Between 1337 and 1453, England and France fought a series of wars called the Hundred Years’ War . It began when Edward III of England laid claim to the French crown.
Henry V of England took Crecy and won at Agincourt in 1346 with the new terror weapon, the longbow ! Oh, yeah, and the cannon thingie.
Henry VI lost much of this land due to the unexpected influence of the heavy plow in England. (story time) With the plow, people had more free time, and... You Mr. Baker
The French were demoralized and beaten, but a young woman named Joan of Arc helped France’s Charles VII turn the war around in 1429. She believed that she was chosen by God.
She told the king that God spoke to her and called upon her to save France. With Charles’ support, she inspired victory at the siege of Orleans. One of the mostest kick buttest movies ever!!
Joan of Arc met with unexpected resistance, though (show movie NOW! Don’t wait!)
At the end her military campaign inspired by Joan, only the port city of Calais was still held by the English.
Effects of the 100 Years’ War: 1. French unity to repel the English. 2. Social conflict in England. Nobles bitter over lost land. 3. Helped end feudalism. 4. Formation of national armies. 5. New styles of warfare (castles and knights out , infantry in.)
But maintaining these new, professional, standing armies was expensive! The kings turned to the new middle classes for tax revenue . That darn king! He’s hot!!
In France, Louis XI , son of Charles VII, strengthened the bureaucracy, kept the nobles under court control, and promoted trade and agriculture. More central authority!
His primary goal was to unify France into one cooperative country. (Other countries still not united: Germany, Italy, Russia) “ I’m a unificator, not a divider-upper!”
Although war isn’t “good” for anyone, the Hundred Years’ War allowed accelerated social and political development in Western Europe.
England’s Royal authority eroded during the 100 Years’ War and a struggle over control of the crown between nobles led to the War of the Roses .
This ended with a victory by Henry Tudor (Henry VII) as the first Tudor king of England. He killed all challengers, avoided foreign wars, and strengthened the monarchy (despite the Magna Carta).
Henry VII (Henry Tudor) was one of the reasons that England became stronger than other parts of the world. I kill because I care.
Spain regained control of their country by fighting the reconquista (reconquest) and expelling all Muslims. All Muslims OUT!!
This reconquista was ruthlessly efficient. It led to the Spanish Inquisition in which Jews and Moors (African Muslims) could convert to Christianity or be killed.
Many were tortured, excommunicated, and killed to create an atmosphere of fear (almost like Stalin did.) <ul><li>Things to do: </li></ul><ul><li>Kill </li></ul><ul><li>Torture </li></ul><ul><li>excommunicate </li></ul>
Could anyone have expected this from the Inquisition?
In 1469, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile were married to unify the nobles of Spain under one crown. We’ll rule the world!
The Holy Roman Empire encompassed the areas of Germany, Spain, Poland, Hungary, and small parts of other countries.
Maximilian I founded the Hapsburg Dynasty of HRE’s. Choosing a HRE was now about who you were related to. No honey, it’s Kelli’s turn to be HRE.
Catholic armies fought against Mongols and Turks in Hungary, Teutonic Knights in Poland, and the Ottoman Empire.