Bones and Joints

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Bones and Joints

  1. 1. SKELETAL SYSTEM<br />
  2. 2. SKELETON<br />
  3. 3. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON<br />Protection of vital organs<br />Levers for Movement<br />Provide a bony framework for Support<br />To Produce blood cells (red and white)<br />To provide surfaces for Muscle attachment<br />To Store minerals (calcium and phosphorus)<br />
  4. 4. AXIAL & APPENDICULAR SKELETON<br />AppendicularAxial<br />This comprises of: This comprises of:<br />Upper Limbs Cranium<br />2 Clavicles Vertebrae<br />2 Scapulae Sternum<br />Lower Limbs Ribs<br />Pelvis <br />
  5. 5. BONE CLASSIFICATION<br />Long ->Humerus, Tibia<br />Short -> Carpals, Tarsals<br />Flat -> Ribs, Sternum<br />Irregular -> Vertebrae, Facial bones<br />Sesamoid-> Patella<br />
  6. 6. BONE FORMATION-OSSIFICATION<br />Ossification<br />Osteoblasts- These are bone Building cells<br />Osteoclasts- These break down & Clean old bone <br />Factors Affecting Bone Formation<br />Nutrition<br />Exposure to sunlight<br />Hormonal secretions<br />Physical exercise<br />
  7. 7. OSTEOPOROSIS<br />Osteoporosis means ‘porous bone’<br />Osteo – Bone<br />Osis – Degeneration<br />Also known as Brittle Bone disease.<br />
  8. 8. OSTEOPOROSIS<br />Factors that cause Osteoperosis-<br />Insufficient Calcium Intake.<br />Insufficient Vitamin D.<br />Poor Nutrition and dieting.<br />Amenorrhea: Loss of periods.<br />Menopause.<br />Weight Bearing exercise increases bone density.<br />
  9. 9. STRUCTURE OF A LONG BONE<br />
  10. 10. THE SPINE<br />
  11. 11. THE SPINE<br />Intervertebral Discs-<br />The Vertebrae are separated by discs which are made of fibrocartilage.<br />The function of the discs is to absorb shock.<br />
  12. 12. SPINAL ABNORMALTIES<br />Normal Lordosis Kyphosis Scoliosis<br />
  13. 13. JOINTS<br />
  14. 14. TYPES OF JOINT<br />Fibrous<br />Cartilaginous<br />Synovial<br />
  15. 15. TYPES OF JOINT<br />Fibrous Joints<br />Also known as Immovable or Fixed joints<br /><ul><li>These joints can not move as they have fibrous tissue between the bones.
  16. 16. Example: Plates in the skull</li></li></ul><li>TYPES OF JOINT<br />Cartilaginous Joints<br />Also known as a Slightly movable joint<br />There is a pad of fibrocartilage between the bones that form the joint.<br /> This allows for slight movement where the pad of the cartilage is compressed.<br /> Examples: Joint between Ribs and Sternum. <br />
  17. 17. TYPES OF JOINT<br />Synovial Joints<br />Also known as Freely moveable joints<br />They allow a wide range of movement.<br />There are 6 types of Synovial Joints:<br />Ball & Socket<br />Gliding<br />Pivot<br />Ellipsoid/Condyloid<br />Saddle<br />Hinge<br />
  18. 18. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Ball & Socket<br />The Hip<br />
  19. 19. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Hinge<br />The Knee<br />
  20. 20. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Pivot<br />Atlas-Axis Joint<br />
  21. 21. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Saddle<br />Carpo-metacarpal Joint<br />
  22. 22. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Plane (Gliding)<br />Acromio-clavicular Joint<br />
  23. 23. SYNOVIAL JOINTS<br />Ellipsoid <br />Interphalange<br />
  24. 24. STRUCTURE OF A SYNOVIAL JOINT<br />
  25. 25. CONNECTIVE TISSUE<br />Cartilage<br />Tendons<br />Ligaments<br />
  26. 26. CONNECTIVE TISSUE<br />Types of Cartilage-<br /> Hyaline<br /> Elastic<br /> Fibro<br />
  27. 27. CONNECTIVE TISSUE<br />Ligaments<br />Connect bone to bone<br /> Enhance joint stability<br /> Guide joint motion<br /> Prevent excessive motion in the joint<br />
  28. 28. CONNECTIVE TISSUE<br />Tendons<br /> Attach Muscle To Bone<br /> Transmit Forces Produced By<br /> muscle<br />
  29. 29. KINESIOLOGY<br />
  30. 30. KINESIOLOGY<br />Flexion- To reduce the angle of the joint, or to bend a limb.<br />Extension-To return from Flexion, or straightening the limb.<br />Rotation-A rotary movement, inward & outward about a long axis, i.e. thoracic vertebrae.<br />
  31. 31. KINESIOLOGY<br />Abduction-To take away from the mid-line of the body, i.e. raising the leg/arm to the side.<br />Adduction-To move towards or across the mid-line of the body, i.e. drawing the arm/leg across the front of the body.<br />
  32. 32. KINESIOLOGY<br />Horizontal flexion-A forward movement in a horizontal plane, i.e. pec dec arms.<br />Horizontal extension-A backward movement in a horizontal plane, i.e. swinging the arms away from the body.<br />
  33. 33. KINESIOLOGY<br />Lateral flexion-To bend sideways with the trunk or neck, i.e. sidebends.<br />Circumduction-To circle part of the body.<br />Elevation-Upward movement of the shoulder girdle.<br />Depression- Downward movement of the shoulder girdle.<br />
  34. 34. KINESIOLOGY<br />Protraction-Forward movement of the shoulder girdle<br />Retraction-Backward movement of the shoulder girdle<br />Pronation-Palm of the hand facing downward<br />Supination-Palm of the hand facing upward<br />
  35. 35. KINESIOLOGY<br />Dorsiflexion- To pull the toes up towards the body, i.e. heel dig.<br />Plantarflexion-To point the toes down to the floor, away from the body. For example- standing on the tip toes.<br />
  36. 36. KINESIOLOGY<br />Inversion-Sole of the foot faces the midline<br />Eversion-Sole of the foot faces away from the midline<br />
  37. 37. Effects of Exercise on Skeletal System<br />SHORT TERM (whilst exercising)<br />Increase synovial fluid production<br />LONG TERM (after training for period of time)<br />Stronger ligaments<br />Increased bone density<br />

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