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Climate Climate Presentation Transcript

  • Local Conditions
    • How would you describe your climate, or the average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation where you live? Does your area receive a great deal of precipitation—rain and snow—or is your area very dry?
    Section 4-1 Interest Grabber
    • 1. When does the area in which you live experience the lowest temperatures? Does the temperature ever get below freezing? If so, how often does this occur?
    • 2. When does the area in which you live have the highest temperatures? About how high is the highest temperature?
    • 3. How often does it rain where you live? Is one season rainier than the others?
    • 4. Does it ever snow where you live? If so, what is the heaviest snowfall you can remember?
    • 5. What are two factors that may affect climate?
    Section 4-1 Interest Grabber continued
    • 4–1 The Role of Climate
      • A. What Is Climate?
      • B. The Greenhouse Effect
      • C. The Effect of Latitude on Climate
      • D. Heat Transport in the Biosphere
    Section 4-1 Section Outline
  • Sunlight Some heat escapes into space Greenhouse gases trap some heat Atmosphere Earth’s surface Section 4-1 The Greenhouse Effect
  • Sunlight Some heat escapes into space Greenhouse gases trap some heat Atmosphere Earth’s surface Sunlight Most direct sunlight Sunlight Sunlight Sunlight 90°N North Pole 66.5°N 23.5°N 0° 23.5°S 66.5°S 90°S South Pole Arctic circle Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn Arctic circle Section 4-1 Figures 4-1 and 4-2 Heating of the Earth’s Surface and Some Factors That Affect Climate Greenhouse Effect Different Latitudes
  • Fitting In
    • Organisms not only live together in ecological communities, but they also constantly interact with one another. These interactions, which include predation and competition, help shape the ecosystem in which they live.
    • 1. Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give one example of predation.
    • 2. Based on your own experiences, define competition. Give one example of competition.
    Section 4-2 Interest Grabber
    • 4–2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
      • A. Biotic and Abiotic Factors
      • B. The Niche
      • C. Community Interactions
        • 1. Competition
        • 2. Predation
        • 3. Symbiosis
      • D. Ecological Succession
        • 1. Primary Succession
        • 2. Secondary Succession
        • 3. Succession in a Marine Ecosystem
    Section 4-2 Section Outline
  • Biotic Factors ECOSYSTEM Abiotic Factors Section 4-2 Abiotic and Biotic Factors
  • Biotic Factors ECOSYSTEM Abiotic Factors Section 4-2 Abiotic and Biotic Factors
  • Bay-Breasted Warbler Feeds in the middle part of the tree Yellow-Rumped Warbler Feeds in the lower part of the tree and at the bases of the middle branches Cape May Warbler Feeds at the tips of branches near the top of the tree Spruce tree Section 4-2 Figure 4-5 Three Species of Warblers and Their Niches
  • Who’s There?
    • If you have ever been to a zoo or a botanical garden, you may have noticed that the signs that identify the animals or plants also identify the part of the world where these organisms are found. Different kinds of animals and plants are found in different parts of the world.
    Section 4-3 Interest Grabber
    • 1. Describe the climate where you live.
    • 2. What types of plant and animal life are found in your area? Describe a few of the major characteristics of these organisms.
    • 3. Suppose that you had to move to an area with a climate that was very different from the climate you now live in. How would the plant and animal life in this new area be different from the plant and animal life where you live now?
    Section 4-3 Interest Grabber continued
    • 4–3 Biomes
      • A. Biomes and Climate
      • B. The Major Biomes
      • C. Other Land Areas
        • 1. Mountain Ranges
        • 2. Polar Ice Caps
    Section 4-3 Section Outline
  • Section 4-3 Compare/Contrast Table Ten Major Biomes medium absent low poor summer mild, winter cold low Tundra sparse dense moderate poor, acidic summer mild, winter cool moderate Boreal Forest sparse dense low rocky, acidic summer mild, winter cold high Northwestern Coniferous Forest sparse dense high rich summer moderate, winter cold moderate Temperate Forest medium medium low poor summer hot summer low, winter moderate Temperate woodland and Shrubland dense absent moderate rich summer hot moderate Temperate Grassland sparse sparse moderate poor variable low Desert dense medium sparse Grasses sparse medium dense Trees moderate clay mild variable Tropical Savanna moderate rich mild variable Tropical Dry Forest high poor hot high Tropical Rain Forest Diversity Soil Temperature Precipitation Biome
  • Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Temperate woodland and shrubland Desert Temperate grassland Boreal forest (Taiga) Northwestern coniferous forest Temperate forest Mountains and ice caps Tundra Section 4-3 Figure 4-11 The World’s Major Land Biomes
  • Ride the Waves
    • The marine ecosystem that is exposed to regular and extreme changes in
    • its surroundings is the intertidal zone. During high tide, the intertidal zone
    • is covered by sea water. During low tide, this area is exposed to air, sunlight, and heat.
    Section 4-4 Interest Grabber
    • 1. What types of organisms would you expect to find living in the intertidal zone?
    • 2. What characteristics do you think these organisms have that enable them to live in this zone?
    • 3. What effect do waves have on the intertidal zone?
    Interest Grabber continued Section 4-4
    • 4–4 Aquatic Ecosystems
      • A. Freshwater Ecosystems
        • 1. Flowing-Water Ecosystems
        • 2. Standing-Water Ecosystems
        • 3. Freshwater Wetlands
      • B. Estuaries
      • C. Marine Ecosystems
        • 1. Intertidal Zone
        • 2. Coastal Ocean
        • 3. Coral Reefs
        • 4. Open Ocean
        • 5. Benthic Zone
    Section 4-4 Section Outline
  • Spoonbill Duck Dragonfly Phytoplankton Frog Water lilies Mosquito larvae Snail Diving beetle Trout Pickerel Duckweed Snail Benthic crustaceans Hydra Section 4-4 Freshwater Pond Ecosystem Crayfish Frogs lay eggs in the shallow water near shore.The eggs hatch in the water as tadpoles and move to the land as adults. The shore is lined with grasses that provide shelter and nesting places for birds and other organisms. The roots of water lilies cling to the pond bottom, while their leaves, on long flexible stems, float on the surface. The bottom of the pond is inhabited by decomposers and other organisms that feed on particles drifting down from the surface. Fish share the pond with turtles and other animals. Many of them feed on insects at the water’s edge. Plankton and the organisms that feed on them live near the surface where there is enough sunlight for photosynthesis. Microscopic algae are among the most important producers.
  • land Coastal ocean Open ocean Ocean trench Aphotic zone Photic zone Continental shelf Continental slope and continental rise Abyssal plain 200m 1000m 4000m 6000m 10,000m Section 4-4 Figure 4-17 Zones of a Marine Ecosystem
  • Video Contents
    • Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
    • Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 1
    • Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 2
    Videos
  • Video 1
    • Click the image to play the video segment.
    Video 1 Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 1
  • Video 2 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 2 Earth’s Many Biomes, Part 2
  • Internet
    • Career links on forestry technicians
    • Interactive test
    • For links on climate and the greenhouse effect, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2041.
    • For links on biomes, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2043.
    • For links on aquatic ecosystems, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-2044.
    Go Online
  • Section 1 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. When does the area in which you live experience the lowest temperatures? Does the temperature ever get below freezing? If so, how often does this occur? 2. When does the area in which you live have the highest temperatures? About how high is the highest temperature? 3. How often does it rain where you live? Is one season rainier than the others? 4. Does it ever snow where you live? If so, what is the heaviest snowfall you can remember? Question 1–4:Answers will vary depending on local conditions. If students have lived in a different part of the country, you may wish to have them contrast the climate in that area with the local climate. 5. What are two factors that may affect climate? Possible answers: latitude, wind, ocean currents, shape and elevation of land masses
  • Section 2 Answers
    • 1. Based on your own experiences, define predation. Give one example of predation.
    • Predation is an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism. Some examples of predation: a hawk captures and feeds on a rabbit; a cat captures and feeds on a mouse.
    • 2. Based on your own experiences, define competition. Give one example of competition.
    • Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Some examples of competition: crop plants and weeds compete for food, water, and sunlight; wolves and foxes compete for the same food (rabbits).
    Interest Grabber Answers
  • Section 3 Answers
    • 1. Describe the climate where you live.
    • 2. What types of plant and animal life are found in your area? Describe a few of the major characteristics of these organisms.
    • Questions 1–2: Answers will vary depending on the part of the country in which students live.
    • 3. Suppose that you had to move to an area with a climate that was very different from the climate you now live in. How would the plant and animal life in this new area be different from the plant and animal life where you live now?
    • Sample answer: If the new climate were much colder, animals would probably have thicker fur. Plants would have shorter growing seasons and would produce seeds that could withstand the cold.
    Interest Grabber Answers
  • Section 4 Answers
    • 1. What types of organisms would you expect to find living in the intertidal zone?
    • Students may say that plants and animals would be small.
    • 2. What characteristics do you think these organisms have that enable them to live in this zone?
    • Possible answer: Plants would have thick outer layers to resist drying during low tide. Animals would be able to burrow into the sand or have coverings that could hold in water.
    • 3. What effect do waves have on the intertidal zone?
    • Waves pound living things, causing them to bounce around, unless they have some means of staying attached to the sand or rocks on the bottom.
    Interest Grabber Answers
  • End of Custom Shows
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