li></ul><ul><li>Who did GB sign a treaty with and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the treaty guarantee? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Russia and Poland. <ul><li>The Role Of The USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Russia was a communist country and was led by Joseph. </li></ul><ul><li>They felt alone as GB did not like communism. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Halifax refused to meet Stalin, we didn’t like communist countries. </li></ul><ul><li>They were also scared as they knew Hitler wanted to take land in the east. </li></ul><ul><li>They needed a friend to buy them time. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi Soviet Pact </li></ul><ul><li>This treaty was between Russia and Germany it shocked a lot of people. </li></ul><ul><li>It said that neither country could war with each other. Secretly they also planned to share Poland. </li></ul><ul><li>This gave Hitler a lot of confidence to take Poland and plan to take France. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany were shocked when Britain declared war on them after they invaded Poland. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Questions. <ul><li>Who led Russia and what kind of country were they? </li></ul><ul><li>What did lord Halifax refuse to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were Russia scared? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the Nazi Soviet Pact surprise people? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the pact say? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Hitler now have confidence to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Germany surprised by GB’s declaration? </li></ul>