Pollution And Human Health

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An introduction to the effects of pollution on human health

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  • Pollution And Human Health

    1. 1. Mike Slater
    2. 2. Content Sources of pollution How pollutants can affect humans Examples of common pollutants and their effects
    3. 3. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
    4. 4. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
    5. 5. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
    6. 6. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beDirectIndirect
    7. 7. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beImmediateDelayed
    8. 8. Paracelsus (1493-1541)"All substances arepoisons ; there is nonewhich is not a poison.The right dosedifferentiates a poisonfrom a remedy"
    9. 9. Risk is the likelihood that harmwill occur in practice RISK = Hazard x Exposure
    10. 10. Exposure to Pollutants Air pollution Settlement Direct inhalation Rain animals Food Ground pollution drinking water & fish Water pollution Plants
    11. 11. Routes of Entry
    12. 12. Routes of EntryInhalation
    13. 13. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestion
    14. 14. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestionSkin contact
    15. 15. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    16. 16. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    17. 17. InhalationGasesAerosols
    18. 18. Head Airways Region
    19. 19. Tracheo-bronchial Region
    20. 20. Gas Exchange Region
    21. 21. 100 TotalDeposition Fraction relativeto ambient aerosol (DF, %) 80 Extrathoracic Tracheobronchiolar 60 Alveolar 40 20 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle Diameter (Dp, micrometer)
    22. 22. ISO Criteria for Dust 120 Inhalable 100 Thoracic 80 Respirable % retained 60 40 20 0 1 10 100 Aerodynamic diameter (um)
    23. 23. EN 12341:1998 PM10 - A target specification for sampling thoracic particles 120 100 80cummulative % 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aerodynamic diameter (microns)
    24. 24. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% atan aerodynamic diameter of 2.5micrometres”
    25. 25. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
    26. 26. TheSkinbfcfrancos @flickr
    27. 27. Many organic compounds arereadily absorbed through the skin solvents pesticides organo-metal compounds
    28. 28. Ingestion can occur due to: Foodstuff contamination Drinking water contamination
    29. 29. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    30. 30. Distribution Transport by blood Substances released from storage
    31. 31. Storage Fat Bones Blood Liver and kidney Other organs / tissues
    32. 32. Dioxin and PCP trends in mothers milk monitored in Sweden http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1843
    33. 33. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    34. 34. Biotransformation  Occurs mainly in the liver  Also in lungs, kidney & intestine
    35. 35. Biotransformation Phase I reactions • Oxidation • Reduction • hydrolysisPhase II reactions• Conjugation• Synthesis Metabolites Elimination
    36. 36. BiotransformationSometimes biotransformation increases toxicity
    37. 37. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    38. 38. ExcretionKidney  urine  water soluble compounds
    39. 39. ExcretionLungs  volatile compounds  gaseous metabolites
    40. 40. ExcretionLiver  bile  fat soluble compounds
    41. 41. ExcretionOther routes  Hair  Nails  Skin  Sweat  Milk
    42. 42. Biological Half Life - time taken for half theamount of the substance absorbed to be excreted 150 100 Body burden 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 time
    43. 43. Some Half Lives Toluene ~ 10 hours Selenium ~ 10 days Mercury ~ 6 weeks Lead ~ 10 years or more
    44. 44. Site of EffectLocal At site of contactSystemic Following distribution
    45. 45. Types of Effectchronicsub-chronic timescalesub-acuteacute
    46. 46. The effect experienced depends onthe dose Blood Alcohol Conc. Effect g/100ml 0.01 - 0.05 Subclinical 0.032 - 0.12 Euphoria 0.09 - 0.25 Excitement 0.18 - 0.30 Confusion 0.25 - 0.40 Stupor 0.35 - 0.50 Coma 0.45 + Death
    47. 47. Dose - Effect
    48. 48. Susceptibility Variation in susceptibility between individuals
    49. 49. Susceptibility Different doses required to produce same effect
    50. 50. Susceptibility The most susceptible groups include  Elderly,  Children,  People with pre-existing disease
    51. 51. Susceptibility Inter-species variation
    52. 52. Dose - Response
    53. 53. Dose - Response Threshold Dose
    54. 54. LD50 – Median Lethal Dose
    55. 55. Some LD50s mg/kg body weight ETHYL ALCOHOL 7060 SODIUM CHLORIDE 3000 NAPHTHALENE 1760 FERROUS SULFATE 1500 ASPIRIN 1000 FORMALDEHYDE 800 AMMONIA 350 CAFFEINE 192 PHENOBARBITAL 150 CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE 118 DDT 100 STRYCHNINE SULFATE 2 NICOTINE 1 DIOXIN 0.0001 BOTULINUS TOXIN 0.00001
    56. 56. PollutionEffects on Human HealthDirect effectsIndirect effects
    57. 57. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
    58. 58. Without effective responses,climate change will compromise:Water quality and quantityFood securityControl of infectious diseaseProtection from disasters
    59. 59. Chemicals in the EnvironmentChemical reactionsPhotochemical reactionsBiological transformationBioaccumulation
    60. 60. Exposure to Pollutants MixedConcentration Accumulation exposures
    61. 61. Evidence for Effects of PollutionAnimal experimentsHuman volunteer studiesEpidemiological evidence
    62. 62. Irritation Billablubb@Flickr
    63. 63. Irritation Megyarsh@Flickr
    64. 64. Irritation Jess and Colin@Flickr
    65. 65. CorrosiveDestroys tissue Leo Reynolds@Flickr
    66. 66. Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD)  Chronic bronchitis  Emphysema
    67. 67. Emphysema
    68. 68. Asthma
    69. 69. SensitisersCause allergic reaction in susceptible individuals
    70. 70. SensitisersCannot identify susceptible individuals!
    71. 71. SensitisersDevelops gradually
    72. 72. SensitisersNot always easy to identify causative agent
    73. 73. CancerUnregulated growth and proliferation of cells
    74. 74. CarcinogensLong latency period
    75. 75. Latency Periods Site Agent Average Range (years) (years) Skin Arsenic 25 4-46 Coal tar and pitch 20 1-50 Solar radiation 25 15-40 Lung Asbestos 18 15-48 Blood Benzene 3-19 Bladder Aromatic amines 15 2-40
    76. 76. MutagensTeratogensSystemic effects
    77. 77. Toxicological Interactions Independent Additive Synergistic Potentiation Antagonism
    78. 78. London 1952
    79. 79. “Higher levels ofPM(10) and NO(2),which are typicallymarkers of trafficrelated pollution,seem to be associatedwith transientlyincreased risk ofmyocardial infarction1-6 hours afterexposure,..”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
    80. 80. “.. air pollution maybe associated withbringing eventsforward in time("short-termdisplacement") ratherthan increasing overallrisk. ”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
    81. 81. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants
    82. 82. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Animal experiments
    83. 83. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Epidemiology
    84. 84. Problems with animalexperiments
    85. 85. Problems with animalexperiments Inter-species variation
    86. 86. Problems with animalexperiments They evaluate: acute effects from high doses of single substances over a short period
    87. 87. Problems with animalexperiments Ethics
    88. 88. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies
    89. 89. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Simultaneous exposure to many environmental pollutants
    90. 90. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other exposures to chemicals
    91. 91. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other confounders such as • temperature, • smoking
    92. 92. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Low level effects are difficult to quantify
    93. 93. Air pollution is estimated to cause1,152,000 deaths per year worldwide Source: World Health Organisation (2006) Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease
    94. 94. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/globatmos/gagccukem.htm
    95. 95. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
    96. 96. Carbon MonoxideChemical asphyxiant
    97. 97. Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide
    98. 98. Sulphur dioxide http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf20.htm
    99. 99. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsSoluble acid gasUpper respiratory tract irritation
    100. 100. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsIncreased effect on people with pre-existing respiratory disease
    101. 101. Indirect effect fromsulphur dioxide :“acid rain”
    102. 102. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemnox.htm
    103. 103. Nitrogen DioxideDeep lung irritantLess evidence for effect on pre-existing conditions
    104. 104. Nitrogen oxides, as acidicGases can also contributeTo “acid rain”
    105. 105. VOCs http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf23.htm
    106. 106. VOCs - Direct effectsDepends on compound
    107. 107. VOCs - Indirect effectsPhotochemical ozone formationOzone depletionClimate change
    108. 108. Ozone Depletion Reduced stratospheric ozone CFCs Chlorohydrocarbons Immune system Skin cancer Cataracts supression
    109. 109. OzoneProduced by photochemical reactionsDeep lung irritant
    110. 110. Ozone - Acute effectsReduced lung functionAggravates asthmaDamages lining of respiratory passages
    111. 111. Ozone - Chronic effectsPermanent reduction in lung function?
    112. 112. Fig 2Estimated number of acute adverse health effectsavoided by meeting the 1997 US EPA Ozone Ambient AirQuality standard Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005; 115:689-699 (DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.01.056 )
    113. 113. Particulate Matter
    114. 114. PM2.5Approximates therespirable fraction
    115. 115. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% at anaerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres”
    116. 116. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
    117. 117. Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5, 2005(attributable annual mortality per 10 000 people) Source: WHO (2010) Health and Environment in Europe: Progress Assessment
    118. 118. Particulate Matter Acute Effects Chronic Effects Lung inflammatory reactions Increase in lower respiratory symptoms Respiratory symptoms Reduction in lung function in children Adverse effects on the Increase in chronic obstructive cardiovascular system pulmonary disease Increase in medication usage Reduction in lung function in adults Increase in hospital admissions Reduction in life expectancy Increase in mortalitySource: Health aspects of air pollution: Results from the WHO project "Systematic review of healthaspects of air pollution in Europe" (WHO, 2004)
    119. 119. ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:709–742
    120. 120. Lead concentrations in childrens blood, and lead in petrol (tonne) sold in Sweden 1976-2003. Lead (Pb) in blood in children, 3-12 years of age, in relation to Pb in petrol, tons per year 1800 70 1600 60 1400 Pb in petrol, ton Pb in blood, µg/l 50 1200 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Year Pb in petrol sold in Sweden Pb in blood, children 3-12 years of agehttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1845
    121. 121. Change in mercury concentration in human and animal hair from Greenlandhttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1842
    122. 122. Water andLand Pollution
    123. 123. Mercury - The Minamata IncidentMinamata Bay, Japan, 1950sChisso Corporation
    124. 124. Mercury - The Minamata Incident Inorganic mercury discharged Biotransformed to methylmercury Bioaccumulation in fish Ingestion by humans
    125. 125. Initial Symptoms Peripheral sensory loss Delirium Disturbed speech, vision and hearing Disturbed gait
    126. 126. Severe Cases General paralysis, involuntary movements Convulsions Death
    127. 127. Camelford Incident 1988, Camelford, Cornwall Aluminium sulphate contamination of water supply
    128. 128. Short term effectsNauseaVomitingMouth ulcersSkin rashes
    129. 129. Longer term effectsMemory loss?Effects on cerebal function?
    130. 130. Source: Arsenic in groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in Bangladesh.J.M. McArthur, P. Ravenscroft, S. Safiullah and M.F. Thirlwall. Water Resources Research
    131. 131. Effects of Arsenic PollutionSkin  keratonosis  Melanosis
    132. 132. Effects of Arsenic PollutionGastrointestinal disturbancesCancer
    133. 133. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
    134. 134. Websites US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Tutor  http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html UK DEFRA air quality statistics  http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemissions.htm European Environmental Agency report – “Europes environment: the third assessment - Chapter 12 - Environment and human health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/environmental_assessment_report_2003_10/Chapter12 European Environmental Agency report “Environment and Health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea_report_2005_10/en WHO Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe  http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/WHO/Progs/AIQ/activities/20030528_3 Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)  http://www.dh.gov.uk/ab/comeap/index.htm Video on Minamata incident  http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih2/chemicals/activities/lesson5.htm

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