WWI Part I Objectives• Be able to identify characteristics of Europe in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.• Be able to identify the main causes of WWI and how they led to war.• Be able to identify the countries of Europe during WWI and what alliance they belonged to.• Be able to explain what and where the Powderkeg of Europe is and why it was called that.• Be able to identify the event that started WWI.• Be able to identify Germany’s war plan.• Be able to identify the goals of the war for countries involved.• Be able to describe what fighting was like in WWI.
Governments in Europe in the Early 1900’s• England and France were democratic• Germany and Austria-Hungary appeared to be democratic but were really authoritarian• Russia had a Czar(Tsar)• Socialism was attracting many poor people• -opposed nationalism• -wanted to unite workers• -wanted peace and arms reduction• -wanted equality of people• Radical socialists called for a violent overthrow of the government
Characteristics of Europe Late 1800’s and Early 1900’s• very nationalistic• willing to go to war to protect interests and national honor• industrialization was occurring• population was increasing• people were moving from rural areas to the city• due to the speed of change, traditional values and religion became less important• propaganda was common• democratic governments increased• more people could vote(the poor)• educating the masses was important
Crisis and Wars in Europe in late 1800’s and early 1900’s• Austria-Hungary lost a war to France in 1848• Austria-Hungary lost a war to Prussia in 1866• Germany defeats France in the Franco-Prussian War(1870- 1871) -Germany receives Alsace-Lorraine from France• United States defeats Spain in the Spanish-American War(1898)• Japan defeats Russia in the Russo-Japanese War(1904-05)• France and Germany almost go to war over Morroco(1905& 1911)• The Pig War between Austria-Hungary and Serbia• -a economic war not military
• wealth and power was in the hands of a small percentage of the population• many people were in poverty• due to poverty, many people turned to labor unions and socialism• countries competed with one another for markets, raw materials and colonies• countries also traded a lot with each other• imperialism became common a. created “spheres of influence” in Africa and Asia• alliances developed – Triple Alliance 1. Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy – Triple Entente 1. Great Britain, France & Russia• armies and navies were built up(militarism)• Look at map of Europe in 1914
• Italy defeats Turkey in the Tripolitanian War(1911)• The Balkan League(Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Greece) defeated the Ottoman Empire(Turkey) in the First Balkan War(1912)• Serbia and Greece defeat Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War(1913)
Causes of WWI• Causes of WWI online lesson - learning objectives – School History.co.uk• Causes of World War I
• An arms race began with all countries following Germany’s lead of a large army and navy and war plans and strategies• It was very common for armies to double in size in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s• Navies also increased quickly in size, especially Great Britain —built the Dreadnaught
Nationalism• Swept through Europe in the mid to late 1800’s• Italy unified in 1861• Germany unified in 1871• France losing Alsace-Lorraine in 1871 to Germany caused much tension between the two countries—France wanted revenge.• The Balkan Peninsula had many ethnic groups who were nationalistic toward their ethnic group not their country
Economic Competition• Great Britain, France and Germany (among others) were competing worldwide for colonies, natural resources, and markets• See Africa and Asian map
Alliances• World War I was caused in part by the two opposing alliances developed by Bismarck(German) after the Franco-Prussian War(1871).• In order to isolate France, Bismarck formed the Three Emperors League in 1872, an alliance between Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.• When the French occupied Tunisia(in Africa), Bismarck took advantage of Italy’s distrust of France and created the Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria- Hungary in 1882.• In exchange for Italys agreement to stay neutral if war broke out between Austria-Hungary and Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary would protect Italy from France.• Russia and Austria-Hungary grew suspicious of each other over conflicts in the Balkans in 1887, but Bismarck repaired the damage to his alliances with a Reinsurance Treaty with Russia, allowing both powers to stay neutral if the other was at war.
• However, after Bismarck was fired by Kaiser William II in 1890, the traditional dislike of Slavs kept Bismarcks successors from renewing the understanding with Russia.• France took advantage of this opportunity to get an ally, and the Franco- Russian Entente was formed in 1891.• As a result, Britain and France formed the Entente Cordiale in 1904.• Russia formed an Entente with Britain in 1907 due to German actions• The Triple Entente, an alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia, now countered the Triple Alliance.• International tension was greatly increased by the division of Europe into two armed camps.
Austria-Hungary• -it was a multi-national dual monarchy• -it had eleven major ethnic groups• -Austrians and Hungarians were the two largest - both made up less than 50% of the population• -many different languages, religions and customs• -The government hated nationalism. Why?• -The government despised Serbians and Serbia -“The Serbian Menace”• -Serbia wanted to make the Serbians living in Austria- Hungary, part of a “Greater Serbia”• -The Black Hand was created in Serbia.• -secret organization whose goal it was to unite all Serbs by any means necessary• -Gavrilo Princip killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophia in Sarajevo igniting WWI
Chain of Events• A. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.• B. Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia.• C. Serbia refuses to accept ultimatum.• D. Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.• 1. Only after Germany gives them a promise• of support.• E. Russia mobilizes to support Serbia.• F. Germany declares war on Russia.• 1. Hoped to knock Russia out of war quickly• to avoid a two-fronted war?• a. Why would Germany want to avoid a• two-fronted war.• G. France enters war to help Russia.• H. Great Britain enters war to help France after• Germany attacks France through neutral• Belgium
This collection of items from World War 1 illustrates the nature of life and war inthe trenches. Water bottles and a pistol for firing signal flares sit alongside itemsfrom the offensive side of trench warfare. From left to right, a trench club, abayonet, a British No.2 Hales percussion grenade, three types of rifle grenade, aBritish No.36 hand grenade (also known as a Mills Bomb) and an early gas mask.The No.2 Hales grenade has cloth streamers fitted to the rear of the handle tomake sure that the front end of the grenade, where the percussion fuse is located,hits the target first, so setting it off. The rifle grenades are of the rod type. Byfiting the rod into the muzzle of a rifle and firing a blank cartridge, it could belaunched a considerable distance, again with a percussion fuse. The Mills bombis time fused, triggered by pulling out the safety pin and releasing the lever.
• Gas was invented (and very successfully used) as a terror weapon meant to instill confusion and panic among the enemy prior to an offensive. It was a sort of physiological weapon with the non-lethal tearing agents inflicting as much panic as the dreaded mustard gas. Gas was available in three basic varieties:• Lachrymator (tearing agent) – Much like todays tear gas and mace, this gas caused temporary blindness and greatly inflamed the nose and throat of the victim. A gas mask offered very good protection from this type of gas. *Asphyxiant – These are the poisonous gases. This class includes chlorine, phosgene and diphosgene. Chlorine inflicts damage by forming hydrochloric acid when coming in contact with moisture such as found in the lungs and eyes. It is lethal at a mix of 1:5000 (gas/air) whereas phosgene is deadly at 1:10,000 (gas/air) - twice as toxic! Diphosgene, first used by the Germans at Verdun on 22-Jun-1916, was deadlier still and could not be effectively filtered by standard issue gas masks.• Blistering Agent – Dichlorethylsulphide: the most dreaded of all chemical weapons in World War I - mustard gas. Unlike the other gases which attack the respiratory system, this gas acts on any exposed, moist skin. This includes, but is not limited to, the eyes, lungs, armpits and groin. A gas mask could offer very little protection. The oily agent would produce large burn-like blisters wherever it came in contact with skin. It also had a nasty way of hanging about in low areas for hours, even days, after being dispersed. A soldier jumping into a shell crater to seek cover could find himself blinded, with skin blistering and lungs bleeding.
Tanks• British “Little Willie” Tank • French Renault Light Tank
WWI War Goals• There weren’t any real goals at first, but as time went on and casualties and costs increased, winning territory was a must.• France• -regain Alsace and Lorraine from Germany• -get the Saar Basin from Germany(rich in coal)• -create and independent Rhineland to create a buffer area between France and Germany• -cripple Germany’s military• -get German colonies in Africa• -get Turkish colonies in the Mid-East• Great Britain• -get German colonies in Africa• -get Turkish colonies in the Mid-East• Italy• -wanted land from Austria-Hungary
• Russia• -wanted control of the Dardenelle and Bosporus Straits in Turkey• Austria-Hungary• -self preservation• Germany• -wanted part of France• -wanted Luxembourg and Belgium• -wanted most of western Russia• -make Austria-Hungary and the Balkans a “sphere of influence”• -take over French and British colonies in Africa• United States• -win and end the war• -Wilson’s 14 Points
WWI Part 2 Objectives-US Involvement• Be able to identify the US policy that Wilson declared when WWI broke out in 1914.• Be able to identify why the US was drawn into war and why we drew closer to the Allied Powers.• Be able to analyze WWI propaganda, identify it goals and evaluate the effectiveness of it.• Be able to identify how the convoy system works and the effectiveness of it.• Be able to identify the importance of key people: Woodrow Wilson, Charles Evans Hughes, John Pershing, Ferdinand Foch, Bernard Baruch, Herbert Hoover, George Creel.• Be able to identify the costs of the war: US and grand total.• Be able to identify the actions we took at home to mobilize our country for war.
Causes for U.S. involvement in WWI1. U.S. very upset with both sides in war. -G.B. and Germany were both stopping U.S. ships -Eventually, U.S. drew closer to war and the Allies. WHY? • German sinking of British ships and killing of U.S. citizens a. Lusitania, Arabic, Sussex
3. The Zimmermann Note• was a coded telegram sent by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917• It was sent to the German ambassador in the United States of America, Johann von Bernstorff, at the height of World War I.• The note was intercepted and decoded by the British cryptographers.• The contents of the letter was given to the American press on March 1.• Caused public outrage that contributed to the United States declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 1917.
• Zimmermanns message was:• On the first of February, we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep the United States of America neutral.• In the event of this not succeeding, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and make peace together. We shall give generous financial support, and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details of settlement are left to you.• You are instructed to inform the President [of Mexico] of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence with this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Japan and ourselves.• Please call to the attention of the President that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England to make peace in a few months.
• In summary, Germany tried to get Mexico to declare war on the United States.• Germany promised Mexico that they would get the Mexican Cession back if they won• Germany wanted to keep the US out of Europe
• 4. Beliefs of War Hawks a. Teddy Roosevelt• 5. Trade with England increased,Germany decreased as years went on. a. $3 billion in 1916 with England6. British and American Propaganda7. Preparedness Program (1915) a. U.S. started arming and preparing for war
8. American Business a. munitions business pushed U.S. into war to make money9. German declaration of “unlimited submarine warfare”. a. Ties with #1
Sussex Pledge• President Wilson addressed Congress in April and issued an ultimatum to the Germans: End the attack on unarmed ships or risk the severing of diplomatic relations.• Germany responded to Wilsons demands on May 4, 1916 with what is called the "Sussex Pledge." German submarine policy would henceforth be governed by promises to: – end the sinking of passenger ships – search merchant ships for contraband and make provisions for passengers and crews before sinking merchant ships• The German guarantees were generally honored until the announcement of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917.
Propaganda• What were the goals of propaganda during WWI?• Read Propaganda Packet
The Homefront• Refers to what people did back in the US to help win the war• Every country has their own Homefront
War Industries Board• headed by Bernard Baruch• regulated industry in U.S.• encourages mass production• Under the War Industries Board, industrial production in the U.S. increased 20 percent
Food Administration• headed by Herbert Hoover• urged people to conserve food• Had “meatless days” and “wheatless days” .• “victory gardens” were planted by schools and homes• Prevented hoarding of food by people• "Food is Ammunition- Dont waste it."
Committee on Public Information• Goal was to influence U.S. public opinion to support World War I in their own way.• Had a huge propaganda campaign to do so• The committee used newsprint, posters, radio, telegraph and movies to broadcast its message• Americanized German words: -German Measles-liberty measles -hamburger liberty steak -sauerkraut-liberty cabbage
• Over There Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, On the run, on the run. Hear them calling, you and me, Every son of liberty. Hurry right away, No delay, go today, Make your daddy glad To have had such a lad. Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boys in line. (chorus sung twice) Johnnie, get your gun, Get your gun, get your gun, Johnnie show the Hun Whos a son of a gun. Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, Show your grit, do your bit. Yankee to the ranks, From the towns and the tanks. Make your mother proud of you, And the old Red, White and Blue. (chorus sung twice) Chorus Over there, over there, Send the word, send the word over there - That the Yanks are coming, The Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming Evrywhere. So prepare, say a prayr, Send the word, send the word to beware. Well be over, were coming over, And we wont come back till its over Over there.
National War Labor Board• Settled disputes between workers and employers• discouraged strikes• “work or fight”• Headed by William H. Taft
WWI Part 3 The Peace Process• Be able to define what the Paris Peace Conference was.• Be able to describe Wilson’s 14 Points.• Be able to describe the Treaty of Versailles in detail and the impact it had on Germany and Europe.• Be able to describe why the US never ratified the Treaty of Versailles.
The Paris Peace Conference• The meeting of the Allied victors following the end of WWI to set the peace terms for Germany and other defeated nations, and to deal with the empires of the defeated powers following the Armistice of 1918.• It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 29 countries.• They came up with a series of treaties ("Peace of Paris Treaties") that reshaped the map of Europe and the world and imposed guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany.
Wilson’s 14 Points• The Fourteen Points was a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918.• The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War(WWI) was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe.• Other Allied countries did not like the 14 Points as they thought it was too easy on Germany.• The speech became the basis for the terms of the German surrender, as negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.• The actual Treaty of Versailles had little to do with the Fourteen Points and so was never ratified by the U.S. Senate.
Wilson’s 14 Points• 1. An end to secret treaties•• 2. Freedom of the seas•• 3. Free trade for all countries•• 4. Disarmament•• 5. End to colonial claims•• 6. Self-determination for all countries- Russia•
• 7. Restoration of Belgium•• 8. Restoration of France•• 9. Readjustment of Italy’s boundaries•• 10. Austria- Hungary would be given opportunity for autonomous development•
• 11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated and restored•• 12. Turkey should be sovereign (independent)•• 13. Poland would be given their independence•• 14. The “League of Nations” would be developed
Treaty of Versailles• Territorial• The following land was taken away from Germany :• Alsace-Lorraine (given to France)• Eupen and Malmedy (given to Belgium)• Northern Schleswig (given to Denmark)• Hultschin (given to Czechoslovakia)• West Prussia, Posen and Upper Silesia (given to Poland)• The Saar, Danzig and Memel were put under the control of the League of Nations and the people of these regions would be allowed to vote to stay in Germany or not in a future referendum.• The League of Nations also took control of Germanys overseas colonies.• Germany had to return to Russia land taken in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Some of this land was made into new states : Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. An enlarged Poland also received some of this land
Treaty of Versailles• Military• Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men; the army was not allowed tanks• Germany was not allowed an airforce• Germany was allowed only 6 capital naval ships and no submarines• The west of the Rhineland and 50 kms east of the River Rhine was made into a demilitarized zone (DMZ). No German soldier or weapon was allowed into this zone. The Allies were to keep an army of occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Treaty of Versailles• Financial• The loss of vital industrial territory would be a severe blow to Germany’s economy. Coal from the Saar and Upper Silesia in particular was a vital economic loss.• Combined with the financial penalties linked to reparations($33 billion), it seemed clear to Germany that the Allies wanted nothing else but to bankrupt them.• Germany was also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one superstate.
Treaty of Versailles• General• 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war. This was Clause 231 - the infamous "War Guilt Clause".• 2. Germany, as it was responsible for starting the war as stated in clause 231, was therefore responsible for all the war damage caused by the First World War. Therefore, they had to pay reparations, the bulk of which would go to France and Belgium to pay for the damage done to both countries by the war. The figure was eventually put at $33 billion .• 3. A League of Nations was set up to keep world peace.
League of Nations• -Five permanent members• -G.B., France, Italy, U.S., Japan• -Four non-permanent members that rotated• -all members must submit disputes for investigation, arbitration and settlement• -if member nation ignored, League could take action• What type of action? – Economic sanctions• -France wanted an international army but US and GB did not• -Germany and the Soviet Union were not allowed to join right away• -U.S. never joined
Other Treaties• Austria-Hungary no longer existed – Austria • wanted to be part of Germany – Hungary – Czechoslovakia • lots of Germans in the Sudetenland area – Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) • formed from Serbia, Montenegro and part of A-H• All these countries were small and weak and could easily be taken over.• Germany had to give land back to Russia from Brest-Litovsk Treaty – due to Civil War, Bolsheviks could not deal with this at the time so Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ukraine became independent• Turkey lost all it’s Middle Eastern colonies – Syria and Jordan went to France – Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq went to GB – Saudi Arabia became independent• Turkey did become a republic(democracy) after WW I
The Consequences of Versailles• the Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" as in their eyes it was a just peace as it kept Germany weak yet strong enough to stop the spread of communism; kept the French border with Germany safe from another German attack and created the League of Nations that would end warfare throughout the world.• left a mood of anger throughout Germany as it was felt that as a nation Germany had been unfairly treated.• Above all else, Germany hated the clause blaming them for the cause of the war and the war reparations the treaty forced on them. Those who signed it became known as the "November Criminals".• Many German citizens felt that they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in August 1914 as it was the government that had declared war not the people.
Reaction to the WWI Treaties• United States• -thought they were pulled in by France and Great Britain• -thought it became a war of spoils• -wanted to go back to isolationism- “A return to normalcy”• Great Britain• -treaties were too harsh• -had less guaranteed Allies• -wanted to forgive and forget with Germany-start trading• -gave greater independence to colonies throughout world• -Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India
• France• -very unhappy-physically destroyed, high casualties• -treaties were way too easy• -upset that the US and GB pulled out of the Guarantee Treaty• -made defensive alliances with Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia• Italy• -mad at the Allies for not giving them more land• Russia• -mad that they lost land and were not invited to the treaty process• -distrusted Western Powers• -not invited to be in League of Nations
• Japan• -very pleased with WW I results• -gained important territories on China’s coast and German Islands in the Pacific – the major power in Asia after WW I• Germany• -very upset with treaty-way too harsh and unfair• -believed treaty was a dictat or dictated peace• -thought Allies were hypocritical(self-determination?)• -outraged by the War Guilt Clause• -started Dolschtoss Theory(Stab in the back) – says that the Weimer Republic had stabbed the German people in the back by accepting the Versailles terms – Germany had never been invaded or conquered• -War reparations were way too high-caused a depression• -caused some people to want revenge!
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?• The League of Nations was to be created. This did happen even if Germany was initially excluded from it.• Land had to be handed over the Poland, France, Belgium and Denmark. This did happen - all the land Germany was required to hand over, was handed over. Territory put under League of Nations control was handed over to the League.• All overseas colonies were to be handed over to the League. This did happen.• All land taken from Russia had to be handed back to Russia. This did happen though land in the western area became Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in keeping with the belief in national self-determination.• Germany’s army had to be reduced to 100,000 men. On paper this happened. The fact that Germany side-stepped the rule did not mean that they broke it. German soldiers in the 1920’s were signed on for a short contract of service and then put in the reserves once their time had finished. Therefore, Germany never had more than 100,000 soldiers serving at any one time though it certainly had substantial reserve soldiers which boosted Hitler when he renounced the clauses of Versailles.
Were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles actually carried out ?• Germany’s navy was reduced to 6 battleships with no submarines. This happened. Germany could not afford battleships in the aftermath of the war and most navies were now moving to smaller, faster ships that could also carry weapons that carried a punch - such as cruisers. Aircraft carriers were also being developed with greater commitment.• No air force was allowed. This happened but potential pilots were trained abroad or used gliders in Germany to educate them in the theory of flying. This did not break Versailles.• Western Germany was to be demilitarized. This happened.• Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria. This happened.• Germany had to accept the "War Guilt Clause" and pay reparations. The former happened because Germany signed the Treaty which meant that it accepted this term on paper. Germany did try and pay reparations when it could do so. Germany simply could not produce enough to keep up. In the 1920’s it was the Allies who took the decision to reduce reparations and eased Germany’s struggle in so doing. The first instance of refusal to pay reparations came in 1933 when Hitler announced that Germany would not pay - and the Allies did nothing.
Treaty of Versailles Questions• The Germans had hoped to be consulted on the terms of Versailles. This did not happen. Is this why the Germans were so angry about the Treaty of Versailles?• Article 231 is referred to as the "War Guilt Clause". Why were the Germans particularly angered by this Article?• There were 5 peace settlements in 1919. Why was Versailles more important than others?• Why was there so much opposition in Germany to the Treaty of Versailles?• The Treaty of Versailles led to WWII. Do you agree or disagree with this statement.