GENERAL DATALIFEJoan of Arc (6 January 1412 – 30 May 1431) was born in Domremy,nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans". is a folk heroine of France and aRoman Catholic saint. She was born a peasant girl in what is noweastern France.
GENERAL DATAFAMILYHer parents were Jacques Darc and Isabelle Romé, Joan was thesmaller of a four brothers:Jean dArc, Pierre dArc, Catherine dArcand JacquemindArc. Her family was poor, her parents werepeasants and she never learned to read or to work but she learnedto sew and to work with the animals.
HISTORICALCONTEXTIn this period the rise of the House of valois(1328–1589), theprotracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred years war with theKingdom of England (1337–1453), the catastrophic epidemic BlackDead (1348), and the expansion of the French nation in the 15thcentury happened.BATTLE OF 100 YEARS
LEGACYBATTLE OF ORLEANSJoan of Arc is most famous for having captained French forces inthe Battle of Orleans, in May 1429. At just 16 years old, Joan freedOrleans, which had been captured by the English during theHundred Years War. The battle lasted just nine days. Just twomonths later, the French had pushed the English back intoNormandy and crowned Charles VII King of France. Joan of Arc ledFrench soldiers to fight up north in the Artois region. In this battle,Joan and her forces were outnumbered and lost the battle. Sheattempted to retreat, but was captured by the English.
LEGACYEXECUTIONOn May 24, 1431, Joans sentence was read. After her trial at theecclesiastic hands of the Bishop Pierre Cauchon, Joan was to beturned. Joan relented and signed an abjuration in which sheadmitted her crimes.Joan said she was visited by her voices, condemning hercapitulation. Joan now said her abjuration was a mistake, that shehad not meant it.The Church judges called this a "relapse," and onMay 29 they handed her over to the secular authorities that she sofeared.After that she was condened to be burned.
AFTER HER EXECUTIONTwenty-five years after her execution, an inquisitorial courtauthorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, pronounced herinnocent, and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in1909 and canonized in 1920. She is one of the patron saints ofFrance.
AFTER HIS DEAD23 years later her mother and her sons ask to do again de judge.And the pope Calixto III named a commision that declared that thesentence to Juana was an injustice The king of France declared herinocent and the Pope Benedicto XV proclaimed saint
INFLUENCEJoan of Arc rejected the cautious strategy that characterized Frenchleadership during previous campaigns.During the five months of siege before her arrival, : the defenders ofOrléans attempted only one aggressive move and that ended indisaster.
LEADERSHIP(INFLUENCE)4 of May: the Frenchattacked and captured theoutlying fortress of SaintLoup, which she followed.● 5 of May: with a marchto a second fortresscalled Saint Jean leBlanc, which was founddeserted.● 6 of May: she opposedJean dOrleans at a warcouncil where shedemanded anotherassault on the enemy.DOrleans ordered thecity gates locked toprevent another battle,but she summoned thetownsmen and commonsoldiers and forced themayor to unlock a gate.
SOCIAL SCALEHer family was poor, her parents were peasants and she neverlearned to read or to write but she learned to sew and to work withthe animals, she helped her parents with their works and ook afterthe animals.