Space Race and Kennedy Years


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Space Race and Kennedy Years

  1. 1. Nikita Khrushchev comes to power in SU and believes in PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE; “destalinization” Only economic and scientific competition You do not like Communism.   We do not like capitalism.   There is only one way out – peaceful co-existence.   Khrushchev speaking on a visit to Britain in 1956.            We may argue.   The main thing is to argue without using weapons.   Khrushchev speaking in 1959.
  2. 2. Sputnik I October 4, 1957 World’s 1 st Artificial Satellite – launched by Soviets - about the size of a basketball, weighed about 200 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path Photograph: NASA/EPA The Space Race begins…
  3. 3. <ul><li>November 5 1957: Laika, the female dog who was a passenger on board Sputnik II </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph: NASA/AP </li></ul>She survived the launch… humans can go into space!
  4. 4. <ul><li>January 31 1958: The first US satellite, Explorer I, lifts off at Cape Canaveral, Florida </li></ul><ul><li>At 18 pounds, the satellite was smaller than the Sputniks, but it flew higher, 2,000 miles up. </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph: NASA </li></ul>
  5. 5. History Rewind: Ham the chimp goes to into space!!
  6. 6. <ul><li>April 12 1961: Yuri Gagarin prepares to board the Vostok I spaceship at the Baikonur launchpad shortly before its take-off. He was the first man to travel in space, completing a circuit of the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph: AFP/Getty Images </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>May 5 1961: Alan Shepard lifts off in the Freedom 7 </li></ul>
  8. 8. U2 Spy Incident: Renewed Confrontation <ul><li>SU: NO “Open Skies” @ Geneva </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. begins reconnaissance flights over S.U. </li></ul><ul><li>U2 spy plane (piloted by Francis Gary Powers) shot down by Soviet anti-aircraft in May 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT: K calls off summit to discuss arms race, takes away Ike’s invite to S.U. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the issues and outcome of the right Kennedy-Nixon presidential campaign of 1960. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the high expectations Kennedy’s New Frontier aroused and the obstacles it encountered in promoting its domestic policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” in Asia and Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963, his landslide over Goldwater in 1964, and his Great Society successes of 1965. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who would YOU elect?? Why? <ul><li>Candidate 1 </li></ul><ul><li>43 yrs. old </li></ul><ul><li>Born wealthy Irish Catholic educated at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Father = bootlegger/politician </li></ul><ul><li>WWII: Navy Captain </li></ul><ul><li>2 term senator who did not take on McCarthy </li></ul><ul><li>Promising you a “New Frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>Candidate 2 </li></ul><ul><li>47 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Experience as Vice President and in House </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Anti Communist </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Foreign Policy Record </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who would YOU elect??
  12. 12. The Kennedy Years
  13. 13. Election of 1960 <ul><li>Kennedy (D) v. Richard Nixon (R) </li></ul>
  14. 14. John Fitzgerald Kennedy <ul><li>43 yrs. old </li></ul><ul><li>Born wealthy Irish Catholic educated at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Father = bootlegger/politician </li></ul><ul><li>College: wrote about why GB slept during appeasement </li></ul><ul><li>WWII: Navy Captain </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy Era – another Senator who DIDN’T take on McCarthy! </li></ul><ul><li>Promised Americans a “New Frontier” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Richard Millhouse Nixon <ul><li>Ike’s VP </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Anti Communist (took on Alger Hiss in trial) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Foreign Policy Record </li></ul><ul><li>47 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Kitchen Debate <ul><li>“ Nixon stressed that Americans had abundant food and appliances to process and cook their food. Khrushchev satirically shot back, &quot;Don't you have a machine that puts food into the mouth and pushes it down? Many things you've shown us are interesting but they are not needed in life.’” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Campaign of 1960 <ul><li>TV = DECIDING FACTOR! </li></ul><ul><li>4 televised debates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JFK = strong, comfortable, handsome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIXON = pale, tense (WOULDN’T WEAR MAKEUP FOR TV!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JFK attacked Nixon on the “missile gap” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived strength of SU in rockets and missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REALITY : US HAD MORE MISSILES </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Closest election since 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Margin = .3% </li></ul><ul><li>Alaska/Hawaii joined US in 59 </li></ul><ul><li>DISPUTED ballots – Teamsters/Giancana in Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon could have challenged results, but said: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I HAVE TOO MUCH RESPECT FOR THE OFFICE.” </li></ul>ELECTION OF 1960: RESULTS
  19. 20. Inaugural Address – January 1961 <ul><li>STRONG position on foreign affairs/communist threat </li></ul><ul><li>PROMISED TO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Hold the line against Communism” & “Oppose any foe of liberty” </li></ul></ul>“ ASK NOT WHAT YOUR COUNTRY CAN DO FOR YOU…”
  20. 21. Domestic Policy <ul><li>Battled with Congress – fragile Democratic majority </li></ul><ul><li>Dixiecrats threatened to team up w/ Rep. to defeat N.F. legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands House Rules Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promised to fight recession from Ike </li></ul><ul><li>Tax cuts – put $ in people’s pockets to stimulate economy </li></ul>
  21. 22. Foreign Policy <ul><li>NO MORE MASSIVE RETALIATION ! </li></ul><ul><li>(“suicide” – Sec. of Defense McNamara) </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBLE RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>Build up of non-nuclear forces (troops, ships, artillery) </li></ul><ul><li>Dev. Special Forces, tripled nuclear arsenal </li></ul><ul><li>Fight LIMITED wars </li></ul>
  22. 23. Crisis Over Berlin <ul><li>1961 – Berlin in turmoil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million E. Germans fled to W. Berlin (20% of pop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAILURE of Communist govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departure of workers weakened economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev wanted to sign treaty with East Berlin cutting off access roads to West, but JFK wouldn’t give up US access </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>“I want peace. But if you want war, that is your problem.” </li></ul>
  24. 26. The Berlin Wall <ul><li>August 13, 1961 – Khrushchev orders construction of barbed wire/concrete wall by GDR overnight </li></ul><ul><li>East and West Germany separated </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped the leak of refugees </li></ul><ul><li>BUT – was a symbol of Communism’s oppressive nature </li></ul>&quot;Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart“ (Soviets and GDR)
  25. 30. <ul><li>One of President Kennedy's speech card from his remarks in Berlin </li></ul>
  26. 31. Castro’s Cuba <ul><li>LA resented US aid to Europe, intervention in LA affairs, and support of dictators </li></ul><ul><li>US supported Batista in exchange for encouraging US investments </li></ul><ul><li>59 – Castro’s revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized US property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligned w/ Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monroe Doctrine?? Domino effect? </li></ul><ul><li>Ike: Org. of American States, $500 in aid to LA – too little too late! </li></ul>
  27. 32. Bay of Pigs Invasion <ul><li>Approved by Ike in ‘60 </li></ul><ul><li>CIA planned invasion of Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: US would train and arm Cuban exiles (“Cuba libre”) to overthrow Castro’s govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HUGE FAILURE and EMBARASSMENT! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000+ Cuban dissidents who were supposed to help invasion force were jailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No air support from US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US paid Cuba millions in food, medicine and $ for return of 1,200 captives </li></ul>
  28. 34. Source: U.S. News and World Report, December 1957.
  29. 35. Source: Life magazine, May 1955.
  30. 36. The Missiles of October <ul><li>Summer ’62 – flow of nukes from SU to Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>JFK: we will NOT tolerate offensive nukes in Cuba! </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 14 – photos reveal Soviet missile sites in Cuba, some aimed and ready! </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 22 – JFK informs the nation </li></ul>
  31. 37. The world on the brink… <ul><li>US: naval quarantine of Cuba; 100,000 troops in FL </li></ul><ul><li>“eyeball to eyeball”… and the Soviets “blinked” (~ Sec. of State Dean Rusk) </li></ul><ul><li>JFK and Khrushchev reach agreement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SU will withdraw nukes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US will NOT invade Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US will remove missile from Turkey (SECRET!) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. 1963 – Easing tensions… <ul><li>Hotline – direct line between White House and Kremlin to be used in emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Test Ban Treaty – NO nuclear testing in the atmosphere </li></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>Former missile sites (Nov. 1962) </li></ul>
  34. 40. Criticism of JFK <ul><li>Did he practice brinkmanship? Why not diplomacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t he invade Cuba? </li></ul>
  35. 41. Nov. 9, 1989 – E. Germany allows W. Germans to enter
  36. 42. Reagan’s Speech; June 1987
  37. 44. <ul><li>View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous &quot;death strip&quot; </li></ul>
  38. 46. History Rocks:The Berlin Wall
  39. 47. WE WIN THE SPACE RACE!! Apollo 11: The Moon Landing <ul><li>Planned by JFK </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><li>$24 Billion dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren landed in 1969 </li></ul>
  40. 48. Mythbusters takes on the supposed Moon Landing “hoax”!
  41. 49. Pre Class <ul><li>Explain the state of the Cold War at the opening of the 1960s using the following terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>Brinkmanship </li></ul><ul><li>U-2 incident </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful coexistence </li></ul><ul><li>Space race </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev </li></ul>
  42. 50. History Rocks: Space Race – Cold War Front