Men and Boys in Gender Research - IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar


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Presented as part of the IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar Series, hosted by the IFPRI Gender Task Force. Presenters: Brian Heilman & Ruti Levtov.

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Men and Boys in Gender Research - IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar

  1. 1. Men and Boys in Gender Research Brian Heilman, ICRW & Ruti Levtov, Promundo US ; IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar August 4, 2014
  2. 2. Outline • Introductions • Rationale for engaging men and boys in gender research and programming? • Examples: 1. Primary research: IMAGES 2. Evaluation research: Young Men Initiative 3. Evaluation research: GEMS • Q&A
  5. 5. • Understanding men and boys as enmeshed in gender norms and social expectations • Aspects of masculinity that are harmful to both men and women • Men too often seen from a deficit perspective and not enough as agents of change • Strong evidence that when done right, brings benefits for women, children and men themselves Our Approach
  7. 7. Why IMAGES? • Few studies that ask men and women about violence, health, life circumstances • Often we ask women about men but don’t ask men themselves • Seeking to understand lives of men in all their complexity
  8. 8. Multi-country study on men, gender equality, health and GBV, asking men and women about practices and attitudes: • To date, approximately 20,000 interviews in 9 countries completed • Brazil, India, Croatia, Chile, Mexico, Rwanda, Bosnia, DRC, Mali • In process: Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria • “Sister” studies with Partners for Prevention: China, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Cambodia, PNG, Sri Lanka About IMAGES
  9. 9. IMAGES Design • Sampling – Generally followed methodology of WHO multi-country study – Size: ~700-2,300 men, ~400-1,300 women • Ethical considerations • In-person, paper surveys • Sex-matching of interviewers • Qualitative component
  10. 10. Research Questions • Are men on board with the gender equality agenda? • How much are men participating in the care of children and other domestic activities? • How common is men’s use of intimate partners violence? What factors are associated with this violence? • What do men think about laws and policies related to gender equality? • What are men’s current needs, vulnerabilities in terms of health, life conditions, and violence? • What is the impact of economic stress on men and gender relations? • New component: Exploring these issues in post- conflict settings
  11. 11. Questionnaire Genealogy • Gender Equality and Quality of Life Study – Norway • WHO Multi-country study on VAW • GEM Scale – used in over 20 countries, validated • Childhood Trauma Scale • DHS • Men, Health and Violence Study – South Africa – Medical Research Council • Evaluation studies from Promundo and ICRW
  12. 12. Overall Topics • Attitudes toward gender roles, gender equality, and gender- related policies • Use of, and attitudes related to, gender based violence • Health and health related practices • Household decision making and division of labor • Men’s participation in caregiving and as fathers • Transactional sex and paying for sex • Reports of criminal behavior, delinquency and childhood experiences of violence • Happiness and quality of life
  13. 13. Structural Socio-demographic and cultural factors Economic stress/employment Household composition Childhood experiences Men abused during childhood Childhood household gender dynamics Culture of and experiences of violence at school and neighborhood Gender attitudes GEM Scale Gender attitudes related to rights Related to women’s economic empowerment Exposure to policies and campaigns Fatherhood VAW Sexual diversity Women and children Marital status Length of relationship Partner’s socio-demographic characteristics Partner’s employment situation Number and age of children Previous unions Men’s Practices Violence Physical violence against partner Perpetration of sexual violence Involvement in criminal acts Parenting Participation in maternal health Taking paternity leave Caring for children Responsibilities with biological children Relationship dynamics Decision-making dynamics Participation in household tasks Couple communication Support abortion decision Health Sexuality SRH care Help and health-seeking behaviors Drugs and alcohol abuse Transactional sex Sexual relations with sex workers Transactional sex for goods
  14. 14. Adaptation • 80-90% of questionnaire is the same across countries, to allow for comparison • “Optional” or added sections: – Experiences of conflict – Measures of SES – Cultural practices – Family planning
  15. 15. Key Findings from IMAGES • Violence creates violence – and the most traumatic form is witnessing violence against mothers • Caregiving creates caregiving: men who see their fathers in caring relationships more likely to do same • Large portion of men with limited opportunities whose lives present vulnerabilities for themselves and for women • Gender attitudes matter – they predict use of violence, participation in household, caregiving, and satisfaction: • Men who buy into gender equality are happier and healthier - and their female partners are happier and healthier
  16. 16. Uses of the IMAGES Data • To develop a global and national database and assessment of men’s behaviors and attitudes with a standardized instrument • To provide a baseline or benchmark for monitoring changes in men’s behaviors and attitudes in line with various international processes, including CSW agreements and the Millenium Development Goals • For awareness-raising activities and advocacy nationally and internationally • For program development and planning
  17. 17. How have IMAGES Findings Been Used for Advocacy Purposes? • Brazil: Used to encourage Ministry of Health to start new collaboration with Promundo to engage men in MCH, violence interventions for men • Chile: Used to encourage the government to engage men in MCH and early childhood development as well as promote support for government funding for GBV prevention that includes reaching men and boys • Croatia: Presentations to government ministers key in promoting new more progressive sexuality education policies and governmental support to the Young Men’s Initiative
  18. 18. Links to Programs: Women’s Economic Empowerment
  19. 19. Living Peace: Trauma support, identity creation for men in partnership with women
  20. 20. Intergenerational Transmission: MenCare
  21. 21. “Evolving Men” – Initial Multi-Country Report: Most Recent Country Report: DRC New Analysis of Sexual Violence Perpetration with IMAGES data: IMAGES central website w many reports/resources/q’aires: equality-survey-images-3/ “Bridges to Adulthood” – Links betw Childhood and Adult Violence in IMAGES data
  23. 23. Be a Man: Change the Rules! Findings and Lessons from Seven Years of CARE International Balkans’ Young Men Initiative
  24. 24. • WHY promote healthy, nonviolent, and gender-equitable lifestyles among adolescent boys in the Balkans region? • WHAT is the Young Men Initiative? • HOW did we evaluate it? • WHAT did we learn? • THEME 1: Attitudes about men and women • THEME 2: Interpersonal violence • THEME 3: Sex, health, and wellbeing • THEME 4: Drug and alcohol use Outline
  25. 25. WHY promote healthy, nonviolent, and gender-equitable lifestyles among adolescent boys in the Balkans region? Conflict in recent memory High levels of violence and violent attitudes Gaps in SRH knowledge
  26. 26. WHAT is the Young Men Initiative? SITES: - Belgrade (Serbia) - Prishtina (Kosovo) - Sarajevo (Bosnia) - Zagreb (Croatia)
  27. 27. WHAT is the Young Men Initiative? • Thorough revision/adaptation of Promundo’s Program H • Aligns to local gender norms • Redesigned to be delivered in high schools • Informed by formative “participatory action research” in 2007 • Activities: 24-hour cycles, maps of local youth spaces, 3D images of “masculinity” and “femininity”, power maps, more
  28. 28. WHAT is the Young Men Initiative?
  29. 29. WHAT is the Young Men Initiative?
  30. 30. HOW did we evaluate YMI? • Three guiding questions • Mixed methods approach • Quantitative: Self-administered questionnaire conducted at the beginning and end of the academic year • Qualitative: FGDs and IDIs with male students, school teachers, and program facilitators • Two cities per academic year: • 2011-2012: Sarajevo and Zagreb • 2012-2013: Belgrade and Prishtina • Comparison site in Prishtina
  31. 31. HOW did we evaluate YMI? • Sample details:
  32. 32. WHAT did we learn? Guiding Questions: 1. How was the program implemented? 2. To what extent can we identify outcomes related to the project’s four thematic areas? • THEME 1: Attitudes about men and women • THEME 2: Interpersonal violence • THEME 3: Sex, health, and wellbeing • THEME 4: Drug and alcohol use 3. Did participating in the retreats – in addition to classroom sessions – produce any differential effect?
  33. 33. WHAT did we learn? THEME 1: Attitudes about men and women
  34. 34. WHAT did we learn? THEME 1: Attitudes about men and women INDEX Illustrative questions from GEM scale: Gender Roles A woman’s most important role is to take care of the home and cook for the family […4 items included] Gender Norms (masculinity) The most important quality for a man is physical strength and power [… 3 items included] Homophobia I would never have a gay friend [… 3 items included] Violence Against Women It is OKAY for a man to hit his wife if she refuses to have sex [… 4 items included]
  35. 35. ** p<.05 *p<.10  significant difference between intervention & control at p<.05
  36. 36. WHAT did we learn? THEME 1: Attitudes about men and women Retreats proved powerful Patriarchal norms are still prevalent Rapport with students is critical Lessons:
  37. 37. WHAT did we learn? THEME 2: Interpersonal violence
  38. 38. WHAT did we learn? THEME 2: Interpersonal violence
  39. 39. WHAT did we learn? THEME 2: Interpersonal violence Greater program focus on violence could help Longer timeline needed Lessons:
  40. 40. WHAT did we learn? THEME 3: Sex, health, and wellbeing
  41. 41. WHAT did we learn? THEME 3: Sex, health, and wellbeing
  42. 42. WHAT did we learn? THEME 3: Sex, health, and wellbeing Some students require extra attention Classroom sessions and retreats equally effective Lessons:
  43. 43. WHAT did we learn? THEME 4: Drug & alcohol use
  44. 44. WHAT did we learn? THEME 4: Drug & alcohol use
  45. 45. WHAT did we learn? THEME 4: Drug & alcohol use Social media can be effective in promoting new behaviors YMI alone may be insufficient to achieve this change Lessons:
  46. 46. WHAT did we learn? Limitations: Sample attrition Short time frame Social desirability bias
  47. 47. “Be a Man, Change the Rules” – Seven Year Summative Report: WEB-PREVIEW.pdf Formative Research Report – Participatory Learning & Action: Masculinity-and-Violence.pdf YMI website:
  49. 49. Fosters gender equality, redefines masculinity & negates all forms of violence to promote SRH of YA GEMS 3. Teacher Sensitization ownership and conviction 1. Group Education Activities collective refection in a positive peer environment 2. Campaigns public dialogue within supportive school environment WHAT is GEMS?
  50. 50. Content of Group Education Activities Gender Body Violence Relationships
  51. 51. GEMS Evaluation Design 754 students participated in all three rounds, while 909 participated in baseline and 2nd follow- up
  52. 52. WHAT were the evaluation results? Attitudes about gender equality improved Outcome Outcome Process 1 2 3
  53. 53. Examples of positive shifts in gender attitude 49 67 18 36 64 71 39 39 14 13 66 62 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Baseline 2nd Follow-up Baseline 2nd Follow-up Baseline 2nd Follow-up girls shdn't sent for higher education Giving kids bath and feeding are mother’s responsibility girl’s fault if a boy or teacher sexually harass her %disagreed GEA+ Control
  54. 54. Attitudes about gender equality improved Students think differently about age of marriage Outcome Outcome Process 1 2 3 WHAT were the evaluation results?
  55. 55. Students suggesting 21 yrs or more as appropriate age at marriage for girls * Diff sig. at p <0.05 compared to control
  56. 56. Attitudes about gender equality improved Students think differently about age of marriage GEA and campaigns work best together Outcome Outcome Process 1 2 3 WHAT were the evaluation results?
  57. 57. The girl should study. She has the right to study. It is illegal to get her married before the age of 18. A boy from GEA+ I will make my parents understand that they should get me married off after I turn eighteen. They should also let me complete a master’s degree. That will help me get a good job and better money. The problems that happen due to lack of education will be out of the way. A girl from GEA+ WHAT do boys and girls in the program say?
  58. 58. GEMS Diary: Evaluation Results: 0for%20Gender%20Equality%20Adolescents_0.pdf Campaign Guide: Training Manual for Facilitators: a Gender Year 1Module 1 Training Manual for Facilitators GEMS Gender Equity Movement inSchools
  59. 59. Q & A
  60. 60. Additional Slides on IMAGES
  61. 61. Attitudes about violence 70 0 20 40 60 80 100 Bosnia Brazil Chile Croatia DRC India Mexico Rwanda %whoagreeorpartiallyagree There are times when a woman deserves to be beaten: nMen nWomen
  62. 62. IPV Perpetration 71 26.0 24.3 29.5 32.6 44.0 37.4 17.4 38.7 0 10 20 30 40 50
  63. 63. To end men’s use of violence we have to pay attention to the violence in boys’s lives • 20% to 85% of men report having experienced psychological violence as children; • 26% to 67% of men report having experienced physical violence as children in their homes; • 16% to 44% of men report witnessing their mother being beaten by their father or another male partner; • 1% to 21% of men report having experienced sexual volence as children; • 34% to 79% report having been bullied in their neighobrhoods or physically punished by teachers
  64. 64. IMAGES Data Linked Directly to Programs…