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  1. 1. Ecology and Environment By Geonyzl L. Alviola
  2. 2. Line up of topics <ul><li>- Earth </li></ul><ul><li>- Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>- The Abiotic and Biotic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>- Types of Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>- Biological Cycles in the Ecosystem </li></ul>
  3. 3. EARTH
  4. 4. 4 Spheres of Earth <ul><li>(Derived from the Greek word)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>1.Atmosphere (air “atmo”)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hydrosphere (water “hydro”)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lithosphere (stone “litho”)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>4. Biosphere (life “bio”)‏ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Atmosphere <ul><li>-The atmosphere is the body of air which surrounds our planet. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Layers of the Atmosphere
  7. 8. <ul><li>This is the layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth's surface, </li></ul><ul><li>- extending up to about 10-15 km above the Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>- It contains 75% of the atmosphere's mass. </li></ul><ul><li>-Temperature and pressure drops as you go higher up the troposphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TROPOSPHERE </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Stratosphere <ul><li>- It extends from about 15 to 50 km above the Earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ozone Layer: The stratosphere contains a thin layer of ozone which absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. </li></ul>
  9. 10. MESOSPHERE <ul><li>- Directly above the stratosphere </li></ul><ul><li>- extending from 50 to 80 km above the Earth's surface, </li></ul><ul><li>- the mesosphere is a cold layer </li></ul><ul><li>- thick enough to slow down meteors hurtling into the atmosphere, where they burn up, leaving fiery trails </li></ul><ul><li>in the night sky. </li></ul>
  10. 11. THERMOSPHERE <ul><li>The thermosphere extends from 80 km above the Earth's surface to outer space. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature is hot </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hydrosphere <ul><li>- composed of all of the water on the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>- oceans, rivers, lakes, and even the moisture in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>- 97% of the earth's water is in the oceans and 3% is fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>(¾ of the fresh water is solid and </li></ul><ul><li>exists in ice sheets) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Lithosphere <ul><li>The lithosphere is the solid, rocky crust covering entire planet. </li></ul><ul><li>This crust is inorganic and is composed of minerals. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Biosphere <ul><li>Physical geographers use the term biosphere to describe our living world. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? .......... </li></ul>
  14. 16. Big, Small, and the Smallest Factors <ul><li>- There are large factors such as the distance between the Earth and the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons and seasonal climate changes are direct results of the tilt of the Earth towards or away from the Sun. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Tiny organisms such as bacteria and single-celled organisms are constantly working to break down materials (organic and inorganic) and change the world. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Small factors like weather, climate and erosion </li></ul><ul><li>- may affect the living organisms and could change the land </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Smallest factors: for example </li></ul><ul><li>- Chemical erosion is a great example of a landscape changing one molecule at a time . </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Oxidation and reduction reactions happen all the time, changing the composition of rocks and organic materials . </li></ul>
  19. 23. Ecosystem <ul><li>What is an ecosystem? </li></ul><ul><li>- dynamic interactions between plants, animals, and microorganisms and their environment working together as a functional unit.  . </li></ul><ul><li>- result of an active interaction between living and non-living components </li></ul>
  20. 24. Components of Ecosystem <ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul><ul><li>These include the non -living, physcio-chemical </li></ul><ul><li>factors such as air, water, soil and the basic elements and compounds of the environment. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Biotic <ul><li>It comprises the living part of the environment, which includes the association of a number of interrelated populations belonging to different species in a common environment. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Biotic: Three Kinds <ul><li>• Autotrophs (auto - self, trophos feeder) </li></ul><ul><li> - are also called producers, convertors or transducers. </li></ul><ul><li>• Heterotrophs (heteros - other; trophs –feeder) are called consumers, which are generally animals feeding on other organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>• Saprotrophs (Gr: sapros - rotten;trophos - feeder) </li></ul><ul><li>- are also called decomposers or reducers. . </li></ul>
  23. 28. Abiotic: Three Categories <ul><li>Climatic factors - which include the climatic regime and physical factors of the environment like light, humidity, atmospheric temperature, wind, etc. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Abiotic types…… <ul><li>• Edaphic factors - which are related to the structure and composition of soil including its physical and chemical properties, like soil and its types, soil profile, minerals, organic matter, soil water, soil organisms. </li></ul>
  25. 30. Abiotic type….. <ul><li>Chemical substances - like water, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and so on. Organic substances like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, humid substances </li></ul>
  26. 31. Food Chain <ul><li>A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a simple food chain links the trees & shrubs, the giraffes (that eat trees & shrubs), and the lions (that eat the giraffes). </li></ul><ul><li>Each link in this chain is food for the next link. A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal. </li></ul>
  27. 33. Food web <ul><li>Most food chains have no more than four or five links. There cannot be too many links in a single food chain because the animals at the end of the chain would not get enough food (and hence energy) to stay alive. Most animals are part of more than one food chain and eat more than one kind of food in order to meet their food and energy requirements. These interconnected food chains form a food web . </li></ul>
  28. 34. The further along the food chain you go, the less food (and hence energy) remains available.
  29. 35. Biological Interactions: “Symbiosis” <ul><li>Symbiosis is a close ecological relationship between the individuals of two (or more) different species.  . </li></ul>
  30. 36. TYPES OF SYMBIOSIS <ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul><ul><li>  --   both species benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>  --   one species benefits, the other is unaffected </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>  --   one species benefits, the other is harmed </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>  --   neither species benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralism </li></ul><ul><li>  --   both species are unaffected </li></ul>
  31. 37. Function of Ecosystem <ul><li>Regulate change and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Life Support Functions </li></ul><ul><li>4. Capability return to its current equilibrium state following a disturbance </li></ul>
  32. 38. <ul><ul><li>The following table illustrates the correct use of these terms in interactions between Species &quot;A&quot; and Species &quot;B&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;+&quot; denotes benefit to the species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;0&quot; denotes no positive or negative effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;-&quot; denotes an undesirable effect of the interaction. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 39. What is &quot;ecological succession&quot;? <ul><ul><li>&quot;Ecological succession&quot; is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval, or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 42. Biomes <ul><li>A biome is a large area with similar flora, fauna, and microorganisms.  </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these large communities contain species that are adapted to its varying conditions of water, heat, and soil.  </li></ul><ul><li>An ecosystem is much smaller than a biome.  Conversely, a biome can be thought of many similar ecosystems throughout the world grouped together. </li></ul>
  35. 43. MOUNTAINS <ul><li>They make up one-fifth of the world's landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Good source of timbers </li></ul><ul><li>one major characteristic in common--rapid changes in altitude, climate, soil, and vegetation over very short distances </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall varies greatly across the world's montane </li></ul><ul><li>temperatures can drop from extremely hot temperatures to temperatures that are below freezing. </li></ul>
  36. 44. Tundra: The Frozen Prairie <ul><li>temperatures often reach about -50°F in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>The freezing temperatures leave deeper layers of soil frozen throughout most of the year- this condition is called permafrost. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination of a harsh climate, the lack of nutrients in the soil, and soil being so sparse make it very hard for any type of plant life to grow. </li></ul>
  37. 45. <ul><li>The Caribou, artic hare, mink, weasel, lemming, wolf, wolverine, brown bear, vole and reindeer, roam this land. </li></ul>
  38. 46. wolverine
  39. 47. Temperate (Deciduous) Forests <ul><li>- found in the middle latitudes around the globe and this biome is very seasonal. </li></ul><ul><li>- have warm summers and cold winters. </li></ul>
  40. 48. Marine/Island
  41. 49. Desert
  42. 50. <ul><li>desert lie between 20 degrees to 30 degrees north and south latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>It is here that equatorial air falls down toward the Earth's surface </li></ul><ul><li>rainfall is rare because rain usually occurs when air begins to rise, not fall. </li></ul>
  43. 51. Tropical Dry Forest <ul><li>(forests here are known as Monsoon Forests) </li></ul><ul><li>tropical dry forests have high temperatures throughout the entire year. </li></ul>
  44. 52. Cold Climate Forests: The Taiga <ul><li>- cold climate that supports coniferous trees (which means that they carry cones) is found at very high latitudes </li></ul><ul><li>The days in the Taiga are very short in the winter, as short as six hours. </li></ul><ul><li>In the summer the days lengthen and plants grow rapidly in the 70°F weather. </li></ul>
  45. 53. Grassland <ul><li>In North America they are known as &quot;prairie&quot;, </li></ul><ul><li>in Asia &quot;steppe&quot;, </li></ul><ul><li>in South America the &quot;pampas&quot; and </li></ul><ul><li>in South Africa a &quot;veldt&quot;. </li></ul>
  46. 54. SAVANNA
  47. 55. <ul><li>- Savannahs are tropical grasslands for they are located at tropical latitudes, </li></ul><ul><li>- much drier than many tropical forests. </li></ul><ul><li>- Rainfall is about 20 to 60 inches a year, with long periods of drought to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>- dominant plant life are grasses and small plants. </li></ul><ul><li>- Trees are sparse </li></ul>
  48. 57. <ul><li>this type of forest can be defined as a forest in the tropics receiving 4-8 meters of rain each year. </li></ul><ul><li>All tropical rainforests are found along the equator where the temperatures and the humidity is always high, with the days being equal to the nights. </li></ul>
  49. 58. <ul><li>Within a four mile square area of a tropical rainforest, you would find: </li></ul><ul><li>Over 750 species of trees </li></ul><ul><li>1500 different kinds of flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>125 species of mammals </li></ul><ul><li>400 species of birds </li></ul><ul><li>100 reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>60 amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>countless insects </li></ul><ul><li>150 species of butterflies </li></ul>
  50. 59. Biogeochemical Cycle <ul><li>A pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic and abiotic compartments of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>• The cycle of element </li></ul>
  51. 65. Thank you