Mike Slater
Content               Sources of pollution        How pollutants can affect humans  Examples of common pollutants and thei...
http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
The effects of pollution onhuman health can beDirectIndirect
The effects of pollution onhuman health can beImmediateDelayed
Paracelsus (1493-1541)"All substances arepoisons ; there is nonewhich is not a poison.The right dosedifferentiates a poiso...
Risk is the likelihood that harmwill occur in practice  RISK = Hazard x Exposure
Exposure to Pollutants               Air pollution                                             Settlement                 ...
Routes of Entry
Routes of EntryInhalation
Routes of EntryInhalationIngestion
Routes of EntryInhalationIngestionSkin contact
Distribution              and storageAbsorption                       Elimination             Biotransfromation
Distribution              and storageAbsorption                       Elimination             Biotransfromation
InhalationGasesAerosols
Head Airways Region
Tracheo-bronchial Region
Gas Exchange Region
100                                               TotalDeposition Fraction relativeto ambient aerosol (DF, %)             ...
ISO Criteria for Dust         120                                                   Inhalable         100                 ...
EN 12341:1998                      PM10 - A target specification for sampling thoracic particles                120       ...
PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency...
Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp...
TheSkinbfcfrancos @flickr
Many organic compounds arereadily absorbed through the skin solvents pesticides organo-metal  compounds
Ingestion can occur due to: Foodstuff  contamination Drinking water  contamination
Distribution              and storageAbsorption                       Elimination             Biotransfromation
Distribution Transport by  blood Substances  released from  storage
Storage Fat Bones Blood Liver and kidney Other organs / tissues
Dioxin and PCP trends in mothers milk monitored in Sweden http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1...
Distribution              and storageAbsorption                       Elimination             Biotransfromation
Biotransformation  Occurs mainly in   the liver  Also in lungs,   kidney & intestine
Biotransformation                 Phase I reactions                 • Oxidation                 • Reduction               ...
BiotransformationSometimes biotransformation increases toxicity
Distribution              and storageAbsorption                       Elimination             Biotransfromation
ExcretionKidney   urine   water soluble   compounds
ExcretionLungs   volatile    compounds   gaseous    metabolites
ExcretionLiver   bile   fat soluble   compounds
ExcretionOther routes   Hair   Nails   Skin   Sweat   Milk
Biological Half Life - time taken for half theamount of the substance absorbed to be excreted                   150       ...
Some Half Lives Toluene    ~ 10 hours Selenium   ~ 10 days Mercury    ~ 6 weeks Lead       ~ 10 years or more
Site of EffectLocal      At site of contactSystemic   Following distribution
Types of Effectchronicsub-chronic                  timescalesub-acuteacute
The effect experienced depends onthe dose       Blood Alcohol Conc.    Effect             g/100ml           0.01 - 0.05   ...
Dose - Effect
Susceptibility Variation in susceptibility between individuals
Susceptibility Different doses required to produce same effect
Susceptibility The most susceptible groups include   Elderly,   Children,   People with pre-existing   disease
Susceptibility Inter-species variation
Dose - Response
Dose - Response      Threshold Dose
LD50 – Median Lethal Dose
Some LD50s                               mg/kg body weight   ETHYL ALCOHOL                  7060   SODIUM CHLORIDE      ...
PollutionEffects on Human HealthDirect effectsIndirect effects
Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
Without effective responses,climate change will compromise:Water quality and quantityFood securityControl of infectious...
Chemicals in the EnvironmentChemical reactionsPhotochemical reactionsBiological transformationBioaccumulation
Exposure to Pollutants                                 MixedConcentration   Accumulation                               exp...
Evidence for Effects of PollutionAnimal experimentsHuman volunteer studiesEpidemiological evidence
Irritation             Billablubb@Flickr
Irritation             Megyarsh@Flickr
Irritation             Jess and Colin@Flickr
CorrosiveDestroys tissue                  Leo Reynolds@Flickr
Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD)  Chronic bronchitis  Emphysema
Emphysema
Asthma
SensitisersCause allergic reaction in susceptible individuals
SensitisersCannot identify susceptible individuals!
SensitisersDevelops gradually
SensitisersNot always easy to identify causative agent
CancerUnregulated growth and proliferation of cells
CarcinogensLong latency period
Latency Periods  Site      Agent                Average   Range                                 (years)   (years)  Skin   ...
MutagensTeratogensSystemic effects
Toxicological Interactions Independent Additive Synergistic Potentiation Antagonism
London 1952
“Higher levels ofPM(10) and NO(2),which are typicallymarkers of trafficrelated pollution,seem to be associatedwith transie...
“.. air pollution maybe associated withbringing eventsforward in time("short-termdisplacement") ratherthan increasing over...
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants                 Animal                 experiments
There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants                 Epidemiology
Problems with animalexperiments
Problems with animalexperiments               Inter-species               variation
Problems with animalexperiments               They evaluate:               acute effects from               high doses of ...
Problems with animalexperiments                 Ethics
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies                Simultaneous                exposure to many                environmen...
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies                Other exposures to                chemicals
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies                Other confounders                such as                • temperature,...
Problems with epidemiologicalstudies                Low level effects                are difficult to                quant...
Air pollution is estimated to cause1,152,000 deaths per year worldwide            Source: World Health Organisation (2006)...
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/globatmos/gagccukem.htm
Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
Carbon MonoxideChemical asphyxiant
Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide
Sulphur dioxide   http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf20.htm
Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsSoluble acid gasUpper respiratory tract irritation
Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsIncreased effect on people with pre-existing respiratory disease
Indirect effect fromsulphur dioxide :“acid rain”
http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemnox.htm
Nitrogen DioxideDeep lung irritantLess evidence for effect on pre-existing conditions
Nitrogen oxides, as acidicGases can also contributeTo “acid rain”
VOCs  http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf23.htm
VOCs - Direct effectsDepends on compound
VOCs - Indirect effectsPhotochemical ozone formationOzone depletionClimate change
Ozone Depletion                                       Reduced stratospheric ozone CFCs Chlorohydrocarbons                 ...
OzoneProduced by photochemical reactionsDeep lung irritant
Ozone - Acute effectsReduced lung functionAggravates asthmaDamages lining of respiratory passages
Ozone - Chronic effectsPermanent reduction in lung function?
Fig 2Estimated number of acute adverse health effectsavoided by meeting the 1997 US EPA Ozone Ambient AirQuality standard ...
Particulate Matter
PM2.5Approximates therespirable fraction
PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency...
Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp...
Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5, 2005(attributable annual mortality per 10 000 people)                               ...
Particulate Matter              Acute Effects                                  Chronic Effects   Lung inflammatory reactio...
ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:709–742
Lead concentrations in childrens blood, and         lead in petrol (tonne) sold in Sweden 1976-2003.                      ...
Change in mercury concentration in human    and animal hair from Greenlandhttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/...
Water andLand Pollution
Mercury - The Minamata IncidentMinamata Bay, Japan, 1950sChisso Corporation
Mercury - The Minamata Incident   Inorganic mercury discharged        Biotransformed to         methylmercury     Bioaccum...
Initial Symptoms  Peripheral sensory loss         Delirium  Disturbed speech, vision        and hearing       Disturbed gait
Severe Cases     General paralysis,  involuntary movements       Convulsions         Death
Camelford Incident 1988, Camelford, Cornwall Aluminium sulphate contamination of water supply
Short term effectsNauseaVomitingMouth ulcersSkin rashes
Longer term effectsMemory loss?Effects on cerebal function?
Source: Arsenic in groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in Bangladesh.J.M. McArthur, P. Rave...
Effects of Arsenic PollutionSkin  keratonosis  Melanosis
Effects of Arsenic PollutionGastrointestinal disturbancesCancer
http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
Websites US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Tutor    http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html UK DEFRA air q...
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Pollution And Human Health
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Pollution And Human Health

30,148

Published on

An introduction to the effects of pollution on human health

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
2 Comments
8 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
30,148
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,268
Comments
2
Likes
8
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Pollution And Human Health

    1. 1. Mike Slater
    2. 2. Content Sources of pollution How pollutants can affect humans Examples of common pollutants and their effects
    3. 3. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
    4. 4. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
    5. 5. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
    6. 6. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beDirectIndirect
    7. 7. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beImmediateDelayed
    8. 8. Paracelsus (1493-1541)"All substances arepoisons ; there is nonewhich is not a poison.The right dosedifferentiates a poisonfrom a remedy"
    9. 9. Risk is the likelihood that harmwill occur in practice RISK = Hazard x Exposure
    10. 10. Exposure to Pollutants Air pollution Settlement Direct inhalation Rain animals Food Ground pollution drinking water & fish Water pollution Plants
    11. 11. Routes of Entry
    12. 12. Routes of EntryInhalation
    13. 13. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestion
    14. 14. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestionSkin contact
    15. 15. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    16. 16. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    17. 17. InhalationGasesAerosols
    18. 18. Head Airways Region
    19. 19. Tracheo-bronchial Region
    20. 20. Gas Exchange Region
    21. 21. 100 TotalDeposition Fraction relativeto ambient aerosol (DF, %) 80 Extrathoracic Tracheobronchiolar 60 Alveolar 40 20 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle Diameter (Dp, micrometer)
    22. 22. ISO Criteria for Dust 120 Inhalable 100 Thoracic 80 Respirable % retained 60 40 20 0 1 10 100 Aerodynamic diameter (um)
    23. 23. EN 12341:1998 PM10 - A target specification for sampling thoracic particles 120 100 80cummulative % 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aerodynamic diameter (microns)
    24. 24. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% atan aerodynamic diameter of 2.5micrometres”
    25. 25. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
    26. 26. TheSkinbfcfrancos @flickr
    27. 27. Many organic compounds arereadily absorbed through the skin solvents pesticides organo-metal compounds
    28. 28. Ingestion can occur due to: Foodstuff contamination Drinking water contamination
    29. 29. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    30. 30. Distribution Transport by blood Substances released from storage
    31. 31. Storage Fat Bones Blood Liver and kidney Other organs / tissues
    32. 32. Dioxin and PCP trends in mothers milk monitored in Sweden http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1843
    33. 33. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    34. 34. Biotransformation  Occurs mainly in the liver  Also in lungs, kidney & intestine
    35. 35. Biotransformation Phase I reactions • Oxidation • Reduction • hydrolysisPhase II reactions• Conjugation• Synthesis Metabolites Elimination
    36. 36. BiotransformationSometimes biotransformation increases toxicity
    37. 37. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
    38. 38. ExcretionKidney  urine  water soluble compounds
    39. 39. ExcretionLungs  volatile compounds  gaseous metabolites
    40. 40. ExcretionLiver  bile  fat soluble compounds
    41. 41. ExcretionOther routes  Hair  Nails  Skin  Sweat  Milk
    42. 42. Biological Half Life - time taken for half theamount of the substance absorbed to be excreted 150 100 Body burden 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 time
    43. 43. Some Half Lives Toluene ~ 10 hours Selenium ~ 10 days Mercury ~ 6 weeks Lead ~ 10 years or more
    44. 44. Site of EffectLocal At site of contactSystemic Following distribution
    45. 45. Types of Effectchronicsub-chronic timescalesub-acuteacute
    46. 46. The effect experienced depends onthe dose Blood Alcohol Conc. Effect g/100ml 0.01 - 0.05 Subclinical 0.032 - 0.12 Euphoria 0.09 - 0.25 Excitement 0.18 - 0.30 Confusion 0.25 - 0.40 Stupor 0.35 - 0.50 Coma 0.45 + Death
    47. 47. Dose - Effect
    48. 48. Susceptibility Variation in susceptibility between individuals
    49. 49. Susceptibility Different doses required to produce same effect
    50. 50. Susceptibility The most susceptible groups include  Elderly,  Children,  People with pre-existing disease
    51. 51. Susceptibility Inter-species variation
    52. 52. Dose - Response
    53. 53. Dose - Response Threshold Dose
    54. 54. LD50 – Median Lethal Dose
    55. 55. Some LD50s mg/kg body weight ETHYL ALCOHOL 7060 SODIUM CHLORIDE 3000 NAPHTHALENE 1760 FERROUS SULFATE 1500 ASPIRIN 1000 FORMALDEHYDE 800 AMMONIA 350 CAFFEINE 192 PHENOBARBITAL 150 CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE 118 DDT 100 STRYCHNINE SULFATE 2 NICOTINE 1 DIOXIN 0.0001 BOTULINUS TOXIN 0.00001
    56. 56. PollutionEffects on Human HealthDirect effectsIndirect effects
    57. 57. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
    58. 58. Without effective responses,climate change will compromise:Water quality and quantityFood securityControl of infectious diseaseProtection from disasters
    59. 59. Chemicals in the EnvironmentChemical reactionsPhotochemical reactionsBiological transformationBioaccumulation
    60. 60. Exposure to Pollutants MixedConcentration Accumulation exposures
    61. 61. Evidence for Effects of PollutionAnimal experimentsHuman volunteer studiesEpidemiological evidence
    62. 62. Irritation Billablubb@Flickr
    63. 63. Irritation Megyarsh@Flickr
    64. 64. Irritation Jess and Colin@Flickr
    65. 65. CorrosiveDestroys tissue Leo Reynolds@Flickr
    66. 66. Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD)  Chronic bronchitis  Emphysema
    67. 67. Emphysema
    68. 68. Asthma
    69. 69. SensitisersCause allergic reaction in susceptible individuals
    70. 70. SensitisersCannot identify susceptible individuals!
    71. 71. SensitisersDevelops gradually
    72. 72. SensitisersNot always easy to identify causative agent
    73. 73. CancerUnregulated growth and proliferation of cells
    74. 74. CarcinogensLong latency period
    75. 75. Latency Periods Site Agent Average Range (years) (years) Skin Arsenic 25 4-46 Coal tar and pitch 20 1-50 Solar radiation 25 15-40 Lung Asbestos 18 15-48 Blood Benzene 3-19 Bladder Aromatic amines 15 2-40
    76. 76. MutagensTeratogensSystemic effects
    77. 77. Toxicological Interactions Independent Additive Synergistic Potentiation Antagonism
    78. 78. London 1952
    79. 79. “Higher levels ofPM(10) and NO(2),which are typicallymarkers of trafficrelated pollution,seem to be associatedwith transientlyincreased risk ofmyocardial infarction1-6 hours afterexposure,..”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
    80. 80. “.. air pollution maybe associated withbringing eventsforward in time("short-termdisplacement") ratherthan increasing overallrisk. ”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
    81. 81. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants
    82. 82. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Animal experiments
    83. 83. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Epidemiology
    84. 84. Problems with animalexperiments
    85. 85. Problems with animalexperiments Inter-species variation
    86. 86. Problems with animalexperiments They evaluate: acute effects from high doses of single substances over a short period
    87. 87. Problems with animalexperiments Ethics
    88. 88. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies
    89. 89. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Simultaneous exposure to many environmental pollutants
    90. 90. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other exposures to chemicals
    91. 91. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other confounders such as • temperature, • smoking
    92. 92. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Low level effects are difficult to quantify
    93. 93. Air pollution is estimated to cause1,152,000 deaths per year worldwide Source: World Health Organisation (2006) Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease
    94. 94. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/globatmos/gagccukem.htm
    95. 95. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
    96. 96. Carbon MonoxideChemical asphyxiant
    97. 97. Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide
    98. 98. Sulphur dioxide http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf20.htm
    99. 99. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsSoluble acid gasUpper respiratory tract irritation
    100. 100. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsIncreased effect on people with pre-existing respiratory disease
    101. 101. Indirect effect fromsulphur dioxide :“acid rain”
    102. 102. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemnox.htm
    103. 103. Nitrogen DioxideDeep lung irritantLess evidence for effect on pre-existing conditions
    104. 104. Nitrogen oxides, as acidicGases can also contributeTo “acid rain”
    105. 105. VOCs http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf23.htm
    106. 106. VOCs - Direct effectsDepends on compound
    107. 107. VOCs - Indirect effectsPhotochemical ozone formationOzone depletionClimate change
    108. 108. Ozone Depletion Reduced stratospheric ozone CFCs Chlorohydrocarbons Immune system Skin cancer Cataracts supression
    109. 109. OzoneProduced by photochemical reactionsDeep lung irritant
    110. 110. Ozone - Acute effectsReduced lung functionAggravates asthmaDamages lining of respiratory passages
    111. 111. Ozone - Chronic effectsPermanent reduction in lung function?
    112. 112. Fig 2Estimated number of acute adverse health effectsavoided by meeting the 1997 US EPA Ozone Ambient AirQuality standard Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005; 115:689-699 (DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.01.056 )
    113. 113. Particulate Matter
    114. 114. PM2.5Approximates therespirable fraction
    115. 115. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% at anaerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres”
    116. 116. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
    117. 117. Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5, 2005(attributable annual mortality per 10 000 people) Source: WHO (2010) Health and Environment in Europe: Progress Assessment
    118. 118. Particulate Matter Acute Effects Chronic Effects Lung inflammatory reactions Increase in lower respiratory symptoms Respiratory symptoms Reduction in lung function in children Adverse effects on the Increase in chronic obstructive cardiovascular system pulmonary disease Increase in medication usage Reduction in lung function in adults Increase in hospital admissions Reduction in life expectancy Increase in mortalitySource: Health aspects of air pollution: Results from the WHO project "Systematic review of healthaspects of air pollution in Europe" (WHO, 2004)
    119. 119. ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:709–742
    120. 120. Lead concentrations in childrens blood, and lead in petrol (tonne) sold in Sweden 1976-2003. Lead (Pb) in blood in children, 3-12 years of age, in relation to Pb in petrol, tons per year 1800 70 1600 60 1400 Pb in petrol, ton Pb in blood, µg/l 50 1200 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Year Pb in petrol sold in Sweden Pb in blood, children 3-12 years of agehttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1845
    121. 121. Change in mercury concentration in human and animal hair from Greenlandhttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1842
    122. 122. Water andLand Pollution
    123. 123. Mercury - The Minamata IncidentMinamata Bay, Japan, 1950sChisso Corporation
    124. 124. Mercury - The Minamata Incident Inorganic mercury discharged Biotransformed to methylmercury Bioaccumulation in fish Ingestion by humans
    125. 125. Initial Symptoms Peripheral sensory loss Delirium Disturbed speech, vision and hearing Disturbed gait
    126. 126. Severe Cases General paralysis, involuntary movements Convulsions Death
    127. 127. Camelford Incident 1988, Camelford, Cornwall Aluminium sulphate contamination of water supply
    128. 128. Short term effectsNauseaVomitingMouth ulcersSkin rashes
    129. 129. Longer term effectsMemory loss?Effects on cerebal function?
    130. 130. Source: Arsenic in groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in Bangladesh.J.M. McArthur, P. Ravenscroft, S. Safiullah and M.F. Thirlwall. Water Resources Research
    131. 131. Effects of Arsenic PollutionSkin  keratonosis  Melanosis
    132. 132. Effects of Arsenic PollutionGastrointestinal disturbancesCancer
    133. 133. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
    134. 134. Websites US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Tutor  http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html UK DEFRA air quality statistics  http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemissions.htm European Environmental Agency report – “Europes environment: the third assessment - Chapter 12 - Environment and human health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/environmental_assessment_report_2003_10/Chapter12 European Environmental Agency report “Environment and Health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea_report_2005_10/en WHO Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe  http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/WHO/Progs/AIQ/activities/20030528_3 Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)  http://www.dh.gov.uk/ab/comeap/index.htm Video on Minamata incident  http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih2/chemicals/activities/lesson5.htm
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×