Musculoskeletal

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Musculoskeletal

  1. 1. AthleteAthlete ManagementManagement Musculoskeletal systemMusculoskeletal system
  2. 2. AthleteAthlete ManagementManagement The skeletonThe skeleton
  3. 3. Functions of theFunctions of the skeletonskeleton The skeleton has four basic functionsThe skeleton has four basic functions  Support the organs and tissuesSupport the organs and tissues  Protection for the internal organsProtection for the internal organs  Attachment for the muscles to allowAttachment for the muscles to allow movementmovement  Storage site for blood cells and mineralsStorage site for blood cells and minerals
  4. 4. Structure of theStructure of the skeletonskeleton There are 206 bones inThere are 206 bones in the skeleton. It isthe skeleton. It is grouped into twogrouped into two components.components.  Axial skeletonAxial skeleton • The skullThe skull • The spineThe spine • The thorax (ribs)The thorax (ribs)  Appendicular skeletonAppendicular skeleton • The shoulder girdleThe shoulder girdle • The arm and handThe arm and hand • The leg and footThe leg and foot
  5. 5. Types of bone tissueTypes of bone tissue There are two main types of boneThere are two main types of bone tissuetissue  Compact boneCompact bone • Heavy, dense, strong bone. CoversHeavy, dense, strong bone. Covers the complete bone and is thickest inthe complete bone and is thickest in the shaft.the shaft.  Cancellous boneCancellous bone • Honeycomb appearance. StrongHoneycomb appearance. Strong and hard, less dense than compact.and hard, less dense than compact. Found mainly in the ends of bonesFound mainly in the ends of bones where they form joints.where they form joints.
  6. 6. Types of bonesTypes of bones  Long bonesLong bones  Humerus, tibia, radius,Humerus, tibia, radius, phalangesphalanges  Short bonesShort bones  Carpals and tarsalsCarpals and tarsals  Flat bonesFlat bones  Skull, ribs, pelvis andSkull, ribs, pelvis and shoulder bladesshoulder blades  Irregular bonesIrregular bones  Facial bones andFacial bones and vertebraevertebrae
  7. 7. AnatomicalAnatomical terminologyterminology  Superior – toward the headSuperior – toward the head  Inferior – toward the feetInferior – toward the feet  Anterior – frontAnterior – front  Posterior – backPosterior – back  Medial – toward the midlineMedial – toward the midline  Lateral – toward the sideLateral – toward the side  Proximal – near the trunkProximal – near the trunk  Distal – further from the trunkDistal – further from the trunk  Prone – face downProne – face down  Supine – face upSupine – face up
  8. 8. AthleteAthlete ManagementManagement The articular (joint) systemThe articular (joint) system
  9. 9. Types of jointsTypes of joints  FibrousFibrous  Occur where bones are unitedOccur where bones are united by intervening fibrous tissue egby intervening fibrous tissue eg skull and pelvisskull and pelvis  CartilaginousCartilaginous  Occur where bones are unitedOccur where bones are united by intervening cartilage egby intervening cartilage eg between vertebrae, between ribsbetween vertebrae, between ribs and sternumand sternum  SynovialSynovial  Are the most mobile andAre the most mobile and common joints eg knee, shouldercommon joints eg knee, shoulder
  10. 10. Types of synovialTypes of synovial jointsjoints Hinge jointHinge joint  Allows only back and forth movement such asAllows only back and forth movement such as bending and straightening eg knee, elbowbending and straightening eg knee, elbow  Pivot jointPivot joint  Allows only rotation eg neck between atlas and axis,Allows only rotation eg neck between atlas and axis, elbow between humerus and radiuselbow between humerus and radius  Gliding (plane) jointGliding (plane) joint  Occurs where two flat bones slide over each otherOccurs where two flat bones slide over each other eg between carpals and tarsals, ribs and thoraciceg between carpals and tarsals, ribs and thoracic vertebraevertebrae  Ball and socket jointBall and socket joint  Allows side to side, back and forth and rotationalAllows side to side, back and forth and rotational movement eg shoulder, hipmovement eg shoulder, hip
  11. 11. Movement allowed byMovement allowed by synovial jointssynovial joints  Flexion – bending, decreasing the angle between bonesFlexion – bending, decreasing the angle between bones  Extension – increases the angle between bonesExtension – increases the angle between bones  Abduction – movement away from the midlineAbduction – movement away from the midline  Adduction – movement towards the midlineAdduction – movement towards the midline  Circumduction – bone end describes a circle, bone makes a coneCircumduction – bone end describes a circle, bone makes a cone shaped movementshaped movement  Rotation – bone moves around a central axisRotation – bone moves around a central axis  Supination – palm hand facing upSupination – palm hand facing up  Pronation – palm hand facing downPronation – palm hand facing down  Eversion – sole of the foot outward of the ankleEversion – sole of the foot outward of the ankle  Inversion – sole of the fool inward of the ankleInversion – sole of the fool inward of the ankle  Dorsiflexion – raising the toes and footDorsiflexion – raising the toes and foot  Plantar flexion – pointing of the toesPlantar flexion – pointing of the toes
  12. 12. AthleteAthlete ManagementManagement The muscular systemThe muscular system
  13. 13. Muscle actionMuscle action  Muscles produce movement by pullingMuscles produce movement by pulling on bones.on bones.  Muscles are attached to bones byMuscles are attached to bones by tendons at each end.tendons at each end.  The end of the muscle that is relativelyThe end of the muscle that is relatively fixed is the origin.fixed is the origin.  The end that moves most is theThe end that moves most is the insertion.insertion.  The main body is the muscle belly.The main body is the muscle belly.  When muscles contract the origin andWhen muscles contract the origin and insertion are drawn together, causinginsertion are drawn together, causing the muscle to shorten. The attachedthe muscle to shorten. The attached bones are pulled in the direction of thebones are pulled in the direction of the movement, producing movement.movement, producing movement. This is the muscle action. Eg elbowThis is the muscle action. Eg elbow flexionflexion
  14. 14. Reciprocal inhibitionReciprocal inhibition  Muscles usually work in pairs. When a muscleMuscles usually work in pairs. When a muscle contracts (agonist), another relaxescontracts (agonist), another relaxes (antagonist). Example – triceps and biceps.(antagonist). Example – triceps and biceps. When the elbow extends, the triceps (agonist)When the elbow extends, the triceps (agonist) contract and the bicep (antagonist) relaxes.contract and the bicep (antagonist) relaxes.  This pairing of opposite muscles is calledThis pairing of opposite muscles is called ‘reciprocal inhibition’.‘reciprocal inhibition’.  Synergists are muscles that assist the agonistSynergists are muscles that assist the agonist and antagonist.and antagonist.
  15. 15. Types of musclesTypes of muscles Muscles can be described asMuscles can be described as either:either:  Voluntary (over which we haveVoluntary (over which we have control)control)  Involuntary (over which we haveInvoluntary (over which we have no direct control)no direct control) The three main types of muscleThe three main types of muscle are:are:  Smooth – found in blood vesselsSmooth – found in blood vessels and intestinal walls (involuntary)and intestinal walls (involuntary)  Cardiac – found only in the wallsCardiac – found only in the walls of the heart (involuntary)of the heart (involuntary)  Striped / striated / skeletal –Striped / striated / skeletal – external, voluntary musclesexternal, voluntary muscles
  16. 16. Main features of allMain features of all musclesmuscles  Controlled by nerve stimuli (excitability)Controlled by nerve stimuli (excitability)  Can contract (contractility)Can contract (contractility)  Can stretch (extensibility)Can stretch (extensibility)  Can return to their original shapeCan return to their original shape (elasticity)(elasticity)  Can atrophy (waste away)Can atrophy (waste away)  Can hypertrophy (enlarge)Can hypertrophy (enlarge)  Are fed by capillariesAre fed by capillaries
  17. 17. Types of muscle fibresTypes of muscle fibres  Slow twitch fibresSlow twitch fibres  Contract slowly, contract repeatedly, suitedContract slowly, contract repeatedly, suited to endurance activitiesto endurance activities  Fast twitch fibresFast twitch fibres  Contract rapidly, are easily exhausted,Contract rapidly, are easily exhausted, suited to speed activitiessuited to speed activities
  18. 18. Shape / fibreShape / fibre arrangement ofarrangement of voluntary musclesvoluntary muscles FusiformFusiform  Fibres run the length of the belly, highlyFibres run the length of the belly, highly contractile and produce largecontractile and produce large movements eg bicepsmovements eg biceps  PennatePennate Produce smaller range ofProduce smaller range of movements and are designed formovements and are designed for power and strength. There arepower and strength. There are three main types:three main types:  UnipennateUnipennate  Fibres are on one side of a centralFibres are on one side of a central tendontendon  BipennateBipennate  Fibres run off either side of a centralFibres run off either side of a central tendontendon  MultipennateMultipennate  Small tendons converge from the originSmall tendons converge from the origin to the tendon of the insertionto the tendon of the insertion
  19. 19. Types of muscularTypes of muscular contractioncontraction  IsotonicIsotonic  The length of the muscleThe length of the muscle changes to produce force.changes to produce force. There are two types:There are two types:  Concentric – muscle shortens toConcentric – muscle shortens to produce forceproduce force  Eccentric – muscle lengthens toEccentric – muscle lengthens to create forcecreate force  IsometricIsometric  Muscle length remains theMuscle length remains the same but force is still producedsame but force is still produced
  20. 20. BibliographyBibliography Glenn Amezdroz, Sue Dickens, GeoffGlenn Amezdroz, Sue Dickens, Geoff Hosford, and Damien Davis.Hosford, and Damien Davis. QueenslandQueensland Senior Physical Education.Senior Physical Education. South Yarra,South Yarra, 1999.1999. Google image search.Google image search. http://www.google.com/http://www.google.com/

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