Gender equality & mainstreaming toolkit for Pakistan ILO & HRDN
Toolkit for Pakistan
ILO’s Role in Promoting
Gender Equality at
Basics of Gender
Main Issues in the
Labour Market of
Green Jobs and
& Treatment for
Workers with Family
Discrimination in Respect
Equal Treatment for
Home Based Workers
for Men and Women
Freedom of Association
and Protection of the Right
Towards Gender Parity in Pakistan (TGP) Project
ILO Country Office for Pakistan
Toolkit for ToT in Pakistan
Towards Gender Parity in Pakistan (TGP) Project
ILO Country Office for Pakistan
The primary goal of the International Labour Organization (ILO), a specialised agency of United Nations, is to
promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in conditions of freedom,
equity, security and human dignity. The ILO is devoted to promoting social justice and internationally
recognized human and labour rights, pursuing its founding mission that labour peace is essential to
prosperity. Thus, the ILO considers gender equality in the world of work as a key element in its vision of
Decent Work for All Women and Men for social and institutional change to bring about equity and growth. The
main focus or thematic areas of the ILO on gender equality coincide with the organization's four strategic
goals, which are to: promote fundamental principles and rights at work; create greater employment and
income opportunities for women and men; enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection; and
strengthen social dialogue and tripartism. The ILO believes that investment in gender equality and women
empowerment is not only a right thing to do but a Smart thing to do.
Today, Pakistan faces multiple challenges of low economic growth, humanitarian crises, internal and external
security issues, and low social development indicators. Women in Pakistan continue to face constraints due
to the prevalent socio-cultural norms that deny them equal access to facilities and opportunities. Pakistan still
ranks 128 out of 182 on Human Development Index (2010), 124 out of 155 on Gender Development Index
(2009) and 132 out of 134 on the Global Gender Gap Report (2009). Pakistan women have limited access to
resources; restricted rights, limited mobility and somewhat muted voice in shaping decisions make them
Women are increasingly joining the work force but often in the informal economy dominated by low paying
and poorly protected jobs that pose threats to their reproductive health and consequently to the welfare of
their families. During the reporting period waged and salaried employment increased by only 2.4 percentage
points of the unemployed (15+), whilst own-account workers decreased by more than 7 percentage points.
The proportion of those working excessive hours has declined slightly since 1999-2000 but only because the
proportion of females in total employment, who work less than 30 hours has increased. The proportion of
males working excessive hours has risen by 1.4 percentage points since 1999/2000.
Despite recent gains in terms of employment and unemployment a clear gender gap is evident. The female
labour force participation rate is 19.6 per cent as compared to males at 69.5 per cent. Women continue to be
under-represented and under-utilised in the economy and labour market and tend to predominate as unpaid
family workers in agriculture, and hold low paid, low skill jobs and at the lowest tiers of the industrial labour
force in urban areas.
Women counted as employed include employees, self employed, unpaid family workers and those generally
engaged in low skilled, low wage economic activities. More than half of these women earn less than 60 per
cent of men's incomes. The bulk of the female labour force is employed in the informal economy, and is not
covered under legal protection and labour welfare institutional mechanisms. In the urban informal sector
67.5 per cent of women work as home-based or casual workers on low wages, or as domestic workers with
extremely low remuneration. Women generally appear to be mostly unaware of labour laws and do not have a
collective voice, therefore unable to exercise their rights.
For the ILO, Pakistan has been an important and active member and the government of Pakistan has ratified
34 ILO Conventions including C 100 and C 111, which indicates its commitment to pursue the attainment of
high standards for its people, particularly for women. Pakistan's Government, Employers' and Workers'
representatives have also repeatedly expressed their commitment to work for promotion of a right-based
The ILO approach is grounded in the rights-based argument and the economic efficiency rationale: not only is
gender equality in the world of work a matter of human rights and justice for workers, it also makes good
business sense for employers and is instrumental in achieving economic growth and poverty reduction at
The ILO is pleased to present to you the Toolkit named Gender Equality & Mainstreaming carried out by the
ILO project entitled Towards Gender Parity in Pakistan (TGP) as part of its knowledge-creation for its
tripartite constituents in Pakistan. One major objective for this project was to establish benchmarks from
gender-perspective regarding various aspects of employment and to work more effectively towards
achieving a marked change in the policies and practices.
It is understood that decreasing poverty and inequalities is like chasing a moving target where with the ever
increasing population there is a need for more efforts to uphold principles of social justice and rights-based
decisions. For this to happen, joint efforts by all the partners, collaborators and institutions would be required
and I am glad that the ILO has taken lead in forging such collaborations and coordination among key
I would also like to extend my gratitude to the Government of Pakistan, Employers' Federation of Pakistan,
Pakistan Workers' Federation and other partner organizations for their demonstrated commitment and
immense support to us in our efforts for promotion of Decent Work in Pakistan.
I congratulate the TGP project team of on their successful initiatives to develop a much-needed knowledge
base on Pakistan labour market from gender perspective. I am sure these efforts would help ILO and its
partners in taking steps towards taking gender equality endeavours to new heights.
ILO Office for Pakistan
Introduction to the Training Manual
PART - 1
Opening Session: The Art of Delivering Sessions
The Art of Delivering Sessions
PART - 2
Role of ILO in Gender Equality & Mainstreaming
Session 1: Understanding Gender Concepts
Session 2: ILO s Role in Promoting Gender Equality at the Workplace
Session 3: Basics of Gender Equality & Mainstreaming
Session 4: Main Issues in the Labour Market of Pakistan (regarding Gender Equality)
Session 5: Green Jobs and Gender Equality
PART - 3
Session 6: ILO Convention No. 156 Equal Opportunities & Treatment for Workers with Family
Session 7: ILO Convention No. 111 Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation
Session 8: ILO Convention No. 177 Equal Treatment for Home Based Workers
Session 9: ILO Convention No. 171 Night worker Convention
Session 10: ILO Convention No. 100 Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers
Session 11: Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to
Organize ILO Convention No. 87
Session 12: Collective Bargaining ILO Convention No. 98
Session 13: Skills Development and Learning - ILO Convention No. 142
Session 14: Statistical Data - ILO Convention No. 160
Gender equality and women's empowerment are vital for overcoming poverty, particularly in the context of
Pakistan. Despite Pakistan's recent economic growth, there are extreme gender imbalances in the labour
market. The ILO works to promote an understanding of the imperative links between decent work, poverty
reduction and gender equality. For the ILO, Gender Equality means that men and women have equal rights for
work of equal value and that there is a fair distribution of work-load, responsibilities, opportunities and
income earning. The ILO has been committed to promoting the rights of women and men in the world of work
and to achieving gender equality under the framework of its Decent Work Agenda.
The Human Resource Development Network (HRDN) has been a strategic partner of the ILO in these efforts
through various initiatives to promote gender equality in the world of work. HRDN has implemented a project
on decent employment for newly graduated women titled W omen's Empowerment through Employment
(WEE) , funded by USAID. Another project of HRDN titled Young Professionals Leadership Programme
(YPLP) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy benefited women at the mid-career level to enhance their
leadership skills for better career growth. HRDN, being a membership-based network with more than 850
individual and organizational members, reaches out to a wide cross section of society including the
development sector, academia, civil society, government, the corporate sector and more. Career counseling
for women is one of the top priorities of HRDN.
In this effort, this Gender Toolkit has been compiled by HRDN for the ILO with the technical support of HRDN
members Mr. Waqar Haider Awan, Ms. Rizwana Waraich and Ms. Robeela Bangash. The Toolkit is equipped
with illustrations by Mr. Akhter Shah. It is designed to be a training manual for trainers. The manual has been
reviewed and edited by professional social scientists Mr. Shaheer Ellahi and Ms. Sadia Ijaz in coordination
with Ms. Shama Maqbool (ILO) and in consultation with the above mentioned respected members of HRDN.
This has been an extremely well coordinated effort by the team with the continuous guidance of Mr. Saad
Gilani at the ILO.
The HRDN team and resource persons look forward to the successful use of this toolkit in reducing gender
disparities in the labour market in particular and hope that it will contribute to gender equality in Pakistan.
Human Resource Development Network (HRDN)
Alliance Against Sexual Harassment at Workplace
Collective Bargaining Agent
Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Centre for Development and Population Activities
Council of Indian Employers
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Decent Work Country Programme
Employers Federation of Pakistan
Food and Agriculture Organization
Gender Mainstreaming Strategies
Gender Equity Programme
Gender Reform Action Plan
Home Based Women Workers
Information and Communication Technologies
Inter-American Institute for Cooperation and Agriculture
International Labour Organization
International Monetary Fund
Industrial Relations Ordinance
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Labour Force Participation Rate
Labour Force Survey
Labour Market Information System
Millennium Development Goals
Memorandum of Understanding
Medium Term Development Framework
National Commission on Child Welfare and Development
National Commission on the Status of Women
Partnerships and Development Cooperation Department
Parliamentarians Commission on Human Rights
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Structural Adjustment Programme
Standing Conference of Public Sector Enterprise
Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority
Towards Gender Parity in Pakistan Project
Technical & Vocational Education & Training
Joint UN Programme on AIDS
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations Children s Fund
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United Nations Development Fund for Women
United States Agency for International Development
Workers Employers Bilateral Council of Pakistan
Women in Management
INTRODUCTION TO THE TOOLKIT
This training manual on Gender Equality and Mainstreaming has been developed by the International
Labour Organization (ILO) to facilitate workshop participants on the basic concepts and aspects of gender,
gender equality and gender mainstreaming in the workplace. Moreover, the focus on the procedures required
to impart knowledge about Gender Mainstreaming and the importance of gender sensitization in the
development of a society and for behavioral change is also streamlined in the manual in a structured manner.
All the resource material is incorporated in a way which helps the audience to find the maximum amount of
relevant information on the subject matter, especially focusing on the current scenarios in Pakistan. Each
session within the manual has its own set of learning objectives but more specifically, the main objective is to
improve the knowledge, attitudes and skills of development and Government professionals to create gender
sensitive institutions, policies, programs, and projects. The overall objectives of the training manual are:
To enhance the capabilities and knowledge of the audience on the concept of gender
To increase sensitivity about a broad range of gender issues at the personal, interpersonal,
community and organizational levels
To develop an understanding on national policies, frameworks and reforms with respect to gender
equality and mainstreaming (focused on the workplace)
To provide sufficient information regarding the ILO and its participation in gender equality and
To provide brief information on current issues and reforms in the labour market of Pakistan
To enable participants (of a workshop) to learn more about the ILO Conventions relevant to Gender
While designing the training manual, the emphasis was to provide step by step guidelines to the trainers for
effective execution and smooth delivery of the sessions. For this purpose each session includes the following
Title of the Session
Introduction to the Session
Duration of the Session
Preparation before Training
The manual is divided into two parts; the first part focuses on the introductory and conceptual sessions as
well as the ILO s role regarding gender equality. The second part consists of the relevant ILO Conventions.
The sessions include case studies, videos, ideas for brainstorming, buzz groups and activity-based group
work for the participants practical learning. For the effective delivery of the training, it is important for the
trainers to read the manual thoroughly and familiarize themselves with the contents and the essence of the
Guidelines for Facilitators
These guidelines are intended to help the workshop facilitators/coordinators to understand and achieve the
learning objectives of the workshop through the discussions and exercises. The facilitators are tasked with
monitoring and steering each session s learning process. Unlike a traditional teacher or trainer, they are not
responsible for leading the groups to any specific conclusions or understanding. Rather, their responsibility is
to create a space for workshop participants to mutually learn from the ideas and experiences; disagree within
a safe and gender friendly environment and work together to come to a consensus. This can be achieved
through careful pre-preparation of the training material, room set-up and other arrangements and by
engaging in facilitation tactics that promote mutual respect, thoughtful discussion and an atmosphere of
Inclusive, participatory, and horizontal leadership rests on the ability to engage in certain leadership
strategies, most importantly: communication, listening, building consensus, creating shared meaning and
developing learning partnerships. These strategies are among those addressed in the workshop sessions. At
various points during the workshop you may wish to discuss the meaning and relevance of these concepts in
Communication: Effective communication is vital for leadership. Leaders must be skilled at conveying their
ideas and goals to others. Good leaders are good at observing, listening, articulating, and communicating.
For this reason, the workshop sessions emphasize strengthening communication skills. The initial sessions
focus on self and personal communication skills and the later sessions address communication within teams
and between institutions.
Listening: Leaders get strength by listening to the perspectives and objectives of others. Listening is not
confined to hearing what a supervisor, colleague, or competitor says but includes valuing and giving credit to
their suggestions and opinions. An effective listener, like an effective leader, is one who learns from what
Building Consensus: Building consensus is an important decision-making process for successful
leadership. Through dialogue, individuals within groups, teams, or larger organizations come to understand
the points upon which they agree. Decisions are formulated with a mutual understanding of options and
possibilities. Where differences of opinion remain, no action is taken by the group. Although at times
consensus building can be frustrating and time-consuming, it leads to agreed-upon decisions that everyone
can support and follow.
Creating Shared Meaning: Small groups and large institutions can benefit from the creation of shared
meaning. Through dialogue, consensus building, and shared experience, a core set of values and principles
evolves in which everyone has to some degree, participated in formulating and in which everyone has a
stake. Shared meaning is an adaptive and flexible approach to goal setting that is influenced by a group's
composition and the passage of time. When a group creates shared meaning, each member operates within a
framework in which she/he shares ownership and responsibility.
Developing Learning Partnerships: The outcome of a partnership reflects the thinking and activities of its
participants. An institution whose members execute directions efficiently and effectively is not a learning
partnership if the participants do not question the relevance of their activities, evaluate their capacity for
improvement, or share the lessons they have learned. Developing a learning partnership is an inwardlooking, collective-learning approach to institutional development. It involves self- awareness and selfreflection as well as group-awareness and group reflection for the individuals carrying out the partnership's
purpose and activities. Hence, a learning partnership is one in which the participants interactions result in
reflection, evaluation, and knowledge that enhances and/or accelerates reaching the partnership's
objectives. Learning partnerships create dynamic, participatory, and highly productive working
environments in which everyone gains knowledge while learning to increase their own and the partnership's
Role of the Facilitator:
An effective facilitator listens and learns along with the workshop participants. Your role is to organize the
meetings and guide the participants through the workshop exercises. You do not need to be an expert on
leadership or know all the answers. Successful discussions will result in input from all the group members.
Directing Conversation: Sometimes you may wish to steer the group's conversation in a new direction
through thoughtful inquiry. Your job is not to direct the outcome of conversations but merely to steer the
direction of the discussion while keeping in mind that there are no correct or more valid opinions. In this way
you can ensure that everyone contributes to the learning and knowledge sharing. A good facilitator creates a
trusting, neutral environment in which everyone feels safe to express their honest opinion without being
judged or attacked. This includes helping participants to feel comfortable enough to disagree with others in a
thoughtful and respectful manner. Do not be concerned if there are lengthy silences between comments.
These periods are moments when participants can pause for reflection and summon the confidence to speak
Stimulating Discussion: Sessions and questions throughout this manual have been posed to stimulate
discussion and debate. The questions are meant only as guidelines to lead the group to explore diverse topics
and themes. As long as the group is engaging in relevant and valuable discussions, you should feel free to let
conversations deviate from the posed questions. Moreover, you may decide to use different methods of
setting up the exercises or tactics for posing questions than are described in this manual. If you have
identified individual participants who may be shy or lack the courage to speak up, you can always suggest
your own opinion and ask one of them to comment on what you said. So long as you remain sensitive to the
needs of the individual participants and to those of the group, are tactful and affirming, and share the
responsibility for learning, you are partaking in effective facilitation.
Keeping to the Agenda: At times, a facilitator can best guide a discussion by being an effective timekeeper and
reminding the group of the session's agenda. Although workshop group sizes will vary, it is almost always
helpful to encourage participants to keep their comments relatively short, not letting one person or a few
people monopolize the conversation. This is particularly necessary for those exercises that involve
interventions or storytelling from every participant. A diplomatic way to remind participants to keep their
comments relevant to the topic being discussed is to direct your suggestions and instructions to the whole
group rather than singling out an individual. Also, consider encouraging participants to listen to what the
others are saying and to build upon previous comments.
Sharing Responsibility: Though you are responsible for guiding each workshop session to completion, you
do not need to be in charge of every activity or facilitate every discussion. Sharing responsibility can and
should be part of organizing the workshop sessions. A simple step is to encourage participants to volunteer
to take notes for the group, or to read aloud instructions or narratives from the manual, and/or to facilitate the
discussions. Reassuring a participant that she should not worry about her spelling if she is taking notes, or
her pronunciation if she is reading aloud, can go a long way toward making her feel comfortable and inspiring
others to volunteer.
Joining In: It is up to you whether you want to join in discussions or not. However, keep in mind that because
you are organizing each session and are to some extent "in control," participants may give added weight to
your opinions and suggestions. Therefore, it is important that you limit your interventions and that when you
do express an opinion you qualify it as your own perspective and not the only perspective.
Enjoying Yourself: Remember that you are also participating in the workshop to gain knowledge and to have
This training manual is designed for Government employees, employers and community representatives
who can play an effective and efficient role in bringing about a positive change in organizations, institutions,
policies and frameworks with respect to gender equality at workplace.
Role of the Participants: Participants come to workshops for a variety of reasons, and with a wide spectrum
of preconceptions and expectations about what will take place. Regardless of their level of experience or
professional status, the participant s role is to be both student and teacher, to learn as well as to share
knowledge. Workshop sessions are most successful when participants listen attentively, ask questions, and
challenge assumptions. Participants are responsible for contributing to discussions, working collaboratively
in partnerships or as part of a larger team, and evaluating the process and progress of the sessions. Everyone
participating in the workshop will benefit by contributing to a gracious and respectful atmosphere during the
Experiential Activities: A large number of experiential activities will be used to explain difficult concepts to
participants with ease. The learning-by-doing exercises include energizers which will be used to achieve the
learning objectives and maintain the interest of participants.
Group Work: Participants will frequently be divided into groups and asked to complete tasks designed to
facilitate their learning, including experience sharing and solving specific problems.
Mentoring: In addition to group interactive workshop sessions a number of one-on-one coaching and
mentoring sessions will be held which will allow participants to seek individual clarification on key concepts
as well as gain feedback and suggestions for improvement.
Energizers: Short interactive exercises will be implemented during the course of the workshop in order to
break boredom as well as to stimulate learning. Energizers will provide participants with some laughter and
energy allowing them to continue with the workshop with a refreshed and clearer focus.
Material Required for the Training Sessions:
Equipment and Aids:
Multi-media/over-head projector & screen
Still camera, video camera, reels of film and cassettes
Flip-chart stand/ soft boards
Check that all of these pieces of equipment are operational, placed in appropriate locations and easily visible,
at least half an hour before the start of each session.
Permanent markers in 4 colors
White Board Markers in 4 colors
White Board for Flip Charts
Spiral-bound notebooks / writing pads (including some spares)
Double ring file with colored separators for handouts
Ball pens and pencils
Masking Tape (1 inch and 3 inches)
Stapler with Pins
Zopp Cards (4 colours)
Any other material required in a session.
Prepare Handouts and Background Reading Materials:
You will also find handouts in the manual that you can copy and distribute in the course of your training. In
addition you can consult some other useful manuals and case studies which are available on several
At the end of every training course, you should ask participants to evaluate the training. The evaluation
method can vary according to the length of the training course. If you have delivered a very short training
course (e.g. one day), you could ask participants to take two coloured cards and to write down on one what I
have learnt today , and on the other what I felt was missing today . After a longer training course, you may
find it more useful to distribute a questionnaire with questions regarding major training components that has
to be filled in by participants. This allows participants to make a more detailed evaluation of the training. You
should always analyze the results of such questionnaires carefully and take on board any useful comments.
There is always scope for improvement in your next training course.
Preparation for a Workshop:
Register the participants to the program
Create a welcoming environment for the participants by introducing them to each other and the
1. Check the workshop room, seating arrangements, stationery and support materials for the workshop
Set-up a Registration Desk . Ensure that the Registration Desk is equipped with the following: a signboard that states Registration Desk and the title of the Workshop, material for the participants,
Registration Forms (fill out the information for each trainee / participant, so that they do not have to fill
out all the details, but can check and validate the given information).
As the participants arrive, have them sign against their names on the Registration Form. Hand out the
Name Tags, and ask the participants to put them on. Ask the participants to proceed to the workshop
Once all or the majority of the participants are seated in the workshop hall, invite the key stakeholders,
i.e. counterpart/s, representative/s, and the Coordinator to make short opening and introductory
speeches to explain the purpose, rationale, importance and objectives of the workshop. Make sure
that the speakers are fully informed prior to the workshop about the objective, participants
background, date, venue and time allocated for the speech.
Session Zero: Getting to know each other
Objectives: Participants will be able to;
get to know each other and break down initial interpersonal communication barriers;
address each other by their preferred name;
describe basic characteristics of at least one person in the group; and
express positive feelings about the expected outcomes of the workshop
Methodology: Group work and plenary discussions
Material: Paper strip with statement cut in half, flip charts, white board, permanent and board markers,
handout of workshop objective and agenda.
Duration: 60 minutes
Distribute a slip of paper that contains a statement on any women s issue. The strip would have been
cut in half in various ways so that each piece can only be matched with its original mate. For example:
If you have not heard her story.......... or .........you have heard only half of history
Tell participants that they must find the matching half to the piece of paper they are holding. When
they find the right match, they form a pair with the person who has the matching piece. Each person
in the pair interviews the other to know answers to the following:
What is your name?
What does your name mean?
Who gave it to you?
What name do you prefer to be called?
What kind of work do you do?
How does your gender affect your life and work?
Now each person in each pair introduces his or her partner to the larger group.
The facilitator summarizes each pair s response and emphasizes the importance of participants
remembering each other s names.
Ensure that the trainer and workshop coordination team has an opportunity to interact with everyone.
Tell the participants that a workshop is effective only when those who attend are assured that Trainers
can meet their expectations. To give the participants some idea of the overall scope of this workshop,
refer to the workshop title.
Tell the participants that as a first step they will identify and share their expectations from this
workshop. Ask each participant to list on their writing pads at least three expectations. Give them 5-6
minutes for this task. When all the participants have noted their individual expectations, ask them to
pair up in a buzz group and through a 5-minute discussion, shortlist three expectations.
Put up flip charts on the wall/board and after 5 minutes, ask each pair to contribute their expectations.
Now present the goal and objectives of the workshop within the context of the expectations identified
and listed before.
10. Explain how the goal and objectives of the workshop are translated into the workshop agenda. Briefly
detail the workshop agenda in a way that provides excitement, anticipation and encourages
participants to invest in the workshop. Where possible align the agenda with the expectations of the
11. Ask participants about the workshop norms and note on the flipcharts. Encourage participants to
follow the norms throughout the workshop.
THE ART OF DELIVERING SESSIONS
Opening Session :
Understanding the Art of Delivering Sessions
This session intends to introduce the basic concepts of delivering training sessions in an effective and
This session will:
? Introduce the key concepts of delivering training sessions
Introduce the concept of designing new training sessions
Help to design the presentations according to the training manual
Discuss and polish the key skills to deliver training sessions
Multimedia projector and screen, written instructions, paper and pencils, paper and masking tape
Interactive discussions, role play, practical activities
Preparation before Training:
Participants have sufficient knowledge and a clear idea regarding the basic concepts and skills required to
conduct the training sessions in an efficient and effective manner.
THE ART OF DELIVERING SESSIONS
A training presentation is any organized activity designed to bring about change in an employee s on-the-job
skills, knowledge, or attitude. Its purpose is to meet a specific need.
ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN CREDIBILTY
A skilled trainer inspires learners to learn. By demonstrating expertise in the content area, using strong
training skills, and describing clearly how the course goals and learning objectives relate to improving the
learners work performance, the trainer establishes credibility and thus inspires learners.
IMPORTANCE OF SESSIONS
The presentation may be designed to help an employee acquire a new skill. Skills are psychomotor
abilities such as the capability to operate a computer, to use a copier, to listen effectively, to write
good business letters or to supervise staff. Skills are actions that can be acquired and observed.
The presentation may be designed to provide an employee with additional knowledge. Knowledge is
cognitive ability; it is what an employee understands and can apply to his/her job. Understanding the
mechanics of market research or knowing the principles of accounting are examples of the
knowledge necessary for certain jobs. Knowledge is less quantifiable and observable than skills.
The presentation may be designed to affect an employee s attitude. You cannot teach attitude yet
attitude is an important factor in the learning process and in the affective (feeling) domain. As a
presenter, you may generally accept that how people feel about what they are doing and about the
organization for which they work affects their performance.
EFFECTIVE SESSION DESIGN
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced.
The training objective identifies what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the
trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design
the training program.
1. The trainer:
Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his/her technical, interpersonal, and judgmental skills in
order to deliver quality content to trainees.
2. The trainees:
A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and
expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.
3. Training climate:
A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc.
When the climate is favorable it is likely that nothing will go wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost
everything goes wrong.
4. Trainees learning style:
The learning style, age, experience and educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to
get the right pitch to the design of the program.
5. Training strategies:
Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and
modules. The trainer prepares a priority list of what must be included and what could be included.
6. Training Topics:
After formulating a strategy, the trainer decides on the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into
headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge,
skills, and attitudes.
The contents are then sequenced in the following manner:
From simple to complex
Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance
From the known to the unknown
From the general to the specific
Identify dependent relationships between topics
Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program are clear, the trainer is in a
position to select the most appropriate methods and techniques. The selection method depends on the
? Trainees background
Style preference of the trainer
Level of competence of the trainer
Availability of facilities and resources.
7. Support facilities:
These can be segregated into printed and audio-visual. The various requirements in a training program are
white boards, flip charts, and markers.
The various constraints that exist in the trainer s mind are:
Accommodation, facilities and their availability
Furnishings and equipment
Design of the training
CHALLENGES FOR THE TRAINER
Trainers need specific skills in order to run successful training sessions.
1. Conscious Confidence:
A successful presenter, first of all, knows him/herself. Based on what they know about themselves, they
develop their potential, their own style, and their self-esteem. Self-esteem is combination of:
Self-knowledge: this is who I am
Self confidence: this is what I can do
Self-worth: what I can do and say is important.
The presenter must first of all be conscious of personal style. Personal style is the way a presenter can
interpret, organize and package a topic. Conscious means being aware of biases, attitude and language
choices. A good presenter never speaks above the understanding level of the audience nor under estimates
his/her audience. The presenter must be careful in selecting words, so there will be no embarrassment about
the choice of terminology and expression.
The presenter must feel that she/he is valuable and can make a unique contribution.
2. Fears and Fantasies:
Fear is natural. We all have faced or will face a situation that provokes fears. Statistics prove that no one has
ever died of the fear of making a presentation. The following are some of the greatest fears:
Fear of failure: which is actually the fear of rejection? We fear being rejected by the audience and/or by our
Fear of success, which is actually a form of guilt. We feel guilty that we are successful when others are not. Or
we feel guilty that our presentation was successful and forget that we worked hard at ensuring its success.
Fear of catastrophic danger, which is the built in fight or flight instinct. This particular fear causes the
physiological changes of increased heart rate, sweating and anxiety.
Fear of the unknown: this is associated with the fear of change. Although change is an inevitable process of
life, we do not naturally like it and certainly do not welcome change with the open arms. As humans we seek
to maintain predictable patterns of behavior, and therefore to change is to become different and is sometimes
Handling fear correctly can serve as an energy boost to presenter presentation. The presenter can use the
following tips to overcome fears during presentations:
To feel brave.
Concentrate on the subject of presentation.
Plan to enjoy yourself. Do not call your feelings fear, call them excitement
Do isometric exercises while waiting for your introduction. Curl your toes inside your shoes to release
Concentrate on your breathing. Do not do deep-breathing exercises, but concentrate on breathing
A trainer can manage fear by controlling the material that must be presented. In preparing a
presentation, first limit the topic to one specific idea. Select specific material suited to that limited
purpose. Arrange material, illustrations, examples, acts, and statistics in a coherent order.
3. Skills in developing rapport:
A trainer who builds a good relationship with participants is more likely to succeed in engaging and
communicating well with them. Practical ways to build a good relationship with participants include: knowing
them by their first name, knowing their strengths and weaknesses and spending informal time with them
during the course. A trainer should be able to relate to many types of people and be able to encourage them to
contribute. A trainer who develops good rapport with participants is in a better position to encourage them to
take responsibility for their own learning.
4. Cultural sensitivity:
Trainers need to be aware of what views and approaches are acceptable in different cultures and how to adapt
the training to reflect these views. For example, in some communities women do not stand to express their
views in front of men, and if they do speak in front of men they do not face them. In that case the training could
be adapted by sitting participants in small circles, with either men or women, and everyone (including the
trainer) could remain seated while speaking.
Good trainers perceive participants verbal and non-verbal messages. During the training, it is useful to check
that trainers and participants are communicating well and that participants understand the purpose and
content of the training course.
6. Meeting expectations:
Training usually has an agenda with specific learning outcomes. However, even if objectives and outcomes
have been communicated well in advance, some participants may have different expectations. Before the
training starts, ask participants about their expectations and try to ensure that these are addressed. If
expectations cannot be addressed, explain why. Some expectations may go beyond your ability as a trainer or
beyond the purpose of the training: do not hesitate to state your limits.
7. Group dynamics:
Group dynamics (how people in the group relate to each other) are a key challenge. In all groups, the levels of
skill, competency and responsibility will vary and this variation is often reflected in people s enthusiasm and
level of participation. A trainer needs to acknowledge these differences and ensure that everyone is involved.
8. Physical environment:
Trainers need to consider the physical environment. Should learning take place in a classroom or outside?
How should seating be arranged? In a large circle or in several small circles? Do you have the materials you
need for practical activities? Are there enough materials for all participants?
9. Time available:
Mornings are a good time for learning theory, whereas afternoons and evenings, when people are often tired
and find it harder to concentrate, are good for group work, practical activities or site visits. It is also important
to build in time for breaks and meals and to be aware of any cultural needs (such as a break for prayers). If the
course is residential, remember to include time for social activities, so participants can relax.
10. Dealing with dominating participants:
There are several ways to deal with people who dominate discussions and activities: at the start, set ground
rules that allow quieter members to contribute. For example, ask people to contribute only one idea at a time
and then wait until three other people have contributed their ideas before speaking again. Address questions
to the quieter members of the group. Engage dominant people in activities that make it clear that you value
their contribution, but which keep them quiet (for example, asking them to write up notes of discussions on
flip charts). Ask each member of the group in turn for their views on a subject.
Dos and Don ts of Training
The following dos and don ts should ALWAYS be kept in mind by the trainer during any learning session.
Do maintain good eye contact.
Do prepare in advance.
Do involve participants.
Do use visual aids.
Do speak clearly.
Do speak loudly enough.
Do encourage questions.
Do recap at the end of each session.
Do bridge from one topic to the next.
Do encourage participation.
Do write clearly and boldly.
Do use logical sequencing of topics.
Do use good time management.
Do K.I.S. (Keep It Simple).
Do give feedback.
Do position visuals so everyone can see them.
Do avoid distracting personal mannerisms and other distractions in the room.
Do be aware of the participants body language.
Do keep the group focused on the task.
Do provide clear instructions.
Do check to see if your instructions are understood.
Do evaluate as you go.
Do be patient.
Don t talk to the flip chart.
Don t block the visual aids.
Don t stand in one spot move around the room.
Don t ignore the participants comments and feedback (verbal and non-verbal).
Don t read from the curriculum.
Don t shout at the participants.
BREAKING THE ICE
Introductions are a form of icebreaker, yet sometimes it is helpful to use an icebreaker activity. With large
groups, it is not always easy to include an icebreaker or hold introductions, especially when a training starts
late or takes place in classroom set-up, or if time is short. The trainer must exercise good judgment about
time constraints and use common sense. However, it may be helpful to think about using an icebreaker if time
Participants do not know each other well.
A wide variety of positions, types of work, backgrounds and educational levels are represented in the
There might be tensions among participants.
The audience is reasonably small.
Participants are diverse.
If using an icebreaker, here are a few tips:
For a one-day or half-day training, keep icebreakers short and simple: ten minutes or less.
Use icebreakers with a diversity theme.
When the icebreaker is done, try and get participants to suggest the point of the exercise.
When several have offered their views, synthesize them into a message.
Most icebreakers are copyrighted materials. Many are available in books and other resources.
TRAINING METHODS FOR TRAINER
A trainer s primary role is to help participants learn. A good trainer encourages participants to discover things
and learn for themselves. Three things can help to stimulate participants curiosity:
Involving people as active participants in the learning process, rather than passive recipients of
Ensuring the training is relevant to the participants day-to-day work.
Using a variety of media and methods.
When planning a training, always focus on the training objectives or learning outcomes. These are what you
want people to learn and what the participants need. When considering what training methods to use,
consider which method is best suited to what you are trying to communicate. For example, when training
people to give mouth to mouth resuscitation is it best to use pictures, a lecture, handouts or a demonstration
using a model? The training methods you choose should also reflect the needs and abilities of the
participants. For example, there is no point in giving people lots of handouts if they have difficulty reading.
1. Talks and lectures
Talks and lectures given by a trainer help the trainer to pass on information in a pre-planned and organized
manner. However, they can become boring for participants unless they are kept short and are well delivered.
When preparing a talk or lecture break down what you want to say into a number of points. Keep it short,
illustrate your talk with visual aids, write down your talk or use prompt cards. Don t make it up on the spot.
To be useful, a discussion has to involve participants. To ensure that this happens, trainers and participants
must agree on ground rules for the discussion. The best way to do this is to ask the group what they think the
ground rules should be, and then write them on a large piece of paper where everyone can see them. The
trainer and participants can then remind people of the ground rules if they are broken during the discussion.
Ground rules may include statements like:
only one person should talk at a time
keep to the subject
everyone should contribute.
Discussions are more successful if they have a purpose and a focus. Discussions that are too general often
result in people going off the subject. To focus a discussion, start it by using a visual aid, a video or some
other training materials. Then ask questions like: What is happening in the picture/video? Why is this
happening? Have you experienced things like this in your work? Discussions are useful because they enable
learn from each other
ask questions about things they do not understand
ask questions about things they are most interested in.
The trainer s role is to encourage others to talk: a good trainer only talks a little and directs the discussions of
participants. It is useful to note key points during the discussion and to summarize the main outcomes of a
discussion at the end of the session.
3. Practical activities
Practical activities may include a trainer showing participants how to do something; participants performing
tasks while the trainer observes them, or site visits to see new equipment or facilities. Practical activities can
help participants to relate training to their jobs. Practical activities can be used after a theory session, so
people can put the theory they have learned into practice. The disadvantages of site visits are that the
workplace can often be noisy and full of distractions or the people working there may be too busy to talk with
participants, which can prevent participants from learning. Also, such visits can be time consuming and
4. Role play
Role play is the practice of participants or trainers acting out real life situations.
Role play can be used to demonstrate skills. Trainers can do this by taking part in the role play themselves, or
by pointing out what participants do well and not so well in the role play.
Role play can give people the chance to practice skills they have learned in training.
3. Stimulate discussion
Role play can stimulate discussion and raise awareness.
The presenter starts the presentation with a brief orientation about starting and ending times, breaks,
telephone calls and messages.
Here is an effective process:
State the objectives of the presentation, timing and agenda.
Acquaint the audience with the materials to be used and explain that the workbook is theirs to keep
and to write in, and that each topic will be summarized on overheads and handouts.
Provide an overview of the presentation, topics and subtopics and methodology.
Address the expectations of the participants regarding assignments and levels of participation.
1. Adapting training materials
Training materials are usually designed for a well-defined audience or assumed use. These assumptions can
include the age, sex or group profile of the participants or the objective for which the material has been
defined. Materials may need to be adapted to suit particular participants or objectives. Materials make
assumptions about trainers, including their ability to be creative and adapt the materials, to set an appropriate
timetable for training, and to think of appropriate methods and questions. They also assume that trainers
know their subject matter. To use training materials effectively, trainers should view using the materials as a
means to an end and not an end in itself. Training materials are one tool at the trainer s disposal, but in
themselves they do not constitute a training session. Before using any training material, trainers should ask
themselves three questions:
Is using the material the best way to help participants understand the facts and so help me achieve
How much time does it need?
What adaptations do I need to make to the material to help it fit my objective?
Try to test the material before using it in a training. This means discussing it with people you will be training, or
their managers, to see if it is relevant and likely to meet their needs.
As noted earlier, training that includes practical activities can be very successful. Most people learn more
when they are doing something than when they are only listening. Selecting training materials and methods is
very important. When choosing training activities, trainers should consider the needs of participants (e.g. are
they literate, do they have traditions of story-telling or street theatre) and the resources available. Trainers
should also consider the practical aspects of using different types of training materials. For example, if you
plan to use videos in a training session make sure there is electricity and a television available. Similarly, if you
plan to use a CD-ROM or the Internet make sure you have access to a computer. In many areas low-cost
training aids are the best option.
2. Training manuals and books
Training manuals and books are usually the main source of information for trainers. They can help trainers to
get access to the expertise and knowledge of other people. They are useful for participants because they can
be referred to after the training course. However, it is often too expensive to give each participant a training
manual to take away. Trainers should bear in mind that manuals may need to be adapted to meet local needs.
While many manuals and activity plans include suggestions that they should be adapted to meet local
needs , this requires special skills and is very time consuming. Trainers themselves may need training in this
area before they can adapt materials effectively. When adapting materials, remember the level of information
that your participants need and will understand. Do not give them too little or too much information. Try to use
training materials that:
are easy to use that is, are simple, readable and understandable
have illustrations that are clear and appropriate.
3. Visual aids
Pictures, such as drawings, photographs, pictures cut out of books or magazines or other visual aids can
help people to remember things. They can also be used to start discussions. Visual aids may be pictures, but
they can also be real objects. Never use a picture if you can use the real thing. For example, do not show a
picture of a condom if you can show a real condom. Visual aids can also be models. Other types of visual aids
Flashcards: A series of cards, with words or pictures, which are shown to a group to stimulate
Flip charts: Large sheets of paper with key points that can be used to stimulate discussion.
Slides or overheads: Shown using a projector. When choosing visual aids remember to take into
account local, social, cultural and religious beliefs and practices. Also, choose visual aids relevant to
the topic of the training session, the experience of the participants and the size of the group.
Sometimes it is best to use visual aids that are specifically designed for teaching. Sometimes people
learn more when they create their own visual aids.
Videos: Videos are useful for holding the attention of participants and generating discussion. Used on
their own they are not effective as a method of teaching, but they can be used with other methods.
They are also useful for introducing a subject. Before showing a video explain what it is about, and
discuss it with participants afterwards. Videos often come with facilitator guides that contain
background information, questions to use in a training session and suggestions for activities. There
are practical considerations when showing a video: a video shown on a small screen is not suitable
for a group of more than 20 people and videos need to be shown in a darkened area.
Wall charts: Pictures, diagrams or graphs that are put on a wall. They can include more information
than posters because the trainer is there to explain them.
CD-ROMs: CD-ROMs (compact disc read-only memory) can be a useful training tool if you have
access to computers. CD-ROMs can hold up to 360,000 printed pages of text and are a popular way
of storing large collections of information such as databases and encyclopedias. Some CD-ROMs
include audio and interactive material, and question and answer sessions that can help to assess
how much people have learned. Remember if you have 10 participants and only one computer, not all
participants will be able to see the screen if the computer is used in a group activity. Instead, if
possible, let participants take turns using the computer during breaks or after the training finishes for
Handouts: There are many types of handouts. They can be a brief written summary of points made
during the training or additional background information on a subject (this may be a photocopied
page from a book). These types of handouts are usually given out after talks. Others, such as those
explaining an activity or practical task, are given out at the beginning of a training session. Handouts
can usefully include diagrams. Tips for using summary handouts:
+ Tell people that you will give them a handout at the end of the talk, so they listen to you rather
than spend time trying to write notes.
+ Handouts should only be used in conjunction with other training methods, such as a talk.
Think of summary handouts as reminders. Keep them short and simple.
Your presentation sets up a dialogue with the audience. Establish your presentation pace but be sensitive to
the listening/learning rates of the audience. As they respond to you, make small adjustments in your script
and your style of delivery, tailoring it to their responses. It is necessary to establish an appropriate sense of
timing and maintain a teaching rhythm to define your objectives and process, as well as to be appropriate
for the needs of your audience.
If the thing you dread most happens - if the audience seems bored - move faster and risk more, not less. Find a
few sympathetic faces and judge their responses. Raise the dramatic level of your delivery. More frequent
breaks may improve the flow of a presentation, if, for example, there is only one 15- minute break in the
morning and one in the afternoon. There should be five to seven minutes breaks in every hour, along with
controlled stretch breaks where participants can do stand-up activities. Audiences feel more fresh and
energized if they have taken multiple shorter breaks as a result of changes in pace and physical position.
The afternoon is the worst time of the day, and the first fifteen minutes after lunch is biggest challenge. Some
common problems are:
Digesting large lunches
Sense of the timetable is lost so people arrive late
All morning material escapes the memory
Energy levels are at their lowest point.
Some way to overcome this problem:
Review the previous material and introduce new material
Create small work groups
Assign a problem-solving task for participants to work on which they must share with the entire
Another way to energize the group is to get them to greet each other and to take the time to say hello.
All trainers hope to end their presentations at the planned time. To ensure success, remember the 2P s:
PLANNING and PACING
This means having a firm understanding of where the trainer wants to be at the end of the presentation and an
understanding of each step that the trainer should take to get there at the right time.
This requires a sense of rhythm and an understanding your natural speaking pattern. Do you time your
pauses? Do you speak fluently or haltingly? Are you speaking too fast or too slow?
EVALUATION AND FEED BACK
Using evaluations can help trainers to improve existing training courses and plan future training. Follow-up
and support can help to ensure that participants use the skills they have learnt in their everyday work.
Evaluation is also crucial for providing further information about future training. If your training has been well
received and has resulted in positive changes in how people do their jobs, then it has clearly been a success
and is worth repeating. On the other hand, if participants say they did not like the training and it has no effect
on how they do their jobs, then the training needs to be changed. Sometimes evaluating training also might
result in further new training needs being identified. Here are some questions to ask when evaluating a
Did you (the trainer) think the training went well?
Did participants enjoy the training?
Did participants learn from the training? Can they clearly describe what they have learned and think of
ways to apply what they have learned?
Has the training changed how participants do their jobs?
The evaluation methods we look at in this manual are ways of asking some of these questions. Evaluation can
take place during a course, either at the end of a session or at the end of a course. Participants can provide
their opinions by filling in questionnaires or having a short discussion about what they have learnt. Trainers
can use these to assess whether the learning objectives have been met. Using a questionnaire at the end of
the course gives participants the chance to reflect on a series of sessions.
The success of on-the-job application of the training, as well as the program itself, is then communicated to
the organization whose employees or volunteers have participated in the training.
PART - 2
Gender Concepts, Gender Equality and Green Jobs
Role of ILO in Gender Equality & Mainstreaming
Understanding the Gender Concepts
Session 1: Understanding the Gender Concepts
This session will introduce the basic concepts of gender, gender issues and the reasoning behind these
concepts and issues.
This session will:
Introduce the key concepts of gender, why and how gender issues arise, and how gender equality can
Introduce the concept of a gender lens through which participants may review socio-economic
Help participants clarify their personal beliefs about the roles of men and women;
Discuss the difference between sex and gender
Multimedia projector and screen, written instructions, paper and pencils, a small prize for winner(s), paper
and masking tape, Handouts # 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7
Case Study; Exercise; Presentation; Plenary Discussion
Preparation before Training:
Prepare Photocopies of the Handouts
Prepare Power Point Slides
Participants have sufficient knowledge and a clear idea of the basic concepts behind the word Gender and
the issues linked to it.
Process / Steps: Generating Interest in Topic
Ask participants to share their knowledge regarding the commonly known word Gender .
Note all the points on the flip chart and facilitate to finalize the definition of gender.
Engage participants in an drawing game activity. Distribute written instructions (prepared ahead of
time) that they are to read silently about the required illustration. Tell them that they are not allowed to
Think of a farming community you know, maybe your village. Now imagine a farmer working in a farm or a
field. Draw that farmer with the background scenery as you like. Try to be as realistic as you can in illustrating
clothing, hats, farming implements and activities. After finishing the picture, please write down the farmer s
name and your name.
Invite participants to paste their drawings on the wall to observe the characteristics of men and
Conclude by saying that the drawings represent the participants subconscious views about farm
work and farming. Calculate the percentage of drawings in which the farmer is described as a
woman, as opposed to the percentage that show the farmer as a man and share this information with
the group. (Typically there will be many more depictions of farmers as men than there are of women.)
Once both lists have been reviewed, reverse the headings, so that what was man becomes
woman , and what was woman becomes man . Now again ask participants if the characteristic
under the new columns still apply. Generate a lively discussion pointing out that while most traits and
characteristics apply to both men and women, there are some which don t, i.e. breast feeding and
child bearing for women, and having a beard and a deep voice for man. Explain that sex is
determined on the basis of the biological characteristics of men and women, (e.g. when on a form or
passport you are asked to specify sex ).
Trainers Notes: Hints for the conclusion for statement # 1
This exercise is about our own opinions. There is no right or wrong answer. One thing to remember, however,
is that when we refer to women as flowers, we are only talking about one of women's multifaceted roles. By
ignoring women's role as producers, we may be perpetuating a view that devalues women's contributions.
Trainers Notes: Hints for the conclusion for statement # 2
Sex should not be a determining factor of a person's ability to function well in a job. Except for a few tasks that
require particularly hard physical labor, there is no proven physical reason why women cannot be good
engineers. Similarly, there is no reason to believe that certain jobs or tasks should be reserved for women,
such as dressmaking or making artificial flowers. On the contrary, if these tasks all go to women, men who
might excel in these endeavors will be deprived of the opportunity to do so.
Trainers Notes: Hints for the conclusion for statement # 3
Women are child bearers and breast feeders. Their natural (biological) parenting skills stop there. Skills are
acquired early in life, through looking after siblings, nieces, nephews, etc. Therefore, to say that only women
can look after children would be misleading. In fact, women who take good care of children do so because
they have had a lot of "workshop" experience from an early age. Boys could also benefit from participating in
caring for younger children. Most importantly, when men take an active part in childcare they develop good
qualities, such as tenderness and patience, and experience the real joy of fatherhood.
Trainers Notes: Hints for the conclusion for statement # 4
Experience has shown that in families where women and men respect each other and share leadership,
mutual respect and happy family life result. Some women excel in traditionally male domains. Some men are
inclined toward activities traditionally reserved for woman. Rigid definitions for men's versus women's work
are unnecessary and unnatural. It makes sense to train women to be leaders so that they will be capable of
sharing this important responsibility with men.
Tell participants that they will do another activity for better understanding. Tape a sheet of paper
marked AGREE on one wall of the room and a sheet marked DISAGREE on the opposite side of the
room. Tell the participants that you will be reading aloud a series of statements about the roles and
status of women. As each statement is read, participants are to decide whether they agree or
disagree and move quickly to the wall that indicates the opinion they favour. Those groups together
under the same sign will discuss their reasons for agreeing or disagreeing and appoint a reporter to
share their reasons with the other groups.
Read the first statement and point to it on the slide. The participants should decide whether they agree
or disagree and move to the appropriate wall. Allow about 5 minutes for the group to discuss their
positions among themselves, and then have the reporter from each group present the reasons that
support the group s position. A debate of about 10 minutes should follow. The list of statements and a
sample of arguments for and against each one are provided in Handout # 1-5
To conclude this activity/exercise, point out that the statements, like the ones presented, reflect the
beliefs of members of the general population about the roles and status of men and women, and that
an individual s beliefs are generally influenced by traditional societal views. However, society is
constantly changing, and the roles and status of women are changing with it. When talking about
women it is important to remember that women are people with potential and limitations just like men.
It is time to pause and reconsider the status of women and men in today's society and the value of the
roles they are assigned
10. Present the video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiwWS2atEmc (Courtesy Youtube) and ask
participants to analyze their understanding of the difference between sex and gender, based on this
11. Present the Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pF1j22x-yU8 (Courtesy Youtube) and ask
participants to analyze their understanding of the predefined roles of men and women and the role of
the society in determining those roles.
12. Distribute Handout #6 and facilitate a discussion about what each of these terms means. Make sure
participants understand that characteristics based on sex are true of all members of that sex and are
usually unchangeable, while characteristics based on gender are usually not true of all members of a
given sex and are typically things that can be changed. Finally, tell participants to review Handout #7
and make any changes they want, to their initial responses. Then give the correct answers.
13. Show the participants the video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kLHZ2xGmUk&feature=related (Courtesy Youtube)
14. Ask participants where they first acquired instructions about what they can do, what they can wear
and how they can and should behave as a man or a woman. Brainstorm the list of institutions that do
this, and briefly cover some of the key messages promoted by each institution:
Family and Mohallah (neighbourhood)
Parents and parental figures give messages such as: do not talk too much; do not ask questions; girls should
not be given independence; boys must learn well so that they can get a job to support their parents.
Political and Legal
Most decision-making systems such as the panchayat (a village council), are generally male dominated,
giving a message that decision-making is a man s role. Similarly, evidence from two women is equal to that of
one man, thus elevating the status and worth of men.
Books show visual images of what a girl/woman can/cannot do and what a boy/man can/cannot do, what a
girl/woman can have and what a boy/man can have, e.g. books such as Banoo ka Ghar and Dara ka Gaon .
These are male dominated environments, where men generally make the rules and decide who will do what,
and who will have what. In many offices, there are very few facilities (toilets, computers, telephone), and of
what is available, hardly any are reserved for women and their specific needs, thus signaling that these are not
places where women belong.
Through their interpretation of the Quran, such institutions influence society s thinking about the status of
women in relation to men. Properly informed institutions can make appropriate changes in the society for
women as per the enormous rights given to women in Islam.
Media (songs, radio, poems, TV)
The media project an image of a man and woman. Through songs, dramas, advertisements, talk shows it
builds the image of a good man and a good woman.
STATEMENTS ABOUT WOMEN
"Women are flowers of the world"
"Women can be as good engineers as men"
"Men can take care of babies as well as women can"
Men are the elephant's front legs, and women are its hind legs"
"Women are the Flowers of the World"
Women are like flowers.They attract
By saying women are flowers, we reduce
many people by their different styles of
them to mere decorative items with no real
dress similar to flowers (with their
value, except to be seen and admired.
different forms and colors).
Women have multifaceted roles to perform.
Women are beautiful in every way.
These roles are very important for the
survival of a family and society.They must
not be ignored.
Women play an important reproductive
Women also have a productive role and
roles like flowers.
support the family economically.
Without women, the world would be a
very dull place.
Women are multi
-talented; they can be
roots, stems, leaves, branches, etc.; not just
Women ma ke life pleasant for the family
as do flowers, which bring s pleasure to
on a pedestal, be confined and fade away.
those who see them.
If women were flowers, they would be put
They would not have a chance to grow.
"Women Can Be As Good Engineers as Men"
Women are careful and good at
Women are not technologically
inclined by nature.
In some countries, women make up
Engineering takes a lot of intelligence
almost half of the total number of
and concentration. It is too
complicated for women.
Given equal opportunities for
The work is too hard, and women are
education and workshop, women can
physically weaker than men.
be as successful as men.
Some women are engineers and
Women's nature is not conducive to
function well.T here is no reason to
engineering work.That's why there
believe that this job is "unnatural" to
are not many women engineers.
Given enough role models for women,
there will surely be more women
''Men Can Take Care of Babies as Well as Women Can
If a man wants to and gets an
Women are good at childcare because
opportunity to learn to raise
they have so much experience caring for
babies, he can be good at it.
other people's children before they have
their own. Men typically do not have that
Intensive involvement of men in
Women have natural maternal instincts.
child rearing will help children
Only women can breastfeed.
become more balanced.
More and more men are taking
By carrying the baby for nine months,
care of young children and
mothers have a closer natural link with the
doing a good job.This can be
As more women work outside
Men have not and cannot develop the
the home, it will become
gentleness and sensitivity required in
necessary for more men to help
''Men are the Elephant's Front Legs, and Women are its Hind Legs
Men are heads of their families.
Nowadays more and more women earn their
They earn an income to support
own income and support families.Their
contribution to the well-being of the family is as
important as that of men. Fathers and mothers
need mutual support like an elephant that
cannot walk on its front or hind legs alone.
Men are better at making
Women have been Prime Ministers of nations
and good leaders in many other areas; there just
aren't enough of them.
Women are weaker, so men
If women were inherently inferior, we would
should take the lead to protect
never have examples of women with initiative
Men are freer to go around and
Limited mobility of women comes with culture.
therefore more equipped to
In many societies, this limitation has decreased.
Women have shown they can be in control of
their movement and available to perform their
Men are physically stronger.
Some tasks are too physically demanding for
women. But women have been active in wars
Information to Share
HANDOUT # 6
Sex versus Gender
Gender roles are created by societies: they are not biological and they vary from generation to generation,
time to time and culture to culture. Sex identifies the biological differences between women and men.
Gender is the culturally-specific set of characteristics that explains the social behavior of women and men
and the RELATIONSHIP between them, hence it is not a simple reference towards the masculinity or
femininity but to the socially constructed relationship between them. Gender is an analytical tool for
understanding social processes.
Gender refers to the economic, social and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being
male or female.
Gender differs from sex in that it is social and cultural, rather than biological.
Gender attributes differ from society to society, and change over time.
Gender attributes are shaped by the economy, by religion, by culture and by traditional values.
Distinction between Sex and Gender
HANDOUT # 7
Gender versus Sex: An Analytical Tool
Many people confuse the terms "sex" and "gender" or aren't sure about the exact meaning. This tool is
designed to help us reach a simple, common understanding of the two terms. Without going into the truth or
falseness of the statements below, indicate next to each whether you believe it to be about sex or about
Place a tick in the appropriate box.
Women earn less money than men do
Men can't cook
Women have larger breasts than men
A husband cannot follow his wife
Girls drop out of school more than boys do
In most Pakistani traditions, women do not own land.
A man is the head of the household
It is not the job of the father to change nappies
Men don't cry
10. Girls dress in pink, boys dress in blue
11. A wife cannot initiate sex with her husband
12. Women menstruate, men don't
13. There are more male leaders than female leaders
14. A girl cannot propose marriage to a boy
15. Women cannot be religious leaders
16. Women are natural child care provider s
17. There are more male miners than female mi ners
18. A man cannot get pregnant
19. The man is the breadwinner
20. Men make good doctors, women make good nurses
ILO’s Role in Promoting Gender Equality at Workplace
Tile of Session: ILO s Role in Promoting Gender Equality at the
This session intends to focus on the basic concept of gender equality and the efforts made by the ILO to
ensure that gender equality is maintained at the workplace globally and within Pakistan.
To introduce participants to the ILO s agenda to promote gender equality at workplace and the efforts m a d e
through different Conventions and collaborations with governments at the global level and at the national level
? To introduce participants to the various ILO Conventions and internationally made efforts and their
implications in Pakistan and across the world.
Markers, Flip Charts, Handouts, Notepads and Ball Pens, Multimedia, Power Point Slides
Brainstorming, demonstration, group work and interactive discussions
Preparation before Training
Prepare Photocopies of the Handouts
Prepare Power Point Slides
Participants will be well aware of the ILO s remarkable efforts to promote and ensure gender equality at the
workplace through a number of Conventions, policy reforms, seminars and collaboration with Governments.
Process: Generating Interest in Topic
STEP-1: Demonstration-I (40 Minutes)
Introduce participants to the session title and its objectives.
Invite participants to generate ideas for defining gender equality through brainstorming and note
important points on white board.
(In this regard, appreciate practical examples from participants)
Present Power Point slide on the definition of gender equality at the workplace.
Share the ILO video on decent work
Share the current global situation of gender equality at the workplace to upgrade the participants
knowledge on the issue.
Interactively introduce the ILO and its efforts to promote gender equality around the world
Invite participants to present their learning.
Note important points and discuss them with participants to clarify the internationally made efforts of
the ILO for the sake of gender equality at the workplace.
Information to Share
HANDOUT # 8:
What is Gender Equality?
Gender equality (also known as gender equity, gender egalitarianism, or sexual equality) is the goal of the
equality of the genders or the sexes, stemming from a belief in the injustice of myriad forms of gender
On the basis of the given definition, gender equality at the workplace can be defined as the provision of equal
opportunities, treatment, social security and rights to all the men and women engaged in livelihood activities
at their workplace, regarding their employment and family responsibilities. Equal opportunities consist of
equal access for men and women in society to different activities including education, employment and
health care. Equal treatment can be defined as there being no discrimination with regard to employment,
vocational trainings and working conditions between men and women . This discrimination could be based
on sex, colour, religion, political opinion or social origin. Regarding gender equality at workplaces specifically
the following aspects are very important:
Equal payment / remuneration for work of equal value
Equal treatment in occupational social security schemes
Equal treatment in access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and in working
HANDOUT # 9
Gender Equality: The Situation Today in the World
Women make up 50 percent of the global population. In meeting the challenges of tomorrow s economy,
businesses cannot afford to overlook the talents offered by this half of the population.
The employment rate for women is increasing faster than that of men, especially in countries where they have
traditionally had a lower rate of employment. The rate has reached 53% globally (ILO 2004), which represents
42.1% of total salaried employment (ILO 2004). However, progress in reducing gender-based employment
differences for high-status jobs and compensation gaps has been considerably slower (disparity in pay is
estimated to be 15% in the European Union and nearly 20% in the United States), despite the remarkable rise
in women's education levels.
Even more so than other sectors, the pharmaceutical industry must take advantage of the enormous pool of
talent women represent, in particular women with medical and pharmacy degrees across the globe. In
France, women represent 56.6% of students graduating from medical school and 66.7% of pharmacy school
graduates. In Europe, only 15% of researchers in industry are women even though they receive 55% of the
post-graduate degrees in this discipline (report on Women in Industrial Research).
In South Asia, women have a large presence in key growth sectors, such as manufacturing and IT/IT-enabled
sectors. Women are also emerging as the key work force in agriculture as men migrate in search of
employment. Efforts to promote equal employment opportunities for women must be continued by
combating, both directly and indirectly, the discrimination they may be victims of and by helping all
employees to reconcile paid work and family responsibilities.
In Pakistan, it is observed that despite significant progress over the last few years in terms of economic
growth, there is still a significant gender imbalance in the labour market. Women s reported share of the
national income in Pakistan is less than 20%, and their participation in the formal labour force is 22%.
Women s low participation in the formal sector can be attributed to restrictions on their mobility, lack of
access to productive and remunerative employment, systemic discrimination, and harassment.
HANDOUT # 10
Introduction to International Labour Organization (ILO)
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social
justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. The ILO formulates international labour
standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards for basic labour
rights i.e. freedom of association, the right to organize, collective bargaining, abolition of forced labour,
equality of opportunity and treatment, and other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum
of work related issues. It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of:
Vocational training and vocational rehabilitation
Labour law and industrial relations
10. Occupational safety and health.
The ILO promotes the development of independent employers' and workers' organizations and provides
training and advisory services. Within the UN system, the ILO has a unique structure with workers and
employers participating as equal partners with Governments.
The Role of the ILO
ILO standards cover a wide range of social and labour problems, including basic human rights issues such as
freedom of association, the abolition of forced labour and child labour and the elimination of discrimination in
The majority of ILO Conventions and Recommendations apply equally to both men and women. However,
some are of special concern to women workers. ILO standards, which have become the catalyst for new
economic and legal norms affecting working women, cover the following areas:
Equality of remuneration for equal work;
Discrimination in employment and occupation;
Workers with family responsibilities;
Special measures relating to night shifts and underground work
Part-time work, and other health-related issues
ILO Labour Standards of Relevance to Equal Opportunity and Treatment
The ILO s standard-setting work in this area is based on two central concerns:
1. To guarantee equality of opportunity and treatment in access to training, employment, promotion,
organization and decision-making, as well as securing equal conditions of remuneration, benefits,
social security and welfare services provided in connection with employment.
To protect women workers especially in relation to terms and conditions of work, occupational safety
and health, and in relation to maternity.
HANDOUT # 11
The Strategic Objectives of ILO
The organizing theme of the ILO for the period 2002-05 was putting the decent work agenda into practice i.e:.
Promote and realize standards, fundamental principles and rights at work:
Ending child labour
Changing normative action
Create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment and income
Employment policy support
Knowledge, skills and employability
Enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all
Strengthen tripartism and social dialogue
Governments and institutions of social dialogue
Shaping the ILO agenda: Decent Work: Inter-sectoral Operational Support
Shaping the ILO agenda: Gender equality
Expanding knowledge: Statistics
Expanding knowledge: International Institute for Labour Studies
Expanding knowledge: International Training Centre of the ILO, Turin.
Improving awareness of ILO perspectives: External relations and partnerships
Improving awareness of ILO perspectives: Communications.
To meet its strategic objectives, the ILO has made numerous efforts globally to promote a society which is
based on gender equality, particularly at the workplace. These efforts are seen in the form of certain projects
and programs. In its efforts, the ILO also signed a MoU with the FAO in September 2004, which supplements
the Cooperation Agreement (1947) and subsequent agreements, updates the framework for cooperation
between the two organizations in order to meet the challenges of both globalization and the internationally
agreed global development agenda, in particular the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and to enhance
the effectiveness of the support provided by the two organizations to their members.
Pakistan has been a Member Country of the ILO since its independence in 1947. Pakistan's tripartite
delegation consisting of Representatives of its Government through the Ministry of Labour, Manpower, and
Overseas Pakistanis, the Employers Association by Mr. Ashraf W. Tabani and the Workers Federations by
Mr. Khurshid Ahmed, have been participating in the International Labour Conference of the ILO held in its
headquarters in Geneva each year.
Internationally, some of the ILO s efforts to promote gender equality at workplaces are:
Technical Cooperation Projects of the ILO
At its 292nd session in March 2005, the ILO Governing Body requested the Director-General to: Increase,
through technical cooperation, the capacity of ILO constituents and implementing partners to promote
gender equality in the world of work .
Technical cooperation is a principle means of action for achieving Decent Work outcomes and realizing the
Decent Work Agenda at the country level. GENDER, which is the ILO Bureau for Gender Equality, implements
technical cooperation projects in partnership with the ILO Gender Network to support capacity building of
constituents on gender mainstreaming, conduct participatory gender audits and expand the ILO s global
knowledge base on gender issues in the world of work.
GENDER works with the Partnerships and Development Cooperation Department (PARDEV) to help ensure
that gender equality is addressed in the policy orientation and operational aspects of all technical cooperation
projects, as well as in partnership agreements with donors. This is in accordance with the objectives of the
2008 Declaration on Social Justice for Fair Globalization.
Through knowledge-sharing initiatives, tools development and capacity building with the International
Training Center, based in Turin, GENDER works to ensure that ILO constituents and staff members are better
equipped to mainstream gender in the design and delivery of technical cooperation projects and
programmes, including Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCPs).
ILO Toolkit for Mainstreaming Employment and Decent Work: Geneva
Decent work has been defined by the ILO and endorsed by the international community as being productive
work for women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. Decent work involves
opportunities for work which are productive and deliver a fair income; provide security in the workplace and
social protection for workers and their families; offer better prospects for personal development and
encourage social integration; give people the freedom to express their concerns, to organize and to
participate in decisions that affect their lives; and guarantee equal opportunities and equal treatment for all.
The Decent Work Agenda is a balanced and integrated programmatic approach to pursuing the objectives of
full and productive employment and decent work for all at the global, regional, national, sectoral and local
levels. It comprises four pillars, namely:
Employment creation and enterprise development;
Standards and rights at work;
Governance and social dialogue.
The Toolkit for Mainstreaming Employment and Decent Work will be instrumental in fostering greater policy
coherence and convergence across the broad range of interlinked actions of the multilateral system, in line
with the international agenda agreed globally and subscribed to by all member countries. The Toolkit is
designed to be a lens that agencies can look through to see how their policies, strategies, programmes and
activities are interlinked with employment and decent work outcomes and how the agencies can enhance
these outcomes by taking full account of the implications of their policies, strategies, programmes and
activities for employment and decent work during the design stage, as well as while advising, assisting
countries and constituents with regard to their adoption and implementation. The approach of the Toolkit is
very similar to that adopted during the gender mainstreaming process in that it provides the user with a
checklist of questions to raise awareness of the inter-linkages between decent work and the different themes
and policy domains of the respective agencies.
The objective of the Toolkit is to facilitate the assessment of linkages and the realization of the potential
contribution of the policies, strategies, programmes and activities of the international agencies, individually
and collectively, in terms of their employment and decent work outcomes. The Toolkit contains a list of key
questions organized according to the four pillars of the Decent Work Agenda.
Gender Audit Manual in India (2008)
The ILO developed a Gender Audit Manual for Promotion of Gender Equality at the Workplace at New Delhi,
India on July 11, 2008. There is an acknowledgement that women are the backbone of the economies in
South Asia. This is also reflected in the 11th Five Year Plan of India, which hails women as agents of economic
and social growth.
Both employers and Organizations have a significant role in ensuring that the jobs created are of good quality,
productive and provide equal opportunities for both women and men. To this end, employers are increasing
their efforts to create gender sensitive workplaces to help employees maximize their potential and
One of the methods adopted by the ILO for promoting gender sensitive workplaces is a Participatory Gender
Audit, which enables the audited unit to develop its capacity to fully understand the gender dimensions at
Following the launch, the Council of Indian Employers (CIE), including the Standing Conference of Public
Sector Enterprises (SCOPE), along with Employers and Organizations from Bangladesh and Nepal and civil
society organizations in South Asia, participated in the panel discussion on the role of Gender Audits and
Workplace Gender Equality Promotion. The discussion included ideas on how to promote a gender sensitive
Gender Equality for Decent Employment in Pakistan (2010-2014)
This project, funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), aims to promote
employment and non-discrimination in the labour market for women in Pakistan.
It aims to improve skills training and develop practical programmes to enhance women s ability to access