Latency Periods Site Agent Average Range (years) (years) Skin Arsenic 25 4-46 Coal tar and pitch 20 1-50 Solar radiation 25 15-40 Lung Asbestos 18 15-48 Blood Benzene 3-19 Bladder Aromatic amines 15 2-40
“Higher levels ofPM(10) and NO(2),which are typicallymarkers of trafficrelated pollution,seem to be associatedwith transientlyincreased risk ofmyocardial infarction1-6 hours afterexposure,..”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
“.. air pollution maybe associated withbringing eventsforward in time("short-termdisplacement") ratherthan increasing overallrisk. ”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Animal experiments
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Epidemiology
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Simultaneous exposure to many environmental pollutants
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other exposures to chemicals
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other confounders such as • temperature, • smoking
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Low level effects are difficult to quantify
Air pollution is estimated to cause1,152,000 deaths per year worldwide Source: World Health Organisation (2006) Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease
Ozone - Chronic effectsPermanent reduction in lung function?
Fig 2Estimated number of acute adverse health effectsavoided by meeting the 1997 US EPA Ozone Ambient AirQuality standard Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005; 115:689-699 (DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.01.056 )
PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% at anaerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres”
Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5, 2005(attributable annual mortality per 10 000 people) Source: WHO (2010) Health and Environment in Europe: Progress Assessment
Particulate Matter Acute Effects Chronic Effects Lung inflammatory reactions Increase in lower respiratory symptoms Respiratory symptoms Reduction in lung function in children Adverse effects on the Increase in chronic obstructive cardiovascular system pulmonary disease Increase in medication usage Reduction in lung function in adults Increase in hospital admissions Reduction in life expectancy Increase in mortalitySource: Health aspects of air pollution: Results from the WHO project "Systematic review of healthaspects of air pollution in Europe" (WHO, 2004)
ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:709–742
Lead concentrations in childrens blood, and lead in petrol (tonne) sold in Sweden 1976-2003. Lead (Pb) in blood in children, 3-12 years of age, in relation to Pb in petrol, tons per year 1800 70 1600 60 1400 Pb in petrol, ton Pb in blood, µg/l 50 1200 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Year Pb in petrol sold in Sweden Pb in blood, children 3-12 years of agehttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1845
Change in mercury concentration in human and animal hair from Greenlandhttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1842
Websites US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Tutor http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html UK DEFRA air quality statistics http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemissions.htm European Environmental Agency report – “Europes environment: the third assessment - Chapter 12 - Environment and human health” http://reports.eea.europa.eu/environmental_assessment_report_2003_10/Chapter12 European Environmental Agency report “Environment and Health” http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea_report_2005_10/en WHO Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/WHO/Progs/AIQ/activities/20030528_3 Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP) http://www.dh.gov.uk/ab/comeap/index.htm Video on Minamata incident http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih2/chemicals/activities/lesson5.htm
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