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Cuban Missile Crisis for IGCSE History


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Cuban Missile Crisis 1961 for Cambridge IGCSE History - Pay of Pigs - 13 Days - Whose Victory?

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Cuban Missile Crisis for IGCSE History

  1. 1. Fulgencio Batista (dictator)
  2. 2. In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the pro-American government and turned Cuba into a communist nation. 1950-53: Korean War 1947: Marshall Plan 1947-48: Berlin Blockade 1965-75: The Vietnam War 1962: Cuba Missile Crisis 1949: The Birth of PRC
  3. 3. 1959 - Castro takes power  January 1959 left-wing forces under Fidel Castro overthrew Batista  Castro nationalized the sugar industry and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union.  The next year, Castro seizes U.S. assets on the island. v=U8u32WMtt1w
  4. 4. 1960 - The U-2 Affair  On May 1, an American high-altitude U-2 spy plane is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union.  After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot, the United States insisted that the plane was on a weather research mission.
  5. 5. The U-2 Affair • Embarrassed, Eisenhower admitted the truth behind the U-2 program, although he refused to publicly apologize.
  6. 6. Bay of Pigs invasion (April 1961) About 1300 Cuban exiles, armed with U.S. weapons, landed at the Bay of Pigs on the southern coast of Cuba. Hoping to find support from the local population
  7. 7. Kennedy was humiliated.... It was badly planned and Kennedy was wrongly advised. The expected popular uprising of Cubans to support the exiles did not happen, as the CIA had underestimated the popularity of Castro. The exiles were defeated and the invasion was a humiliation. Kennedy misjudged Castro’s defences completely and appeared weak to Khrushchev. The 1400 exiles landed in Cuba were outnumbered by 20,000 Cuban troops, with modern arms, and were killed or captured. This made Castro more popular in Cuba. Even though Kennedy claimed there was no direct American government involvement in the invasion, Castro and Khrushchev knew that it had been planned by the CIA. Kennedy had been humiliated. The invasion convinced Castro that the USA was an enemy and he looked more to the USSR for protection. It suggested to the USSR that Kennedy was weak. It also made Castro and Khrushchev very suspicious of US policy. In the end, communist Cuba drew closer to the USSR.
  8. 8. Cuban-US relations before 1961? Castro - took over American agricultural businesses in Cuba, all American-owned land and distributed to Cuba’s peasant population - received $100 million aid from Khrushchev USA - refused to buy Cuban sugar first then in 1960 all trade ended. - 1961, broke off all diplomatic relations with Cuba - determined to remove Castro and make him submit. - April 1961, supported a direct invasion – Bay of Pigs - supported thousands of Cuban exiles in USA It was hostile but there was no direct confrontation.It was hostile but there was no direct confrontation. USA was unwilling to get directly involvedUSA was unwilling to get directly involved
  9. 9. (1) Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion. (2) Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion take place in April 1961? (3) Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion result in humiliation for Kennedy?
  10. 10. The nuclear race had come to a breaking point during an incident in Cuba, called the 2.Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 1962: Cuba Missile Crisis
  11. 11. In 1962, the Soviet Union built missile bases in Cuba
  12. 12. After the Bay of Pigs invasion, more photographs taken by U2 spy planes confirmed the existence of Soviet nuclear missiles on the island of Cuba...
  13. 13. 18 OCT 196218 OCT 1962
  14. 14. To remove the nuclear threat, the American President J.F. Kennedy imposed a blockade on Cuba.
  15. 15. “To halt this offensive build-up, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back: This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers. We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.” KENNEDY’S SPEECH
  16. 16. KHRUSHCHEV’S REPLY The Soviet Union cannot fail to reject the arbitrary demands of the United States. When you confront us with such conditions, try to put yourself in our place and consider how the United States would react to these conditions. I do not doubt that if someone attempted to dictate similar conditions to you--the United States--you would reject such an attempt. And we also say--no. The Soviet Government considers that the violation of the freedom to use international waters and air space is an act of aggression which pushes mankind toward the abyss of a world nuclear-missile war. Therefore, the Soviet Government cannot instruct the captains of Soviet vessels bound for Cuba to observe the orders of American naval forces blockading that Island. …And if the American side violates these rules, it must realize what responsibility will rest upon it ... We will then be forced on our part to take the measures we consider necessary in order to protect our rights.
  17. 17. KHRUSHCHEV’S ADDRESS If assurances were given by the President and the Government of the United States that the USA itself would not participate in an attack on Cuba and would restrain others from actions of this sort, if you would recall your fleet, this would immediately change everything. I am not speaking for Fidel Castro, but I think that he and the Government of Cuba, evidently, would declare demobilization and would appeal to the people to get down to peaceful labor. Then, too, the question of armaments would disappear, since, if there is no threat, then armaments are a burden for every people.
  18. 18. The Soviet Union finally agreed toThe Soviet Union finally agreed to remove the missiles to avoid aremove the missiles to avoid a nuclear war.nuclear war.
  19. 19. Whose victory is it?
  20. 20. USA’s victory? - The USA avoided a nuclear war. - The USA had remained superior in the nuclear arms race. - The direct threat of Soviet missiles was removed from Cuba. - Kennedy had shown his strength and that he would not accept the direct Soviet military action near the USA. - Kennedy increased his reputation at home and worldwide by avoiding war and forcing Khrushchev to back down. - The crisis damaged Khrushchev’s prestige. This was the beginning of Khrushchev’s fall from power. Leading Soviet politicians later forced Khrushchev off his power in 1964.
  21. 21. The Communists’ victory? - Khrushchev ended the crisis and became the peacemaker who was willing to make the first move to compromise. - Cuba remained a Communist state despite the removal of missiles. USAs containment policy failed in Cuba, and later other communist groups appeared in Central America, such as Nicaragua and El Salvador. - USSR maintained significant influence on Cuba. Cuba remained a strong ally of USSR and could depend on it for protection and aid. - USA had to remove US missiles in Turkey and Italy.
  22. 22. BOTH??? - Both sides came to agreements to keep peace and avoid a nuclear war. - Both sides realised the danger of a nuclear war and were willing to compromise to avoid it. - It was agreed to set up a hot line between Washington and Moscow to enable direct communication to take place. In 1963 a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed.
  23. 23. 13 Days Clips 5 min summary: Cold War Documentary Start 34:16 The Kennedys – episode 6