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Web 2.0 tools in education

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3.10. Web 2.0 tools in education

3.10. Web 2.0 tools in education

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  • 1. Co-funded by the European Union , through the Comenius Programme Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 2. Structure
    • Semantic Web
    • XML
    • RDF
    • Ontologies
    • OWL
    • Educational Web 2.0 Activity
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 3. What is Web 2.0?
    • Web 2.0 is a set of internet services and practices that give a voice to individual users
      • It implies a step-change in the structure of a whole environment of computer activity – namely, the World Wide Web *
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Becta (2008) . Web 2.0 technologies for learning: The current landscape – opportunities, challenges and tensions
  • 4. Semantic Web
    • A collaborative effort led by W3C
    • B ased on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming
    • P roposed by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * http://www.uen.org/core/edtech/glossary.shtml
  • 5. Definition
    • “ The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” *
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education *Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila The Semantic Web, Scientific American, May 17, 2001
  • 6. Scope
    • The  Semantic Web  provides a common framework that allows  data  to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries *
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/
  • 7. Semantic Web
    • The Semantic Web is about two things :
      • C ommon formats for integration and combination of data drawn from diverse sources
      • L anguage for recording how the data relates to real world objects
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 8. Old Web
    • Downloadable Resources:
      • identified by URL's
    • Links:
      • href, src, ...
      • limited, non-descriptive
    • User:
      • Exciting world
        • semantics of the resource, however, gleaned from content
    • Machine processable:
      • Very little information available
        • significance of the links only evident from the context around the anchor.
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Eric Miller. Weaving Meaning : An Overview of The Semantic Web . 2003
  • 9. Semantic Web
    • Resources (any resource):
      • Globally Identified by URI's
      • Extensible & Relational
    • Links:
      • Identified by URI's
      • Extensible & Relational
    • User:
      • Even more exciting world, richer user experience
    • Machine:
      • More processable information is available (Data Web)
    • Computers and people:
      • Work, learn and exchange knowledge effectively
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Eric Miller. Weaving Meaning : An Overview of The Semantic Web . 2003
  • 10. Semantics… “Now, that should clear up a few things around here…”
    • http://carpentier.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/semanticweb.jpg
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 11. Semantic Web Layer “Cake”
    • http://www.w3c.org
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 12. URI
    • Every resource available on the Web has an address that may be encoded by a Uniform Resource Identifier , or “URI”
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 13. What is XML?
    • ” A set of rules for defining and representing information as structured documents for applications on the Internet” *
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 14. e X tensible M arkup L anguage
    • Extensible : User tags can be defined
      • Supports a variety of applications
    • Markup : The user can “markup”:
      • Elements , Attributes , Comments and Processing instructions
    • Meta Language : Gives the rules for other languages to be implemented
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 15. E-mail in XML
    • <message>
    • <to> [email_address] </to> <from> [email_address] </from> <text> Is XML easy? I am giving a presentation... </text>
    • </message>
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 16. What is RDF?
    • “ A framework for constructing logical languages that can work together in the Semantic Web. A way of using XML for data rather than just documents ” *
    • RDF extends XML by introducing subject – predicate – object expressions
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education http://www.w3c.org
  • 17. RDF
    • A general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources
    • Describes documents, images, videos, etc.
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 18. RDF Schema
    • “ Extensible knowledge representation language, providing basic elements for the description of ontologies”
    • Extends RDF offering ontology building capacity
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 19. Ontologies
    • “ An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization ” *
    • The term is borrowed from philosophy, where an ontology is a systematic account of Existence
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Thomas Gruber, 1993
  • 20. Conceptualization
    • “ A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose” *
    • Ontologies provide controlled , consistent vocabularies to describe concepts and relationships
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Thomas Gruber, 1993
  • 21. Ontology Constructs
    • Class
      • Human is a class, Man is a subclass of human
    • Attribute
      • Height & weight are attributes
    • Relationship
      • “ isrelatedto ” can indicate relationships between men
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education *Gruber, Encyclopedia of Database Systems , 2008
  • 22. Sample Ontology Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Human Man Woman George Mary ismarriedto class subclass subclass relationship Height: 1,90m Weight: 95kg attributes
  • 23. OWL
    • A family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies
    • C ompatible with the architecture of the World Wide Web in general, and the Semantic Web in particular
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  • 24. OWL extends RDF
    • A dds more vocabulary for describing properties and classes . For example:
      • R elations between classes ,
      • C ardinality ,
      • E quality,
      • Properties (and their characteristics)
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  • 25. Why OWL?
    • OWL has more facilities for expressing meaning and semantics than :
      • XML
      • RDF
      • RDF-S
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * www.w3c.org
  • 26. Versions of OWL
    • OWL Lite (decidable)
    • OWL DL (Description Logic) (Decidable)
    • OWL Full (Allows classes as instances)
    • From OWL Lite to OWL Full expressiveness and logical complexity increases
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 27. OWL Constructs Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Introduction to Ontologies, Nick Drummond Person Country Class (concept) Animal Individual (instance) Belgium Greece Spain Italy Nick Tom Alex Kylie Kelly Cat Dog lives_in lives_in lives_in has_pet has_pet arrow = relationship label = Property has_pet
  • 28. Classes
    • E.g. Person, Animal, Job
      • Classes are sets of Individuals
      • Membership of a Class is dependent on its logical description , not its name
      • Classes do not have to be named (they can be logical expressions )
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 29. Properties
    • E.g. hasPart, isMemberOf, owns
      • Properties are used to relate Individuals
      • We often say that Individuals are related along a given property
      • Subject – Predicate – Object
        • E.g.: Nikos – hasPet – Cat
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 30. Individuals
    • E.g. Nikos, me, this room, this cat
      • Individuals are the objects (aka instances) in our domain of interest
      • Individuals can be members of multiple Classes
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 31. How are they linked?
    • HTML and XML
      • HTML uses predefined tags to tell a web browser how to display a web page
      • XML uses not-predefined tags to describe data in order to carry and not to display them
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 32. How are they linked?
    • XML – RDF
      • RDF also describes resources and is based on XML providing a model for data, and a syntax so that independent parties can exchange data
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 33. How are they linked?
    • RDF – OWL
      • OWL is built on RDF and is based on XML
      • In a way, it extends RDF by allowing to create logical dependencies between structures
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 34. Are these linked to education?
    • Semantic Web  Links learning objects (LOs)
    •  Links them to the real world
    • XML  Send around documents
    • RDF  Send more than docs (LOs)
    • Ontologies  Relationships between LOs
    • OWL  Defines relationships between LOs and is compatible with the Semantic Web
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 35. Categories of educational Web 2.0 activity*
    • Media Sharing
    • Media Manipulation
    • Conversational Areas
    • Online games and virtual worlds
    • Social Networking
    • Blogging
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education * Becta (2008) . Web 2.0 technologies for learning: The current landscape – opportunities, challenges and tensions
  • 36. Categories of educational Web 2.0 activity
    • Social Bookmarking
    • Recommender Systems
    • Collaborative Editing
    • Wikis
    • Syndication
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 37. Media Sharing
    • Synchronize slides with video
      • http://www.zentation.com/
    • Storing and Sharing Class Notes
      • http://www.notecentric.com/
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 38. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 39. Media Manipulation
    • Online Diagram Software
      • http://www.gliffy.com/
    • Linking literature to geography
      • http://www.googlelittrips.com /
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 40. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 41. Conversational Areas
    • Educational conversations
      • http://vyew.com/site/
    • International conversations
      • http://www.thinkquest.org/
    • Conversations for young learners
      • http://b.whyville.net/smmk/nice
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 42. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 43. Social Networking & Blogging
    • Casual talks around school interests
      • http://www.goldstarcafe.net/
    • Educational Blogs
      • http://edublogs.org/
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 44. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 45. Wikis
    • School Wiki
      • http://school20.wikispaces.com/
    • Educational Wikis
      • http://wikisineducation.wetpaint.com/
    Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 46. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education
  • 47.
    • Dear user,
    • please take the time (5 minutes) to help us improve METASCHOOL modules!
    • Find the Module Questionnaire here:
      • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
      • Find present module (ask your workshop leader, if you are unsure)
      • Scroll to the end of the module description
      • Fill in the Module Questionnaire
    • If you took part in a METASCHOOL Workshop and this is the last module of your workshop, please ALSO help us improve our METASCHOOL Workshops by completing the Workshop Questionnaire (10 minutes):
      • METASCHOOL Portal: http://lreforschools.eun.org/metaschool
      •  Click on a language:
    Evaluation
  • 48. Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education Informatics Laboratory Agricultural University of Athens http://infolab-dev.aua.gr/ Web 2.0 Technologies & Tools in Education