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Space Race and Kennedy Years
 

Space Race and Kennedy Years

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    Space Race and Kennedy Years Space Race and Kennedy Years Presentation Transcript

    • Nikita Khrushchev comes to power in SU and believes in PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE; “destalinization” Only economic and scientific competition You do not like Communism.   We do not like capitalism.   There is only one way out – peaceful co-existence.   Khrushchev speaking on a visit to Britain in 1956.            We may argue.   The main thing is to argue without using weapons.   Khrushchev speaking in 1959.
    • Sputnik I October 4, 1957 World’s 1 st Artificial Satellite – launched by Soviets - about the size of a basketball, weighed about 200 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path Photograph: NASA/EPA The Space Race begins…
      • November 5 1957: Laika, the female dog who was a passenger on board Sputnik II
      • Photograph: NASA/AP
      She survived the launch… humans can go into space!
      • January 31 1958: The first US satellite, Explorer I, lifts off at Cape Canaveral, Florida
      • At 18 pounds, the satellite was smaller than the Sputniks, but it flew higher, 2,000 miles up.
      • Photograph: NASA
    • History Rewind: Ham the chimp goes to into space!!
      • April 12 1961: Yuri Gagarin prepares to board the Vostok I spaceship at the Baikonur launchpad shortly before its take-off. He was the first man to travel in space, completing a circuit of the Earth
      • Photograph: AFP/Getty Images
      • May 5 1961: Alan Shepard lifts off in the Freedom 7
    • U2 Spy Incident: Renewed Confrontation
      • SU: NO “Open Skies” @ Geneva
      • U.S. begins reconnaissance flights over S.U.
      • U2 spy plane (piloted by Francis Gary Powers) shot down by Soviet anti-aircraft in May 1960
      • RESULT: K calls off summit to discuss arms race, takes away Ike’s invite to S.U.
    • Learning Objectives
      • Describe the issues and outcome of the right Kennedy-Nixon presidential campaign of 1960.
      • Describe the high expectations Kennedy’s New Frontier aroused and the obstacles it encountered in promoting its domestic policies.
      • Analyze the theory and practice of Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response” in Asia and Latin America.
      • Describe Johnson’s succession to the presidency in 1963, his landslide over Goldwater in 1964, and his Great Society successes of 1965.
    • Who would YOU elect?? Why?
      • Candidate 1
      • 43 yrs. old
      • Born wealthy Irish Catholic educated at Harvard
      • Father = bootlegger/politician
      • WWII: Navy Captain
      • 2 term senator who did not take on McCarthy
      • Promising you a “New Frontier”
      • Candidate 2
      • 47 years old
      • Middle class
      • Experience as Vice President and in House
      • Conservative
      • Anti Communist
      • Strong Foreign Policy Record
    • Who would YOU elect??
    • The Kennedy Years
    • Election of 1960
      • Kennedy (D) v. Richard Nixon (R)
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy
      • 43 yrs. old
      • Born wealthy Irish Catholic educated at Harvard
      • Father = bootlegger/politician
      • College: wrote about why GB slept during appeasement
      • WWII: Navy Captain
      • McCarthy Era – another Senator who DIDN’T take on McCarthy!
      • Promised Americans a “New Frontier”
    • Richard Millhouse Nixon
      • Ike’s VP
      • Conservative Republican
      • Anti Communist (took on Alger Hiss in trial)
      • Strong Foreign Policy Record
      • 47 years old
      • Middle class
    • The Kitchen Debate
      • “ Nixon stressed that Americans had abundant food and appliances to process and cook their food. Khrushchev satirically shot back, "Don't you have a machine that puts food into the mouth and pushes it down? Many things you've shown us are interesting but they are not needed in life.’”
      http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/money_02.html
    • Campaign of 1960
      • TV = DECIDING FACTOR!
      • 4 televised debates
        • JFK = strong, comfortable, handsome
        • NIXON = pale, tense (WOULDN’T WEAR MAKEUP FOR TV!)
      • JFK attacked Nixon on the “missile gap”
        • Perceived strength of SU in rockets and missiles
        • REALITY : US HAD MORE MISSILES
      • Closest election since 1880
      • Margin = .3%
      • Alaska/Hawaii joined US in 59
      • DISPUTED ballots – Teamsters/Giancana in Chicago
      • Nixon could have challenged results, but said:
      • “ I HAVE TOO MUCH RESPECT FOR THE OFFICE.”
      ELECTION OF 1960: RESULTS
    •  
    • Inaugural Address – January 1961
      • STRONG position on foreign affairs/communist threat
      • PROMISED TO
        • “Hold the line against Communism” & “Oppose any foe of liberty”
      “ ASK NOT WHAT YOUR COUNTRY CAN DO FOR YOU…”
    • Domestic Policy
      • Battled with Congress – fragile Democratic majority
      • Dixiecrats threatened to team up w/ Rep. to defeat N.F. legislation
        • Expands House Rules Committee
      • Promised to fight recession from Ike
      • Tax cuts – put $ in people’s pockets to stimulate economy
    • Foreign Policy
      • NO MORE MASSIVE RETALIATION !
      • (“suicide” – Sec. of Defense McNamara)
      • FLEXIBLE RESPONSE
      • Build up of non-nuclear forces (troops, ships, artillery)
      • Dev. Special Forces, tripled nuclear arsenal
      • Fight LIMITED wars
    • Crisis Over Berlin
      • 1961 – Berlin in turmoil
        • 3 million E. Germans fled to W. Berlin (20% of pop)
        • FAILURE of Communist govt.
        • Departure of workers weakened economy
      • Khrushchev wanted to sign treaty with East Berlin cutting off access roads to West, but JFK wouldn’t give up US access
    •  
      • “I want peace. But if you want war, that is your problem.”
    • The Berlin Wall
      • August 13, 1961 – Khrushchev orders construction of barbed wire/concrete wall by GDR overnight
      • East and West Germany separated
      • Stopped the leak of refugees
      • BUT – was a symbol of Communism’s oppressive nature
      "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart“ (Soviets and GDR)
    •  
    •  
    •  
      • One of President Kennedy's speech card from his remarks in Berlin
    • Castro’s Cuba
      • LA resented US aid to Europe, intervention in LA affairs, and support of dictators
      • US supported Batista in exchange for encouraging US investments
      • 59 – Castro’s revolution
        • Seized US property
        • Aligned w/ Moscow
      • Monroe Doctrine?? Domino effect?
      • Ike: Org. of American States, $500 in aid to LA – too little too late!
    • Bay of Pigs Invasion
      • Approved by Ike in ‘60
      • CIA planned invasion of Cuba
        • Goal: US would train and arm Cuban exiles (“Cuba libre”) to overthrow Castro’s govt.
      • HUGE FAILURE and EMBARASSMENT!
        • 30,000+ Cuban dissidents who were supposed to help invasion force were jailed
        • No air support from US
      • US paid Cuba millions in food, medicine and $ for return of 1,200 captives
    •  
    • Source: U.S. News and World Report, December 1957.
    • Source: Life magazine, May 1955.
    • The Missiles of October
      • Summer ’62 – flow of nukes from SU to Cuba
      • JFK: we will NOT tolerate offensive nukes in Cuba!
      • Oct. 14 – photos reveal Soviet missile sites in Cuba, some aimed and ready!
      • Oct. 22 – JFK informs the nation
    • The world on the brink…
      • US: naval quarantine of Cuba; 100,000 troops in FL
      • “eyeball to eyeball”… and the Soviets “blinked” (~ Sec. of State Dean Rusk)
      • JFK and Khrushchev reach agreement:
        • SU will withdraw nukes
        • US will NOT invade Cuba
        • US will remove missile from Turkey (SECRET!)
    • 1963 – Easing tensions…
      • Hotline – direct line between White House and Kremlin to be used in emergencies
      • Limited Test Ban Treaty – NO nuclear testing in the atmosphere
      • Former missile sites (Nov. 1962)
    • Criticism of JFK
      • Did he practice brinkmanship? Why not diplomacy?
      • Why didn’t he invade Cuba?
    • Nov. 9, 1989 – E. Germany allows W. Germans to enter
    • Reagan’s Speech; June 1987
    •  
      • View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip"
    •  
    • History Rocks:The Berlin Wall
    • WE WIN THE SPACE RACE!! Apollo 11: The Moon Landing
      • Planned by JFK
      • Reasons
        • Economic stimulus
        • Military strategy
        • Scientific prestige
      • $24 Billion dollars
      • Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren landed in 1969
    • Mythbusters takes on the supposed Moon Landing “hoax”!
    • Pre Class
      • Explain the state of the Cold War at the opening of the 1960s using the following terms:
      • Eisenhower Doctrine
      • Brinkmanship
      • U-2 incident
      • Arms race
      • Peaceful coexistence
      • Space race
      • Khrushchev
    • History Rocks: Space Race – Cold War Front