Wayne State University - Teaching to Today's Student
Teaching To Today’s Student Michael K. Barbour Instructional Technology
Generational differences:the theory that people bornwithin an approximately 20year time period share acommon set of characteristicsbased upon the historicalexperiences, economic andsocial conditions,technological advances andother societal changes theyhave in common
Generational Boundaries• GI Generation “Greatest Generation” – Born between 1901 and 1924• Silent Generation – Born between 1925 and 1945• Baby Boomers – Born between 1946 and 1964• Generation X – Born between 1965 and 1980• Today’s Student – Born between 1981 and 2000
Historical InfluencesBoomers: Gen X: Net Gen:• Civil Rights • Fall of Berlin Wall • School shootings• Sexual Revolution • Watergate • Oklahoma City• Cold War • AIDS • Internet• Space travel • Desert Storm • 9/11• Assassinations • Energy Crisis • Iraq
This Generation’s Numbers• 60 million - largest group since the Baby Boomers (72 million)• 3 times larger than Generation X• Teen population is growing at twice the rate of the rest of America• Made up 37% of U.S. population in 2005
Today’s Student: Which Fit Your Students?Gamers Digital Natives Socially Disdain Previous Conscious GenerationsHigh Expectations Spoiled Rotten Respect Value Diversity IntelligenceExpect Incomes Experiential Optimistic and Family OrientedExceeding Parents Learners PositiveCollaborative Nomadic Inclusive Have More FriendsHealthy Lifestyle Clueless Direct More LiberalAchievement Media Patriotic More ConservativeOriented ConsumerValue Balanced Multi-tasker Confident EntitledLives
Today’s Student• Generation Y• Echo• Net Generation• Neomillennials• Generation NeXt• Millennials• Generation Me• Digital Natives• Generation txt
Net Generation• Digital technology has had a profound impact on their personalities, including their attitudes and approach to learning• Perception is that there has been a shift from a generation gap to a generation lap - kids "lapping" adults on the technology track
Neomillennials• Based upon his observations of his daughter and how she completed her homework
Millennials• Based upon survey research• Sample from Fairfax, VAHowe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation New York: Vintage Books.
Digital Natives• Common in the media• No systematic research• Makes unfounded assumptions about access to digital technologyPrensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants – Part II: Do They Really Think Differently? On the Horizon, 9(6).
Another Common Myth: The Master Multitasker• Memory encoding and memory retrieval weaker in teens when attention is dividedNaveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Fisher, T. (2006). Concurrent task effects on memory encodingand retrieval: Further support for an asymmetry. Memory & Cognition, 34(1), 90-101.
“Todays young peoplehave been raised to aimfor the stars at a timewhen it is more difficultthan ever to get intocollege, find a good job,and afford a house. Theirexpectations are very highjust as the world isbecoming morecompetitive, so theres ahuge clash between theirexpectations and reality.”
• In 2002, 74% of high school students admitted to cheating whereas in 1969 only 34% admitted such a failing. (p. 27)• In 1967, 86% of incoming college students said that “developing a meaningful philosophy of life” was an essential life goal whereas in 2004 only 42% of GenMe freshmen agreed. (p. 48)• In 2004, 48% of American college freshmen reported earning an A average in high school whereas in 1968 only 18% of freshmen reported being an A student in high school. (p. 63)• In the 1950s, only 12% of young teens agreed with the statement “I am an important person” whereas by the late 1980s, 80% claimed they were important. (p. 69) Jean M. Twenge
“When asked about problems facing their generation, many millennials respond that the biggest one is the poor examplethat adults set for kids.”p. 36Oblinger, D. (2003). Understanding the new student.EDUCAUSE Review, 38(3), 36-42.
“The number onething to realize withthe Millennials isthat as a whole theyreflect much moreparentalperfectionism thanany generation inliving memory.Colleges anduniversities shouldknow that they arenot just getting akid, but they arealso getting aparent.”
Focus on undergraduate education• 2006: 557 colleges and universities• 2005: 529 colleges and universities• 2004: 473 colleges and universities• 2003: 437 colleges and universities• 2002: 367 colleges and universities• 2001: 321 colleges and universities• 2000: 276 colleges and universities
NSSE results• Work expectations for students: –10-15 hrs in class –25-30 hrs studying
NSSE results• Work Reality: –20% study 5 hrs per week or less –25% 6-10 hrs –48% 11-30 hrs –7% > 30 hrs
NSSE Time On Task Student High faculty AcademicInteraction Challenge
What Else Do We Know?http://www.decliningbydegrees.org/
The most “shocking” discovery is the “non-aggression pact” between instructors and students.
What Else Do We Know? http://www.ivorytowerblues.com/
The traditional standard for an average performance was a C, but students now expect Bs for putting out a modicum of effort that produces mediocre work, and As if they do any more than this. Failure is a thing of the past in many schools.
Schools today arebeset by a newgeneration oflearners whoseskills andexpectations derivefrom growing up onthe net.
The Net Gen and Technology• The Net Gen’s technical knowledge is broad, but shallow• Skills differ by academic program; deepest in engineering and business• Technical fluency does not equal maturityhttp://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers0506/rs/ers0506w.pdf
Two Key Points• Introducing technology alone is never enough.• Big gains in productivity come when new technologies are combined with new ways of doing business.
“Lecturing stillabsorbs more thanhalf to two thirds ofvarious departments’teaching practices…These traditionalforms of teachingseem to have beenrelatively untouchedby the enormousinvestment intechnologies.”
What shouldwe expectour studentsto learn inthe 21 stCentury?
Traditional Learning Domains• Cognitive• Affective• Psychomotor
PsychomotorDomain Non-discursive Communication Skilled Movements Physical Activities Perceptual Skills Basic Fundamental Movement Reflex Movement
AffectiveDomain Characterization by Value Set Organization Valuing Responding Receiving
CognitiveDomain What Evaluation we say Synthesis we value AnalysisWhat Applicationweteach Comprehensionandtest Knowledge