Carlos polistico garcía


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Carlos polistico garcía

  1. 1. Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became theeighth President of the Philippines. Early life García was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra). García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.[1] Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol". Marriage In 1924 he married to Leonila Dimataga they had a daughter namely Linda Garcia- Ocampos. Descendants Teodoro P. Garcia Jr Dominique Marie L. Garcia (Born 1988) Mother of Jace Jotham M. Cortez Garcia (Born 2009) Timothy Daniel L. Garcia (Born 1989) Raphael L. Garcia (Born 1992) Vice Presidency García was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramón Magsaysay, for four years concurrently serving as vice president. As secretary of foreign affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to
  2. 2. an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and other Asian problems, García as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954, the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu, García repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition of communism. García acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, known as SEATO. Presidency Accession Vice President Carlos P. García was inaugurated as the 8th President of the Philippines upon Magsaysay's death on March 17, 1957. at the Council of State Room, Executive Building, Malacañan Palace. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Ricardo Paras on March 17, 1957. At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. García was heading the Philippine delegation to theSEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia.[3] Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President García enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President García's first actions dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief- Executive Magsaysay.[3] Outlawing Communism After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. García signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957.[3][4] Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The
  3. 3. Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835 and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations.[5] On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act No. 7636. Austerity Program[edit source | editbeta] In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President García initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". García's administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.[2] The main points of the Austerity Program were:[3] 1. The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well. 2. There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments. 3. Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items. 4. The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum. 5. An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts. 6. The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay. 7. There would be an intensification of food production. The program was hailed[3] by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic.[3] Bohlen–Serrano Agreement[edit source | editbeta]
  4. 4. During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. 1961 Presidential Election[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1961 At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal, Vice President under him, but belonged to the opposing Liberal Party – in the Philippines the President and the Vice President are elected separately. Cabinet[edit source | editbeta] OFFICE NAME TERM President Carlos P. García March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Vice President Diosdado Macapagal December 30, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources Juan Rodriguez March 18, 1957 – March 3, 1960 Cesar Fortich March 3, 1960 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Martin Aguilar, Jr. March 29, 1957 – September 2, 1957 Manuel Lim September 3, 1957 – November 17, 1957 Daniel Salcedo November 18, 1957 – December 28, 1959 Jose Romero May 18, 1960 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Finance Jaime Hernandez March 18, 1957 – January 24, 1960 Dominador Aytona January 24, 1960 – December 29, 1961 Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Garcia (in concurrent capacity as President) March 18, 1957 – August 22, 1957 Felixberto Serrano August 22, 1957– December 30, 1961 Secretary of Health Paulino J. Garcia March 18, 1957 – July 15, 1958 Elpidio ValenciaJuly 15, 1958 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Justice Pedro Tuazon March 18, 1957 – March 1958 Jesus Barrera April 1958 – June 1959
  5. 5. Enrique Fernandez June 1959 – July 1959 Alejo Mabanag May 18, 1959 – December 1961 Secretary of Labor Angel Castano March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of National Defense Eulogio Balao March 17, 1957 – August 28, 1957 Jesus Vargas August 28, 1957 – May 18, 1959 Alejo Santos May 18, 1959 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Commerce and Industry Pedro Hernaez April 10, 1959 – January 24, 1960 Manuel Lim January 24, 1960 – December 30, 1961 Secretary of Public Works, Transportation and Communications Florencio Moreno March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Administrator of Social Services and Development Amparo Villamor 1960 – 1961 Executive Secretary Forutnato de Leon March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1957 Juan Pajo January 16, 1958 – August 28, 1959 Natalio Castillo January 24, 1960 – September 5, 1961 Carlos P. Garcia Former President of the Philippines Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines.Wikipedia Born: November 4, 1896, Talibon, Bohol, Philippines Died: June 14, 1971, Tagbilaran, Philippines Presidential term: March 23, 1957 – December 30, 1961 Spouse: Leonila Garcia Education: Silliman University Previous office: President of the Philippines (1957–1961)