CraniumClaviclePelvisHumerus RadiusFemurUlnaTibiaPatellaFibulaScapula(hidden)SternumVertebraeRibsPhalangesMetacarpalsCarpalsTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalangesThere are 206 bones in the human body - the larger bones are:The Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal SystemSkip tolabelleddiagram
The CraniumYour skeleton is made up of bones, which are held together at jointsby strong ‘straps’ called ligaments. It is also known as the skull. It is made up of 8 flatinterlocking bones. The lower jaw-bone ormandible is hinged to thecranium, so you can chew.
The Rib CageThe Rib Cage You have 12 pairs of ribs. All are joined to thevertebrae at the back. Most are also joined tothe sternum at the front,except the bottom 2 pairswhich are short floatingribs.
The skeleton is a rigid supporting framework of bonesinside the body, to which all the soft tissues andorgans are attached.The Functions of the SkeletonThe Functions of the SkeletonThe skeleton can:Together, the bones and muscles form a machinewhich can perform many different tasks. grow in size. repair its own broken parts. lubricate its own joints. support internal organs. Protection Support Movement Blood Cell ProductionThe 4 main functions of the Skeleton are:
ProtectionProtectionThe hard nature of bone means that the skeletoncan protect the more delicate parts of the body.Examples: The cranium (skull)protects the softtissue of the brain. The rib cage protectsthe delicate heart andlungs.
Without the skeleton, the body would beflabby and shapeless.Examples: The bones of the legs support the body. The vertebrae support the head.SupportSupport
The skeleton is jointed to allow us to move whenthe muscles attached to them contract.Example: The bones andjoints workwith musclesto enable usto walk, jogand sprint.MovementMovement The vertebraeallow us tobend, stretchand rotate ourbody.
Red and white blood cells are made in red bonemarrow which is found at the ends of the femurand humerus and in the ribs, sternum, pelvis andvertebrae.Femur::Located in the upperpart of the leg.Humerus::Located in the upperpart of the arm.BloodBlood CellCell ProductionProductionRed BoneMarrow
Movement:The joints in the spine allow bending andtwisting.Support:The spine is long and strong to support otherbody parts, e.g. the head.Protection:The spine is hard and protects the nervesrunning through the middle, i.e. the spinal cord.The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral ColumnIt is made up of 34 vertebrae, which are dividedinto 5 regions, each having its own function.
Cervical Vertebrae (7): Support the head, allowing it tobend and twist.Thoracic Vertebrae (12): The ribs are connected tothese - there is very little movement.Lumbar Vertebrae (5): These are big and allow powerfultwisting and bending of the back.Sacrum Vertebrae (5): These form one solid masswhich is fused to the pelvis.Coccyx Vertebrae (5): These are the remains of our tail.The Vertebral ColumnThe Vertebral Column
Bones start to grow inside the womb,where they begin as cartilage.CartilagePeriosteumBone MarrowSpongy BoneCompact BoneWhat are Bones made of?What are Bones made of?Vitamin D helps build bone.Calcium is a mineral whichhelps keep bones strong. Even as a fully-grown adult, thebone structure is always changing,as vitamins and minerals areconstantly replaced. As you get older this turns into hardbone by a process called ossification. Bones will only grow properly as longas certain minerals and vitamins areeaten: A poor diet will result in soft bones,whilst a balanced diet and exercisewill make the bones harder.
Bone StructureBone StructureA photomicrograph of a section of bone showingthe strong concentric pattern laid downby the bone cells and the surroundingcalcium phosphate.A photomicrograph of a section of bone showingthe strong concentric pattern laid downby the bone cells and the surroundingcalcium phosphate.CalciumphosphateCalciumphosphateBone cellsBone cells
Types of BonesTypes of BonesThere are 4 main types of bones in the human body.Long Tubular BonesLong Tubular Bones – These are long andaffect our overall height, e.g. the legs & arms(femur & humerus).Short BonesShort Bones – These are smaller and areoften found with many others, e.g. the feet &hands (phalanges).Flat BonesFlat Bones – These are flat and are oftenfound forming a protective surface, e.g. theskull (cranium) and pelvis.Irregular BonesIrregular Bones – These are irregular in shapeand have a specific function, e.g. the bones ofthe spine (vertebral column).Each type has a different size and shape because theyhave different jobs to do:
JointsJointsA joint is where two or more bones meet andmuscles act together to cause movement. The human skeleton is jointed toallow movement. Muscular contraction causes thebones to move about the joints. The bones act as levers with thejoints acting as pivots.
1. Fixed or Immoveable JointsThe bones at an immoveable joint cannot move -they overlap or interlock, and are held togetherby a tough fibre, e.g. the skull.2. Slightly Moveable JointsThe bones at a slightly moveable joint can only movea little - they are held together by strong strapscalled ligaments and are joined by protective padsknown as cartilage, e.g. the ribs.3. Freely Moveable JointsAt a freely moveable joint the bones move freely.They are also known as synovial joints, andare the largest group of joints found in the body,e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees.Types of JointsTypes of JointsThere are 3 main types of joint found in the body.
Freely Moveable JointsFreely Moveable JointsA typical synovial joint has the following characteristics: Freely Moveable joints are also known as Synovial Joints. They are freely moving and occur where 2 or more bones meet. There are about 70 freely moveable joints in the human skeleton.2. Joint Capsule – The outer covering of the joint that holdsthe bones together and protects the joint.3. Synovial Membrane – The inner lining of the jointcapsule which also produces synovial fluid.4. Synovial Fluid – The fluid which surrounds the joint andacts like an ‘oil’, lubricating it to allow easy movement.5. Ligaments – These are elastic straps which join bone tobone, holding the joint together.6. Tendons – These are non-elastic straps which join muscle to bone.1. Cartilage – A material which covers the end of each bone, andwhich helps prevent friction between the joint.
Elbow JointThis joint can be moved in thefollowing ways: Bend Straighten Circle Move away from the body Move towards the bodyThis joint can be movedin the following ways: Bend StraightenHip JointExamples of Synovial JointsExamples of Synovial Joints
This joint can be moved in thefollowing ways: Bend Straighten Circle Move away from the body Move towards the bodyThis joint can be moved inthe following ways: Bend StraightenShoulder JointShoulder Joint Knee JointKnee Joint
This joint can be moved in the following ways: Bend – but not as much as the knee & elbow. Straighten - but not as much as the knee & elbow. Circle – but not as much as the shoulder & hip. Move away from the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip. Move towards the body – but not as much as the shoulder & hip.Wrist Joint
Types of Synovial JointsTypes of Synovial JointsKEYBall & Socket JointHinge JointPivot JointGliding JointSaddle JointCondyloid JointFreely moveable (synovial) joints can bedivided into six groups depending uponhow they move.
Ball and Socket joints are the most moveable joints in the body.1.1. Ball and Socket JointsBall and Socket JointsThey can move in all directions, e.g. the hip and shoulder joints.
Hinge joints work like a hinge on a door.2.2. Hinge JointsHinge JointsThey can only move in two directions, e.g. the knee and elbow joints.
This joint only allows rotation,e.g. the vertebrae of the neck.3.3. Pivot JointsPivot JointsThere is a little movement in alldirections, e.g. the hand betweenthe carpals.4.4. Gliding JointsGliding Joints
In these joints there is movementforwards, backwards and to theright and left, but no rotation,e.g. the thumb.5.5. Saddle JointsSaddle JointsHere there is a little movement inall directions, but there is norotation, e.g. the wrist.6.6. Condyloid JointsCondyloid Joints
The Synovial Joint of the KneeThe Synovial Joint of the KneeThe knee is a hinge joint.LigamentsTendonsTibia/FibulaFemurCartilageSynovial FluidSynovial MembranePatella
The Hip is a ball and socket joint.LigamentsSynovial FluidTendonsSynovialMembranePelvisCartilageFemurThe Synovial Joint of the HipThe Synovial Joint of the Hip
Different types of synovial joints allow different kinds of movement.There are 6 basic types of movement that can occur at such joints:1. Extension: Straightening orextending a limb.2. Flexion: Bending or flexinga limb.Example: the arm can beextended at the elbow.Example: the leg can beflexed at the knee.Movement at Synovial JointsMovement at Synovial Joints
3. Abduction: Moving a limb awayfrom the centre lineof the body.4. Adduction: Moving a limbtowards the centreline of the body.Example: The leg can be movedaway from the centre of the bodyat the hip.Example: The arm can be movedtowards the centre of the body atthe shoulder.
5. Rotation: This is a turning orrotational movement ofa limb or body part.Example: the head can be rotatedat the neck.6. Circumduction: The ability of alimb to bemoved in circles.Example: the arm can move incircles at the shoulder.
What types of movement are possibleWhat types of movement are possibleat the following joints?at the following joints? Extension Flexion Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction Extension Flexion RotationBall and Socket Joint:Hinge Joint: Pivot Joint:
The structure of the human skeletonhelps sports people to perform in thefollowing ways:How does the Skeleton contributeHow does the Skeleton contributeto performance in Sport?to performance in Sport?Support: Bone is hard which means it creates asolid supporting framework inside thebody.The legs support the body keeping itupright during the physical activity.Movement: The skeleton is jointed so we canmove. The ability to move in a varietyof ways is essential in most sports,e.g. run, sprint, jump, dodge, etc.
At the ‘tip-off’, players will use adodge to move into space to receivea pass.The skeleton helps in a number ofways: The legs keep the players uprightand tall. The ankle, knee and hip joints allowthem to change speed, directionand to jump - to lose theiropponents when dodging, sending orreceiving a ball. The neck supports the headallowing them to look around. The shoulder, elbow and wristjoints enable the players to reachout and catch the ball.BasketballBasketball