Environmental Problems And Health Risks


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Environmental Problems and Health Risks

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  • Environmental Problems And Health Risks

    1. 1. Environmental Problems and Health Risks Ashok Kumar School of Biotechnology Banaras Hindu University
    2. 2. Man and Environment: DEPENDENCE and INTERACTIONS Compounds Dependence Spill off Air Oxygen Wastes Water Energy Life Support Soil Raw materials Pollutants Minerals Soil, Water Habitat Light ? Energy ?
    3. 3. Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment in Action Environment Processes (Biotic and Abiotic) Transformation New Products (Good and Bad) Damage to Environment (By bad one) Repair (up to a limit) Regain the originality End point of Repair: The origin of Problems
    4. 4. Major Environmental Problems (South East Asia) <ul><li>Industrial Effluents </li></ul><ul><li>Man made chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Natural agents </li></ul><ul><li>Most Abundant and common </li></ul><ul><li>Arsenic </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Arsenic poisoning is thought to be responsible for the deaths of some well known historical figures such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claudius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Pius III and Clemente XIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Francis Hall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. As : A Global problem <ul><li>200 million people worldwide are at risk to As exposure (NRC, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Several regions in the World are above the WHO’s maximum permissible limit. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Bangladesh - Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- India - Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- China - Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Argentina - U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Chile - Nepal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico - Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Arsenic pollution in the world <ul><li>Several nations in the world such as Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Chile, China, Hungary, India, Mexico, Peru, Thailand, and the U.S. have shown concentrations higher than the guideline value of 10 ug/L of the WHO. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure have been documented in China, Bangladesh, India (West Bengal), and the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, the worst problem exists in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) where millions are being exposed to unhealthy amounts of arsenic through drinking water. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Features of As <ul><li>More than 20 arsenic species are present in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Various arsenic species can be metabolized </li></ul><ul><li>Different arsenic species have dramatically different toxicities </li></ul>
    9. 9. Natural Arsenic Levels <ul><li>Crystalline Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Water </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Water </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. 2 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>1-40 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>0.01 – 800 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>As high as 40,000 in hot springs </li></ul><ul><li>2.38 – 65 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>As high as 22,000 in river water </li></ul>
    10. 10. Health Effects <ul><li>Keratosis </li></ul>
    11. 11. Cancers Associated with Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water <ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Lung </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate </li></ul>
    12. 12. Source of Energy
    13. 13. Solar radiation on the Earth’s surface
    14. 14. BAD GOOD
    15. 15. What Prevents Bad Effects of Solar Radiation
    16. 16. Layers of the Atmosphere “ Smog” Ozone Ozone Amount Altitude (Kilometers) “ Good Ozone” “ Bad Ozone”
    17. 17. “ Good “ and “Bad” Ozone <ul><li>Stratospheric “Good” Ozone: absorbs incident UV radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground-level “Bad” Ozone: high levels toxic to living systems. </li></ul>
    18. 18. OZONE LAYER
    19. 19. Is UV Radiation on Increase?
    20. 20. Ozone Layer Depleting Chemicals <ul><li>chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) </li></ul><ul><li>carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>methyl chloroform (CH 3 CCl 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>hydrochloric acid (HCl) </li></ul><ul><li>methyl chloride (CH 3 Cl) </li></ul><ul><li>methyl bromide(CH 3 Br) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Supersonic Jet & CFC Release
    22. 22. Global Ozone Field Ozone Hole
    23. 23. Impacts of Ozone Depletion <ul><li>Increase in UV-B Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul>
    24. 24. Ultraviolet Radiation - UV <ul><li>What is Ultraviolet Radiation? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Ultraviolet Radiation - UV <ul><li>UV-A (320 400 nm) —causes skin aging & wrinkles. Used in tanning beds. Colors skin and gives false sense of protection from the sun. UVA rays pass effortlessly through the ozone layer. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Ultraviolet Radiation - UV <ul><li>UV- B (280-320 nm) —causes sunburns, cataracts, immune system damage, skin cancer. Melanoma may be associated with severe UVB sunburns occurring before the age of 20. Most UVB rays are absorbed by the ozone layer. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Ultraviolet Radiation - UV <ul><li>UV- C (200-280 nm) —these rays are the most dangerous. Fortunately, these rays are blocked by the ozone layer and don’t reach the Earth. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Another View of Sun
    29. 29. Ultraviolet Radiation - UV <ul><li>Even on cloudy, cool, or overcast days, UV rays travel through the clouds and reflect off sand, water, snow, and even concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds and pollution don’t filter out UV rays, and can give a false sense of protection. </li></ul><ul><li>This “invisible sun” can cause unexpected sunburn and skin damage. </li></ul>
    30. 30. UV Exposure & Health <ul><li>Eye: Cataracts, universal problem </li></ul><ul><li>Even low amounts of sunlight can increase the risk of eye disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>UVB damage to the eyes is cumulative, so it is never too late to start protecting your eyes. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Effects of UV Exposure <ul><li>Skin Damage </li></ul>
    32. 32. Effects of UV Exposure <ul><li>There are about 1.3 million new cases of skin cancer in the U.S. each year, resulting in about 9,800 deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma is one type of skin cancer. It is the most common cancer among women between the ages of 25 and 29. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Effects of UV Exposure <ul><li>Scientists believe sunburns can alter the body’s immune system for up to 24 hours after exposure to the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated overexposure to UV radiation can cause more damage to the body’s immune system, even in people with dark skin. </li></ul>
    34. 34. UV Health Effects <ul><li>Short Term overexposure to UV-B: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UV-B causes sunburn (erythema) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunburn can prevent your body from eliminating heat efficiently and can contribute to heat stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term overexposure to UV-B: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several severe sun burns linked to melanoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One person dies of skin cancer per hour in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained exposure linked to squamous and basal skin cancers – non lethal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cataracts of eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term overexposure to UV-A: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aging of skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of elasticity (leathery look) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small amounts of UV radiation needed for Vitamin-D </li></ul>
    35. 35. Protection to UV-B Exposure
    36. 36. Guidelines for Protection <ul><li>Eye Protection </li></ul>
    37. 37. Guidelines for Protection <ul><li>Tanning Protection </li></ul>
    38. 38. Guidelines for Protection <ul><li>Protective Clothing </li></ul>
    39. 39. Indirect Effects Having Effects on Human survival (Agricultural Productivity)
    40. 40. N fertilizer factory in Rice-field (cyanobacteria) Rice-field Rice-field Anabaena Calothrix Scytonema N. commune
    41. 41. UV-B effects on Ultrastructure of Cell
    42. 42. UV-B effects and loss of photosynthetic pigments
    43. 43. Effects of UV-B on total protein profile
    44. 44. Gene Expression with UV-B <ul><li>Gene expression in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 </li></ul><ul><li>[----------------------------------------------] </li></ul><ul><li>3168 (ORFs) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Microarray </li></ul><ul><li>UV-B Dose Transcript Response </li></ul><ul><li>Induction Repression </li></ul><ul><li>20 µ E m -2 S -1 (120 min) </li></ul><ul><li>20 min 55 (2 fold) 44 (2 fold) </li></ul><ul><li>120 min 21 40 </li></ul><ul><li>60 µ E m -2 S -1 (120 min) 146 159 </li></ul><ul><li>Psa A & Psa B - about 20 fold repression after 2 h </li></ul><ul><li>(for PS I) </li></ul><ul><li>D1 processing protease ( ctp A) - 2 to 3 fold increase </li></ul><ul><li>PBS- apc A, B, C, E, </li></ul><ul><li>cpc A, B, C, D, G - Down regulation </li></ul>
    45. 45. Scytonemin as a photoprotective compound
    46. 46. Water Blooms Concern for Human Health
    47. 47. 1- Lakshmikund 2- Durgakund 3- Kandawa pond 4- Laat Bhairov pond 5- Pishach Mochan Kund 1 2 3 4 5
    48. 48. Polluted Pond Air space
    49. 49. Why Concern for Human Health? <ul><li>Presence of Toxic Cyanobacterium </li></ul><ul><li>Over growth of Microcystis aeruginosa bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Shows allelopathic effects </li></ul><ul><li>Appears due to eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Health Concern </li></ul><ul><li>Produces hepatotoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Microcystin a heptapeptide having MW of 909 to 1067 dalton </li></ul><ul><li>Very stable and not easily biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Dose more lethal than cobra toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Released in pond water </li></ul><ul><li>Killings of human, pets, fishes etc. reported </li></ul>
    50. 50. Colony Morphology
    51. 51. BIOASSAYS Survival (LD 50 ) Circulatory complications Liver morphology
    52. 52. Peripheral Blood Supply Peripheral Blood Supply IP 100 μl Cell free crude extract (1.5 mg mcyt) Loss of blood Supply Control Treated
    53. 53. Normal blood supply Control 100 μl Cell free crude extract (1.5 mg mcyt) IP 10.31% increase in %L/B ratio Blood pooling and leakage of blood capillaries
    54. 54. Remedial Approach- 1 Raw Materials Process Waste RECOVERY Of valuable compounds Water Energy RECYCLING New Products <ul><li>The Five R Policies : </li></ul><ul><li>Process modifications aimed at the reduction of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstock substitutions seeking the replacement of toxic or </li></ul><ul><li>hazardous raw materials for more environment-friendly inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of water, energy or inputs by means of reuse and/or </li></ul><ul><li>recovery practices </li></ul><ul><li>4. Good housekeeping and management practices, applying the reuse </li></ul><ul><li>and/or recovery practices </li></ul>
    55. 55. Remedial Approach-II : Biotechnological Tools <ul><li>Microbes: The Real Player </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genomic Modifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate mutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify cell functions/metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop super strains by Rec-DNA Technology (GEM/GMO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in Bioremediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process development </li></ul></ul>Transposon Genome Plasmids
    56. 56. OCT CAM - Camphor OCT - Octane XYL - Xylene NAH - Naphthalene DEVELOPMENT OF BACTERIAL STRAIN FOR DEGRADATION OF VARIOUS ORGANIC POLLUTANTS Biotechnological Approach Biotechnological Tools CAM C + T XYL NAH
    57. 57. <ul><li>Biotechnological Approaches : </li></ul><ul><li>Bioremediation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be done on site </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps site disruption to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates transportation costs and liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates long-term liability </li></ul><ul><li>Uses biological systems, often less expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Can be coupled with other treatment techniques into a treatment train </li></ul><ul><li>B. Bioremediation Types ; </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoremediation </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial Systems: single strain/Microbial consortiums </li></ul><ul><li>For remediation of various pollutants/xenobionts such as industrial wastes, </li></ul><ul><li>pesticides, heavy metals etc. </li></ul><ul><li> Commercially available metal biosorbents </li></ul><ul><li>BIOCLAM: Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>AlgaSORB: Algae </li></ul><ul><li>BIO-FIX: Ulva sp., Spirulina, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lemna sp. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Commonly Used Genetically Engineered Microbes Name Altered Trait Genets Transferred Pseudomonas Altered pathway regula- Tol plasimid catabolic enzymes tion E. coli Metal removal from waste Metallothionein (human) water E. Coli Polychlorinated biphenyl Entire pathway ( Pseudomonas sp.) metabolism In-vivo Engineering of Bacteria for the Degradation of Xenobiotics and Toxic Wastes Bacterium Substrate Pseudomonas cepacia 2,4,5-trichlorophenylacetic acid P. Putida Chlorobenzenes Alcaligenes sp. Dechlorophenoxyacetic acid mixed chlorophenols
    59. 59. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>