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Middle East Since WWI


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Middle East Since WWI

  1. 1. The Modern Middle East, World War I to Present
  2. 2. Pre-WWI: Ottoman Empire <ul><li>“ Sick Man of Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>Sided with Germans/Central Powers in WWI </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nationalism in the Region <ul><li>Regions get increasing autonomy as central gov’t stagnates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want complete independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims, Christians, Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See: Balkans </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Strategic Location of Middle East <ul><li>“ Middle East” coined 1850s </li></ul><ul><li>Location near vital UK holdings (India, Egypt) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Ottoman Gov’t = Easy Pickings </li></ul><ul><li>Oil-Rich </li></ul>
  5. 5. British Wheelings And Dealings <ul><li>Muslims: </li></ul><ul><li>Promise disgruntled regions full independence if they help Allied Powers in WWI (TE Lawrence, “Lawrence of Arabia” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1916 <ul><li>....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... </li></ul>
  7. 7. British Wheelings and Dealings <ul><li>Jews- Balfour Declaration: </li></ul><ul><li>His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine … </li></ul>Sir Arthur James Balfour, Br. Foreign Sec.
  9. 9. BRITISH WHEELINGS AND DEALINGS <ul><li>FRENCH: </li></ul><ul><li>SYKES-PICOT TREATY </li></ul><ul><li>HOW FR. & UK WILL DIVIDE UP M.E. AFTER WAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT ABOUT INDEPENDENCE? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RUSSIA TO BE CONSULTED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEPT AFTER 1917 - WILL NOT WORK WITH BOLSHEVIKS </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. END OF WWI <ul><li>Arab regions expect British to hold to word </li></ul><ul><li>USSR leaks Sykes-Picot - MISTRUST! </li></ul><ul><li>Syrian Congress select their new king - Faisal </li></ul>
  11. 11. Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Allied Powers “Win” </li></ul><ul><li>Central Powers lose colonies, see territories broken up </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UK, France administer regions until they’re “Ready” for independence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How is this different from a colony? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Mandate System <ul><li>UK- Mandates of: </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia (Iraq) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install puppet king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish 75-year-long oil concession </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transjordan (Israel, Jordan, Palestine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t give full independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support more power, land for jews in region </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Mandate System <ul><li>France- Mandates of: </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports Maronite (christian) minority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicks King Faisal out of power </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. “New” Countries, Leaders: <ul><li>Prince Faisal: “ruler” of Trans-Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Abdullah: “ruler” of a newly-created Iraq [pasted together from three distinct geographic regions]. </li></ul><ul><li>The House of Saud: put on the throne of the newly-created Saud i Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pahlavi Family: put on the throne of a new Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa Kemal (KEMAL ATATURK): leads a military/nationalist movement in Turkey. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Turkey - Treaty of Lausanne, 1923 <ul><li>Set boundaries between Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey gave up claims on Cyprus, Iraq, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey recognized as successor to Ottoman Empire, with capital at Ankara (no longer Istanbul) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Secularizing Turkey <ul><li>Secularism : Qur’an in Turkish translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of a republican constitution and a Swiss civil code. </li></ul><ul><li>Westernization & nationalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory, secular education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banning the fez. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western [Roman] script. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women unveiled & given full citizenship and the right to vote. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Mustafa Kemal “Ataturk”
  18. 18. Oil and Mesopotamia <ul><li>First discovered on Masjid-I Suleiman in Persia in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish-Petroleum Co. [TPC] founded in 1911 à drill for oil in Mosul, Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain signed a secret agreement with the sheikh of Kuwait who, while outwardly pledging allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan in Istanbul, promised exclusive oil rights to the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait became a British protectorate in November, 1914. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1927, oil was struck in Kirkuk, Iraq, and the Iraq Petroleum Co. [IPC] was created. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Oil and Middle East <ul><li>American oil companies [Texaco & Chevron], gain oil concessions in Bahrain in 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1933, American oil companies win an oil concession in Saudi Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>ARAMCO [Arab-American Oil Co,] is created in 1939. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Rezah Khan, 1877-1944 <ul><li>an Iranian officer, seized control of the govt. in 1921. </li></ul><ul><li>declared himself SHAH in1925,created the Pahlavi Dynasty . </li></ul><ul><li>ruled from 1925-1941. </li></ul><ul><li>initiated some modern reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>forced to abdicate by Allied armies in 1941. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reforms in Iran <ul><li>Secularization : seizure of religious lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of the French civil code. </li></ul><ul><li>Built the Trans-Iranian Railroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved education. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Middle East Between World Wars
  23. 23. So, what kinds of changes are occurring in Middle Eastern Countries? How do these experiences relate to some problems we see in the Middle East Today?
  24. 24. Middle East and WWII <ul><li>Location/Resources: Oil! </li></ul><ul><li>ME countries felt burned by French and British </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans offered full independence if they supported Axis cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some political and religious leaders supported Germans in order to attain independence from British, French </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Post-War Middle East <ul><li>Israel/Palestine: </li></ul><ul><li>Country of Israel declared by United Nations, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Question on Palestinian rights, boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And, access to things like water and farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1920: 20 Arab Palestinian to 1 Jew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1947: 2 to 1 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Jewish Settlements: The Kibbutz System <ul><li>First one founded in 1908. </li></ul><ul><li>Communal living. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make the Desert Bloom!” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Peel Partition Plan, 1937
  28. 28. UN Partition Plan, 1947
  29. 29. Israel Today
  30. 30. Elsewhere… <ul><li>Iran: </li></ul><ul><li>1950s saw US-backed installation of a Shah </li></ul><ul><li>1970s: Shah forced from throne again by Fundamentalist Clerics, led by Ayatollah Khomeini </li></ul>
  31. 31. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Iraq: </li></ul><ul><li>1960s Baath party takes control of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Secular Government </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1970s: Saddam Hussein takes control </li></ul>
  32. 32. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Afghanistan: </li></ul><ul><li>1970s- invaded by Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>US-backed muhajideen against Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>After Soviet Collapse, establishment of Taliban Government </li></ul>
  33. 33. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Turkey: </li></ul><ul><li>Still a secular country </li></ul><ul><li>Experiencing tensions between religious groups (Kurds, Christians, Muslims) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Elsewhere: <ul><li>Saudi Arabia: </li></ul><ul><li>people enjoy decent standards of living financial benefits from government </li></ul><ul><li>Little- to no social reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women can’t drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited ability to criticize govt </li></ul></ul>