BIODOSIMETRY: AN OVERVIEW Joseph Albanese, Ph.D.
What is Radiation <ul><li>Radiation is energy that is produced by a source and travels through any kind of material or spa...
Normal annual exposure from man-made radiation <ul><li>Between   0.030 -   0.070 rem/yr </li></ul><ul><li>1 chest X-ray   ...
BIODOSIMETRY ….  What is it? <ul><li>Ensemble of physiological, biochemical and molecular techniques used to monitor  biol...
Clinical Symptoms as an Estimator of Radiation Dose  Nausea (5 -50%) Vomiting WBC   Severity and onset correlate directly ...
Lymphocyte Count As An Estimator of Radiation Dose Initial blood sample for concentration of circulating lymphocytes shoul...
radiation A  B Chromosomes A  B Chromosomes break and rejoin A B A B DNA duplication Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrat...
Dicentric Chromosome Present In A  Cell Treated With Low Dose Radiation
Number of abnormal chromosomes Radiation dose absorbed  Radiation Dose Is Determined By the Number of Dicentric Chromosome...
Quantity of chromosome aberrations (Biodosimetry Laboratory) Rate of decline in  lymphocytes (Hematology Laboratory) Clini...
Responders To Terrorist or Accidental Dispersal of Nuclear Materials <ul><li>Local Fire and Police Departments, Emergency ...
How the Biodosimetry Laboratory Can Assist Responding Agencies Meet Their Responsibilities <ul><li>Providing information r...
<ul><ul><li>Provide educational material explaining the basic principles of  radioactivity in order to minimize fear of ra...
Biodosimetry Laboratory Requires Assistance In Incidences Involving Mass-Casualties <ul><li>I. Hospital Radiation Safety O...
Summary: Objectives of Biodosimetry To assist in medical management of victims in the hospital for radiation accidents inv...
Summary: Role of the Biodosimetry Laboratory Develop protocols for blood collection and processing Establish chain-of cust...
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Biodosimetry

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Biodosimetry

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  • Many of the clinical symptoms many be due to other factors (stress, medication etc) other than radiation toxicity, therefore, other methods are required to confirm radiation exposure/absorption. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations serve this purpose.
  • The immediate objectives of the biodosimetry lab is tp determine absorbed dose, predict near-future health consequences of this dose, and pass the information on to physicians so that they can provide the appropriate medical attention. In order to do that, the data from several parameters is required and necessitates the participation of the physicians, and hematology labs.
  • Biodosimetry

    1. 1. BIODOSIMETRY: AN OVERVIEW Joseph Albanese, Ph.D.
    2. 2. What is Radiation <ul><li>Radiation is energy that is produced by a source and travels through any kind of material or space. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>High-energy atoms (e.g. radon, cobalt, iodine) tend to release or emit excess energy. This emission is called radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation can also be produced by high voltage devices such as X-ray machines </li></ul>Lead Aluminum  Alpha  Beta  Gamma, X-Rays
    3. 3. Normal annual exposure from man-made radiation <ul><li>Between 0.030 - 0.070 rem/yr </li></ul><ul><li>1 chest X-ray 0.010 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Products 0.010 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Air Travel Round trip (NY-LA) 0.005 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Watching Color TV 0.001 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping with another person 0.001 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear industry < 0.001 rem </li></ul>Sources of Background Radiation Normal annual exposure from natural radiation <ul><li>Approx. 0.3 rem/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Radon gas 0.200 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Human body 0.040 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks, soil 0.028 rem </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmic rays 0.027 rem </li></ul>
    4. 4. BIODOSIMETRY …. What is it? <ul><li>Ensemble of physiological, biochemical and molecular techniques used to monitor biological indicators in order to determine the dose of radiation that has penetrated into an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, PHYSICAL DOSIMETRIC methods, for example </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Film badge or thermoluminescence dosimeter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geiger counter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scintillation counter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>monitor radiation in the immediate environment of an individual.
    5. 5. Clinical Symptoms as an Estimator of Radiation Dose Nausea (5 -50%) Vomiting WBC Severity and onset correlate directly with dose and inversely with prognosis Low blood pressure Severe fluid loss LoC Convulsions Coma < 0.37 rem 100 rem 250 rem 650 rem Vomiting (50 – 100%) WBC Fatigue Severe Vomiting (100%) Diarrhea Cramps Bleeding - mouth, kidneys > 1000 rem Prognosis Prognosis Excellent Very Good Good - poor Death ( background radiation )
    6. 6. Lymphocyte Count As An Estimator of Radiation Dose Initial blood sample for concentration of circulating lymphocytes should be obtained as soon as possible following radiation exposure 24 hours after initial assessment, additional comparative samples should be taken Lymphocyte Levels Early Consequences ~ Dose (rem) (% of initial count) 100% zero or minimal dose absorption < 150 90 – 70% moderate radiation injury; 175 - 250 prone to infections, slow wound healing 65 – 35% severe radiation injury; 300 - 650 infections, hemorrhage 35 - 5% potentially fatal dose; 700 – 1 000 general blood cell suppression not detectable supralethal dose; > 3 000 cardiovascular neurological damage
    7. 7. radiation A B Chromosomes A B Chromosomes break and rejoin A B A B DNA duplication Radiation-induced chromosomal aberration Normal chromosome duplication DNA duplication Basis of Chromosome Analysis (Dicentric Analysis) Number of aberrations is proportional to dose absorbed
    8. 8. Dicentric Chromosome Present In A Cell Treated With Low Dose Radiation
    9. 9. Number of abnormal chromosomes Radiation dose absorbed Radiation Dose Is Determined By the Number of Dicentric Chromosomes Observed in Cells The greater the number of dicentric chromosomes, the greater the absorbed dose
    10. 10. Quantity of chromosome aberrations (Biodosimetry Laboratory) Rate of decline in lymphocytes (Hematology Laboratory) Clinical symptoms (Physician) Future Health Risk Absorbed Dose Estimate Biological Indicators As Predictors of Health Outcome Immediate Medical Management Long-term effects -Cancer risk -Hereditary
    11. 11. Responders To Terrorist or Accidental Dispersal of Nuclear Materials <ul><li>Local Fire and Police Departments, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) </li></ul><ul><li>State Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Emergency Management (OEM) </li></ul><ul><li>HAZMAT teams </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li> Acute care hospitals and urgent care centers </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities include: </li></ul><ul><li> Limiting further damage  Decontamination </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the public  Disposing of radioactive material Collecting and preserving Treatment of injured and walking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>evidence wounded </li></ul>  
    12. 12. How the Biodosimetry Laboratory Can Assist Responding Agencies Meet Their Responsibilities <ul><li>Providing information regarding the likely clinical effects of radiation exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a wider population that might have been exposed – does it involve other regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary risk assessment regarding likelihood of long-term health effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Test and confirm that the majority of individuals have not been exposed to radiation, thus maintaining order by alleviating anxiety </li></ul> 
    13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Provide educational material explaining the basic principles of radioactivity in order to minimize fear of radiation that often affects individuals responding to radiological incidences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide educational program in order to instruct physicians how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Radiation levels are quantified in individuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Radiation alters the function of cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Victims with radiation injuries can be recognized </li></ul></ul></ul>How the Biodosimetry Laboratory Can Assist Responding Agencies Meet Their Responsibilities  
    14. 14. Biodosimetry Laboratory Requires Assistance In Incidences Involving Mass-Casualties <ul><li>I. Hospital Radiation Safety Officer: </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that blood samples are drawn, in a timely fashion, from individuals that may have been exposed to radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital Hematology Laboratory: </li></ul><ul><li>Perform blood cell counts </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation of white blood cells from whole-blood samples </li></ul><ul><li>Initial preparation of white blood cells samples for DNA analysis (tissue culture). </li></ul>   
    15. 15. Summary: Objectives of Biodosimetry To assist in medical management of victims in the hospital for radiation accidents involving large numbers of casualties. To predict short- and long-term health effects of radiation exposure.
    16. 16. Summary: Role of the Biodosimetry Laboratory Develop protocols for blood collection and processing Establish chain-of custody protocols to preserve evidence Perform DNA damage analysis Corroborate clinical information, with DNA analysis to predict short-term and protracted health consequences of absorbed radiation dose. As part of the State of Connecticut Emergency Response, the Biodosimetry Laboratory will provide a training/education component regarding sample collection and processing.

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