Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet,
orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became
theeighth President of the Philippines.
García was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polistico (who
were both natives of Bangued, Abra).
García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms.
He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary
education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education
at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the
Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law
degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.
Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol
Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the
nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".
In 1924 he married to Leonila Dimataga they had a daughter namely Linda Garcia-
Teodoro P. Garcia Jr
Dominique Marie L. Garcia (Born 1988)
Mother of Jace Jotham M. Cortez Garcia (Born 2009)
Timothy Daniel L. Garcia (Born 1989)
Raphael L. Garcia (Born 1992)
García was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953.
He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramón Magsaysay, for four
years concurrently serving as vice president.
As secretary of foreign affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to
end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to
an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and
other Asian problems, García as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked
communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the Far East. In a speech
on May 7, 1954, the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu, García repeated the Philippine
stand for nationalism and opposition of communism.
García acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held
in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization, known as SEATO.
Vice President Carlos P. García was inaugurated as the 8th President of the Philippines upon
Magsaysay's death on March 17, 1957. at the Council of State Room, Executive Building,
Malacañan Palace. The oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Ricardo Paras on March
At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice President and
Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. García was heading the Philippine delegation to
theSEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia.
immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President García enplaned back for Manila.
Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace to assume the duties of
President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to
administer the oath of office. President García's first actions dealt with the declaration of
a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-
After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally,
approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure
exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. García signed the said
bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957.
Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled
"Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other
Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No.
1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The
Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in
Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975.
On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835
and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations.
On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by
Republic Act No. 7636.
Austerity Program[edit source | editbeta]
In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President García initiated what has
been called "The Austerity Program". García's administration was characterized by its
austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3,
1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the
government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially
American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien
domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with
his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.
The main points of the Austerity Program
1. The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over
shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
2. There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter
3. Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
4. The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
5. An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to
reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
6. The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the
payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to
7. There would be an intensification of food production.
The program was hailed
by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the
measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic.
Bohlen–Serrano Agreement[edit source | editbeta]
During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the
US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.
1961 Presidential Election[edit source | editbeta]
Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1961
At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but
was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal, Vice President under him, but belonged to the opposing Liberal
Party – in the Philippines the President and the Vice President are elected separately.
Cabinet[edit source | editbeta]
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Carlos P. García March 17, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Vice President Diosdado Macapagal December 30, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources Juan Rodriguez March 18, 1957 – March 3, 1960
Cesar Fortich March 3, 1960 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Martin Aguilar, Jr. March 29, 1957 – September 2,
Manuel Lim September 3, 1957 – November 17, 1957
Daniel Salcedo November 18, 1957 – December 28, 1959
Jose Romero May 18, 1960 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Finance Jaime Hernandez March 18, 1957 – January 24, 1960
Dominador Aytona January 24, 1960 – December 29, 1961
Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Garcia
(in concurrent capacity as President) March 18, 1957 – August 22, 1957
Felixberto Serrano August 22, 1957– December 30, 1961
Secretary of Health Paulino J. Garcia March 18, 1957 – July 15, 1958
Elpidio ValenciaJuly 15, 1958 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Justice Pedro Tuazon March 18, 1957 – March 1958
Jesus Barrera April 1958 – June 1959
Enrique Fernandez June 1959 – July 1959
Alejo Mabanag May 18, 1959 – December 1961
Secretary of Labor Angel Castano March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of National Defense Eulogio Balao March 17, 1957 – August 28, 1957
Jesus Vargas August 28, 1957 – May 18, 1959
Alejo Santos May 18, 1959 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Commerce and Industry Pedro Hernaez April 10, 1959 – January 24, 1960
Manuel Lim January 24, 1960 – December 30, 1961
Secretary of Public Works,
Transportation and Communications Florencio Moreno March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Administrator of Social Services and Development Amparo Villamor 1960 – 1961
Executive Secretary Forutnato de Leon March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1957
Juan Pajo January 16, 1958 – August 28, 1959
Natalio Castillo January 24, 1960 – September 5, 1961
Carlos P. Garcia
Former President of the Philippines
Carlos Polistico García was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political
economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines.Wikipedia
Born: November 4, 1896, Talibon, Bohol, Philippines
Died: June 14, 1971, Tagbilaran, Philippines
Presidential term: March 23, 1957 – December 30, 1961
Spouse: Leonila Garcia
Education: Silliman University
Previous office: President of the Philippines (1957–1961)