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Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education
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Second World Congress on e-Learning - Shifting the Goal Posts: The Changing Landscape of Primary and Secondary Education and How that Affects e-Learning in Higher Education

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Barbour, M. K. (2011, September). Shifting the goal posts: The changing landscape of primary and secondary education and how that affects e-learning in higher education. A keynote presentation at the …

Barbour, M. K. (2011, September). Shifting the goal posts: The changing landscape of primary and secondary education and how that affects e-learning in higher education. A keynote presentation at the 2o congreso mundial de e-learning (Second World Congress on e-Learning) in Cartagena, Columbia.

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  • Benefits = Expanding educational access; Providing high-quality learning opportunities; and Allowing for educational choice Challenges = Student readiness issues and retention issues
  • Common link between both assessments is the pre-occupation of researchers with comparing student performance in an effort to show the effectiveness of online
  • But does this tell really tell the full story???
  • Ballas & Belyk had dramatically differing participation rates - how would the 20%-30% missing from the online group have scored? Bigbie & McCarroll had a significant drop-out rate in the online courses - how would the results have differed had those students stayed enrolled?
  • Cavanaugh and her colleagues speculated that the online students were simply better students McLeod and his colleagues speculated their results were due to the fact that weaker students had dropped out of the online course
  • First year evaluation of VHS - majority are planning to attend a four year college Second year evaluation - most are honors students and college bound
  • need to control and structure their learning highly motivated, high achieving, self-directed, independent workers
  • A or B students half are academically advanced or AP students
  • Highly motivated, self-directed, self-disciplined, independent learners who could read and write well, and had a strong interest in or ability with technology
  • The research is based upon the best and the brightest.
  • Another problem is what we measure... 1. Correlation does not equal causality 2. Single studies measure if there is a difference between two groups beyond chance Need for meta-analysis...
  • Things that hurt student learning
  • 0.15 - The amount a student would increase simply from being a year older and a year wiser / maturity
  • 0.25 - The amount student learning increases based upon an average teacher
  • 0.40 - The magic number... If it doesn’t reach beyond 0.4, it likely isn’t worth it. Some scholars have argued as high as 0.6 or 0.8. Recall earlier I mentioned three different meta-analysis related to K-12 online learning.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Shifting the Goal Posts or The Changing Landscape ofPrimary & Secondary Education& How that Affects E-Learning in Higher Education Michael Barbour Assistant Professor Wayne State University
    • 2. Generational differences: thetheory that people born withinan approximately 20 year timeperiod share a common set ofcharacteristics based upon thehistorical experiences, economicand social conditions,technological advances andother societal changes they havein common
    • 3. Generational Boundaries• GI Generation “Greatest Generation” – Born between 1901 and 1924• Silent Generation – Born between 1925 and 1945• Baby Boomers – Born between 1946 and 1964• Generation X – Born between 1965 and 1980• Today’s Student – Born between 1981 and 2000
    • 4. This Generation’s Numbers in theUnited States• 60 million - largest group since the Baby Boomers (72 million)• 3 times larger than Generation X• Teen population is growing at twice the rate of the rest of America• Made up 37% of U.S. population in 2005
    • 5. Today’s Student• Generation Y• Echo• Net Generation• Neomillennials• Generation NeXt• Millennials• Generation Me• Digital Natives• Generation txt
    • 6. Millennials• “more numerous, more affluent, better educated, and more ethnically diverse…. they are beginning to manifest a wide array of positive social habits…. [such as] teamwork, achievement, modesty, and good conduct”Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation New York: Vintage Books.
    • 7. Net Generation• Children of baby boomers• Digital technology has had a profound impact on their personalities, including their attitudes and approach to learning• Generation gap has become a generation lap http://www.growingupdigital.com
    • 8. Digital Natives• “are all ‘native speakers’ of the digital language of computers, video games and the internet”• “If educators really want to reach Digital Natives—i.e., all their students—they will have to change”• Those educators who do not are “just dumb (and lazy)”Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants – Part II: Do They Really Think Differently? On the Horizon, 9(6).
    • 9. Dangerous Dichotomy Digital Native Digital Immigrant • Student • Teacher • Fast • Slow • Young • Old • Future • Past or legacy • Multi-tasking • Logical, serial thinking • Image • Text • Playful • Serious • Looking forward • Looking backward • Digital • Analogue • Action • Knowledge • Constant connection • IsolationBayne S. & Ross, J. (2007, December). The ‘digital native’ and ‘digital immigrant’: A dangerous opposition. Paperpresented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education, Brighton, UK. Retrieved fromhttp://www.malts.ed.ac.uk/staff/sian/natives_final.pdf
    • 10. Digital Immigrants Better Online Learners• most socially-reliant learners• better at knowledge application (i.e., answering questions that go ‘beyond the information given’)• more active in the websites associated with the online coursesRansdell, S., Kent, B., Gaillard-Kenney, S. and Long, J. (2011), Digital immigrants fare better than digital natives dueto social reliance. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42: 931–938.
    • 11. Master Multitaskers• Memory encoding and memory retrieval weaker in teens when attention is dividedNaveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Fisher, T. (2006). Concurrent task effects on memory encoding and retrieval: Furthersupport for an asymmetry. Memory & Cognition, 34(1), 90-101.
    • 12. “Todays young people havebeen raised to aim for thestars at a time when it ismore difficult than ever toget into college, find a goodjob, and afford a house.Their expectations are veryhigh just as the world isbecoming more competitive,so theres a huge clashbetween their expectationsand reality.”
    • 13. • In 2002, 74% of high school students admitted to cheating whereas in 1969 only 34% admitted such a failing. (p. 27)• In 1967, 86% of incoming college students said that “developing a meaningful philosophy of life” was an essential life goal whereas in 2004 only 42% of GenMe freshmen agreed. (p. 48)• In 2004, 48% of American college freshmen reported earning an A average in high school whereas in 1968 only 18% of freshmen reported being an A student in high school. (p. 63)• In the 1950s, only 12% of young teens agreed with the statement “I am an important person” whereas by the late 1980s, 80% claimed they were important. (p. 69) Jean M. Twenge
    • 14. Elementary & Secondary Online Learning
    • 15. In the United States…Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning, 2010
    • 16. In Canada…Single provincialprogramPrimarily district-based programsCombination ofprovincial anddistrict-basedprogramsUse onlinelearningprograms fromother provinces State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada, 2011
    • 17. Elsewhere in the World…• China • Singapore – less than 1% – online and blended learning is pervasive• Iran – many private companies • Turkey offering MOE approved – pilot began in 2005-06 with courses 300,000 and hope to have 12,000,000 taking online• Japan courses by 2010 – one correspondence school offering online • New Zealand course – The Correspondence School – Virtual Learning NetworkPowell & Patrick (2006)
    • 18. Elsewhere in the World…• United Kingdom • Australia – A School Without Walls offers A – Tasmanian eSchool level & GCSC courses primarily – Grampians Virtual School to adults – Northern Beaches Christian – National Academy for Gifted and School Talented Youth offers some – Virtual School for the Gifted online courses – Virtual Schooling Service• South Korea – Cyber Home Learning System • Finland – Small national virtual school
    • 19. http://www.inacol.org
    • 20. What Does The Literature Say?• “based upon the personal experiences of those involved in the practice of virtual schooling” (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)• “a paucity of research exists when examining high school students enrolled in virtual schools, and the research base is smaller still when the population of students is further narrowed to the elementary grades” (Rice, 2006)
    • 21. What Does The Research Say?1. Comparisons of student performance based upon delivery model (i.e., classroom vs. online)2. Studies examining the qualities and characteristics of the teaching/learning experience – characteristics of – supports provided to – issues related to isolation of online learners (Rice, 2006)1. Effectiveness of virtual schooling2. Student readiness and retention issues (Cavanaugh et al., 2009)
    • 22. So, What Do We Know?
    • 23. Student Performance• performance of virtual and classroom students in Alberta were similar in English and Social Studies courses, but that classroom students performed better overall in all other subject areas (Ballas & Belyk, 2000)• over half of the students who completed FLVS courses scored an A in their course and only 7% received a failing grade (Bigbie & McCarroll, 2000)
    • 24. Student Performance• there was “a small positive effect in favor of distance education” at the K-12 level (Cavanaugh, 2001)• students in the six virtual schools in three different provinces performed no worse than the students from the three conventional schools (Barker & Wendel, 2001)
    • 25. Student Performance• IVHS had a completion rate of 53% its first year of operation and 80% the following (Clark et al., 2002)• a small negative effect size in their meta-analysis of K-12 distance education (Cavanaugh et al., 2004)
    • 26. Student Performance• FLVS students performed better on a non-mandatory assessment tool than students from the traditional classroom (Cavanaugh et al., 2005)• FLVS students performed better on an assessment of algebraic understanding than their classroom counterpart (McLeod et al., 2005)
    • 27. Student Performance• the completion rate for the ALDC was 47% for their asynchronous courses and 89% for their combination asynchronous & synchronous courses (Elluminate, 2006)• CDLI students performed as well as classroom-based students on final course scores & exam marks (Barbour & Mulcahy, 2007; 2008)
    • 28. Let’s look a little closer...
    • 29. Students and Student PerformanceBallas & performance of virtual and participation rate in theBelyk, 2000 classroom students similar assessment among virtual in English & Social Studies students ranged from 65% to courses, but classroom 75% compared to 90% to students performed better 96% for the classroom-based in all other subject areas studentsBigbie & over half of the students between 25% and 50% ofMcCarroll, who completed FLVS students had dropped out2000 courses scored an A in of their FLVS courses over their course and only 7% the previous two-year received a failing grade period
    • 30. Students and Student PerformanceCavanaugh et FLVS students performed speculated that the virtualal., 2005 better on a non- school students who did mandatory assessment take the assessment may tool than students from have been more the traditional classroom academically motivated and naturally higher achieving studentsMcLeod et FLVS students performed results of the studental., 2005 better on an assessment performance were due to of algebraic understanding the high dropout rate in than their classroom virtual school courses counterparts
    • 31. Let’s look even closer...
    • 32. The Students• the vast majority of VHS Global Consortium students in their courses were planning to attend a four-year college (Kozma, Zucker & Espinoza, 1998)• “VHS courses are predominantly designated as ‘honors,’ and students enrolled are mostly college bound” (Espinoza et al., 1999)
    • 33. The Students• “only students with a high need to control and structure their own learning may choose distance formats freely” (Roblyer & Elbaum, 2000)• IVHS students were “highly motivated, high achieving, self-directed and/or who liked to work independently” (Clark et al., 2002)
    • 34. The Students• the typical online student was an A or B student (Mills, 2003)• 45% of the students who participated in e-learning opportunities in Michigan were “either advanced placement or academically advanced” students (Watkins, 2005)
    • 35. The StudentsThe preferred characteristicsinclude the highly motivated,self-directed, self-disciplined,independent learner whocould read and write well,and who also had a stronginterest in or ability withtechnology (Haughey &Muirhead, 1999)
    • 36. Literatureindicates K-12online learningstudents are...
    • 37. But does thisreally representall or even mostelementary andhigh schoolstudents?
    • 38. There Must Be A Better Way!!!
    • 39. What We Do Know!!! Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analysis related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Hattie, J., & Marsh, H. W. (1996). The relationship between research and teaching: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66, 507–542. Hattie, M., & Marsh, J. (2002). The relationship between productivity and teaching effectiveness. Journal of Higher Education, 73(5), 603-641.
    • 40. Examining Effect SizesReverseEffects
    • 41. Examining Effect SizesDevelopmentalEffects
    • 42. Examining Effect Sizes Teacher Effects
    • 43. Examining Effect Sizes Zone of Desired Effects
    • 44. Results to Consider1. Self-reported grades (d=1.44)2. Piagetian programs (d=1.28)3. Providing formative evaluation (d=0.90)4. Micro teaching (d=0.88)5. Acceleration (d=0.88)6. Classroom behavioral (d=0.80)7. Comprehensive interventions for learning disabled students (d=0.78)8. Teacher clarity (d=0.75)9. Reciprocal teaching (d=0.74)10. Providing feedback (d=0.73)12. Teacher-student relationships (d=0.72)
    • 45. Results to Consider12. Spaced vs. mass practice (d=0.71)13. Meta-cognitive strategies (d=0.69)14. Prior achievement (d=0.67)15. Vocabulary programs (d=0.67)16. Repeated Reading programs (d=0.67)17. Creativity Programs (d=0.65)18. Self-verbalization & self-questioning (d=0.64)19. Professional development (d=0.62)20. Problem solving teaching (d=0.61)21. Not labeling students (d=0.61)22. Teaching strategies (d=0.60)
    • 46. Results to Consider23. Cooperative vs. individualistic learning (d=0.59)24. Study skills (d=0.59)25. Direct instruction (d=0.59)26. Tactile stimulation programs (d=0.58)27. Phonics instruction (d=0.58)28. Comprehension programs (d=0.58)29. Mastery learning (d=0.58)30. Worked examples (d=0.57)31. Home environment (d=0.57)32. Socioeconomic status (d=0.57)33. Concept mapping (d=0.57)
    • 47. The ChallengeWhether onlinelearning canbe suitable forstudents?(Mulcahy, 2002)
    • 48. Wenmoth, D. (2010). The future – Trends, challenges and opportunities. In V. Ham & D. Wenmoth (eds.). e-Learnings:Implementing a national strategy project for ICT in education, 1998-2010 (pp. 196-203). Christchurch, New Zealand:CORE Education.
    • 49. YourQuestions andComments
    • 50. Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com

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