Nazi Germany

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Nazi Germany

  1. 1. GERMANY 1918-1936 <ul><li>1918 Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the Treaty of Versailles (1919-21) </li></ul><ul><li>Troubles of the early Weimar Republic (1921-23) </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery of the Stresseman era (1923-29) </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of the Great Depression (1929-1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of National Socialism (1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler in power (1933) </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazi dictatorship (1934-36) </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Qn1: What does Source A tell you about Germany in 1918? (5) 30 Oct Naval muntiny in Kiel 9 Nov Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated 10 Nov Social Democratic Party set up German Republic in Weimar 11 Nov Friedrich Ebert signed armistice with France Source A
  3. 3. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Qn2: How does Source B help you understand why Germany was displeased with the Treaty of Versailles? (6) Source B
  4. 4. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship <ul><li>Why the resentment? </li></ul><ul><li>Diktat was humiliating </li></ul><ul><li>War guilt clause was blank cheque </li></ul><ul><li>Military caps left Germany vulnerable to invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations further impoverished Germany </li></ul><ul><li>No self-determination for Germans in territories lost </li></ul><ul><li>Military was back-stabbed by “November criminals” (Socialists) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship 1. Weakness 0f the Constitution of the Weimar Republic <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>All Germans can vote </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential veto </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Equal votes = attacks from left & right </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions = weak government </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential veto = dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of men from 2 nd Reich </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship 2. Hassled from the Right: Freikorps & the Kapp Putsch 3. Weakened from reparations: Hyperinflation <ul><li>Explain the effects of hyperinflation on: </li></ul><ul><li>An ex-solider on army pension </li></ul><ul><li>A businessman in debt </li></ul><ul><li>A retiree living on savings </li></ul><ul><li>A factory worker paid daily wages </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship <ul><li>5. Invaded by France & Belgium: Occupation of the Ruhr & German passive resistance </li></ul><ul><li>6. Challenged from within: The Munich “Beer Hall” Putsch </li></ul><ul><li>Angry with November criminals of Weimar Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Confident with General Ludendorff’s support from the military </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged by right-wing leaders in the Bavaria government </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Mussolini’s March on Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Furious with Stresseman’s end of passive resistance </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Sep 1919: Hitler joins German Worker’s Party in Munich Feb 1920: renamed National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) Aug 1921: set up Sturm Abteilung (SA) or Stormtroopers under Ernst Rohm 9 Nov 1923: Attempted Munich “Beer Hall” putsch, Mein Kampf in Lansberg 1926: Relaunch party, set up interest groups, mass military rallies
  9. 9. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship
  10. 10. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship <ul><li>Gustav Stresseman (Chancellor, 1923; Foreign Minister 1924-29) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Rentenmark </li></ul><ul><li>Ended Ruhr strikes, </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated Dawes Plan 1924: US loan of 800 million marks </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged evacuation of French & Belgian troops in 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Signed Locarno Treaties with Britain, France & Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Admitted Germany into the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Signed Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 with 64 other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Young’s Plan of 1929: reduced reparations by 67% </li></ul>Qn5: Why did Germany experience economic recovery between 1924-1929? (12)
  11. 11. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship
  12. 12. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Qn6: The effects of the Great Depression on Germany was the most important reason for the growing popularity of the Nazi party. How far do you agree? (13)
  13. 13. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Qn7: What does Source G tell you about Germany between 1928 and 1932? (5) Source G
  14. 14. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship <ul><li>Hitler’s Strategies to win votes (1929-1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda 2. Pragmatism 3. Promises 4. Personality 5. Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s Steps to gain power (1932-1933) </li></ul><ul><li>Mar 32 Presidential Elections: Hindenburg 19.4 mil votes vs Hitler 13.4 mil votes </li></ul><ul><li>May 32 Fall of Bruning (Centre Party): appointment of Franz von Papen </li></ul><ul><li>Jul 32 Reichstag elections: Nazis won 230 seats, no majority, Hitler walked-out </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 32 2 nd Reichstag elections: Nazis 196 seats, von Papen vs von Schleicher </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 33 Hindenburg appoints Hitler as Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s Schemes to consolidate power (1933-1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 33 Reichstag Fire: banned Communists, gained Emergency powers </li></ul><ul><li>Mar 33 Enabling Act: banned trade unions, destroyed SDP & KPD </li></ul><ul><li>Jun 34 Night of Long Knives: destroyed Rohms & SA through SS </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 34 Death of Hindenburg: Hitler as Fuhrer & Reich Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Established police state: SS (Schutzstaffel) & Gestapo </li></ul>Qn8: Why was the Nazi Party able to win the support of the German people between 1924-1932? (12) Qn9: The threat from the Communists was the most important reason for Hitler’s rise to dictatorship. How far do you agree? (13)
  15. 15. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Reichstag, Berlin
  16. 16. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Brandenburg Gate, Berlin
  17. 17. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Deutsches Stadion, Reichsparteitagsgelande, Nuremburg, Bavaria
  18. 18. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Luitpoldarena, Nuremburg, Bavaria
  19. 19. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship <ul><li>Propaganda in the Nazi State </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following methods of propaganda has the greatest effect? </li></ul><ul><li>The press </li></ul><ul><li>The radio </li></ul><ul><li>The cinema </li></ul><ul><li>Rallies </li></ul><ul><li>Posters </li></ul><ul><li>Economy in the Nazi State </li></ul><ul><li>How effective are the following measures in solving economic problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Service Corps </li></ul><ul><li>Public Works </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription and rearmament </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of Jews, women </li></ul>1934-37: Hjalmar Schacht – autarky 1937-45: Hermann Goering - armament
  20. 20. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Education in the Nazi State
  21. 21. 1918 Revolution Effects of Versailles Treaty Troubles of early Weimar Republic Recovery of Stresseman era Onset of Great Depression Rise of National Socialism Hitler in power The Nazi dictatorship Jews in the Nazi State 1933: boycott Jewish shops, Jews sacked, burning of Jewish books 1934: banned Jews from public places, 1935: Nuremburg Laws – lost citizenship, right to vote, right of marriage 1936: ? 1937: Jewish business confiscated 1938: compulsory registration, exclusion from school, expulsion to Poland November pogrom – arrest of 30,000 wealthy Jews Reich Kristallnacht – Crystal Night
  22. 22. Opernplatz, Berlin Humbolt University, Berlin
  23. 23. Kristallnacht at the Neue Synagogue, Oranienburg, Berlin
  24. 24. Dachau, Bavaria
  25. 25. Haus der Wannsee Conferenz, Berlin
  26. 26. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  27. 27. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  28. 28. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  29. 29. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  30. 30. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  31. 31. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  32. 32. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  33. 33. Auschwitz-Birkenau
  34. 34. Auschwitz-Birkenau

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