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Bay of pigs cuban missile crisis


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Bay of pigs cuban missile crisis

  1. 1. Cuban Missile Crisis
  2. 2. Cuba
  3. 3. Cuban Revolution • • U.S.-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista 1959 coup – led my Fidel Castro – – • • Castro establishes ties with the Soviet Union and develops Marxist policies Eisenhower views Cuba as a threat to democracy in the Western Hemisphere – • Strong nationalist views Didn’t like the United States’ political and corporate influence in Cuba Authorizes the CIA to train and arm Cuban exiles secretly to overthrow Castro Kennedy continues this when he takes over the presidency
  4. 4. Bay of Pigs Invasion • • 1,400 Cuban exiles were being trained by the CIA in Nicaragua Less than 3 months into his presidency, Kennedy ordered the invasion of Cuba – • April 17, 1961 the troops land at the Bay of Pigs – – – • • • U.S. believed an invasion would start a popular uprising against Castro Fighting lasts for only 3 days No popular uprising Castro’s army surrounds the invaders Military and political disaster Weakens the prestige of Kennedy and strengthens Castro worldwide Nikita Khrushchev comes across as the defender of Latin America against U.S. imperialism
  5. 5. The Cuban Missile Crisis • October 14, 1962 U.S. spy planes photograph missile bases being built in Cuba – – • • • Soviet Union was supplying Cuba with missiles Medium-range to intermediate-range missiles capable of reaching as far north as Pittsburgh and Detroit, and as far west as Denver Obvious threat to the Monroe Doctrine U.S. doesn’t want the Soviets this close What should Kennedy do?
  6. 6. Group Assignment • • Read the 5 options available to you listed on the website. As a group, write down which option you would choose if you were Kennedy – • List 2 reasons you chose the option you did (1 paragraph each) As a group, write down which option would be your last resort if you were Kennedy – List 2 reasons you chose the option you did (1 paragraph each)
  7. 7. The Cuban Missile Crisis • Kennedy orders a naval blockade to stop the Soviet Union from delivering any more missiles and calls for the dismantling of all missile sites in Cuba – – – • • • Kennedy speech Calls it a “quarantine” because a blockade is considered an act of war This means the U.S. will only stop military ships heading to the island, not normal supply ships October 23 – Strategic Air Command is ordered to go to DEFCON 2 for the only time in history By October 25 the missile sites were still actively being worked on, and more Soviet ships were on their way Stalemate – nuclear war looks imminent
  8. 8. Defense Conditions • DEFCON 5 Normal peacetime readiness DEFCON 4 Normal, increased intelligence and strengthened security measures DEFCON 3 Increase in force readiness above normal readiness DEFCON 2 Further Increase in force readiness, but less than maximum readiness DEFCON 1 Maximum force readiness.
  9. 9. The Cuban Missile Crisis • • • October 27 – CIA reports that all missiles in Cuba were up and ready for action October 27 – U.S. informs NATO allies to be ready for military action any second October 28 – last second agreement is reached between Kennedy and Khrushchev – – – The Soviets will remove all missiles from Cuba and stop sending ships with more missiles The U.S. guarantees not to invade Cuba or support any group who does Secretly – the U.S. will remove missiles from sites in southern Italy and Turkey
  10. 10. Results of the Cuban Missile Crisis • Because the withdrawal of U.S. missiles from Italy and Europe is not made public, it makes Kennedy look strong and Khrushchev look weak – • • • Khrushchev would remain in power for only 2 more years Soviet-Cuban relations break down because Castro is upset he was not involved in Soviet plans A year later the “red telephone” is hooked up, creating a direct line between the White House and the Kremlin Encourages U.S. use of military in fight against communism – Notably the Vietnam War