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Biomes

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Geography slides on geoecology for Leaving Cert Geography

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Biomes

  1. 1. A Biome is a world region that is characterised by groups of plants and animals adapted to specific conditions of climate, soils and biotic inter-relationships 29/07/2014 1 Geoecology
  2. 2. 29/07/2014 2Geoecology Characterised by inter-relationships of: Climate • Soils • Plants • Animals • When answering a question on biomes always include: • Definition • Location • Formation of that biome • Climate (temperature & precipitation) • Soils • Plants • Animals
  3. 3. 29/07/2014 3Geoecology
  4. 4. 29/07/2014 4Geoecology
  5. 5. 29/07/2014 5Geoecology Deciduous ForestTaiga Desert Grassland Tropical Rain Forest Tundra
  6. 6. 29/07/2014 6Geoecology Californian •Great Basin •Mohave •Sonoran •Chihuahuan Atacama Namib Sahara Great Australian Desert Turkestan Gobi Kalahari Arabian
  7. 7. 29/07/2014 7Geoecology Hadley Cells 1. Equator 0o – LP – Air Rises 2. Convectional Rainfall Moves away from Equator 3. Tropics 30o – HP – Air Sinks 4. Moves towards equator Compressed Warm air holds moisture – DRY 5. Desert - Sahara
  8. 8. 29/07/2014 8Geoecology Rain Shadow Effect 1. Coastal Mountains act as barrier to moist air 2. Forced to rise & cool 3. Precipitation on windward side 4. Leeward Air dry 5. Mountains – Sierra Nevada 6. Desert - Mohave
  9. 9. 29/07/2014 9Geoecology Cold Ocean Currents 1. Wind that blows over cold currents are cooled 2. Cannot hold moisture so precipitates 3. On reaching hot land – air is warmed – retains moisture 4. Desert – Namib / Atacama
  10. 10. 29/07/2014 10Geoecology Algeria Belize - Rainfall
  11. 11. 29/07/2014 11Geoecology
  12. 12. 29/07/2014 12Geoecology Aridisols Sandy to Coarse textured Deep Soils (Basin) Little organic matter Light Grey Clour Intense Evaporation Alkaline Soil Calcification Salinisation Caliche
  13. 13. 29/07/2014 13Geoecology Prickly Pear CactusBarrel Cactus Desert Paintbrush Mesquite
  14. 14. 29/07/2014 14Geoecology Black Widow Cactus Wren Lizard Dingo Vulture Chameleon Grasshopper Sand Rat Gecko Camel
  15. 15. 29/07/2014 15Geoecology EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES -4 effects to be studied • Early Settlement – Clearing Forests • Felling of Tropical Rain Forests • Intensive Agriculture • Industrial Development DESERTS
  16. 16.  European Forests  Irish Forests • Started in Neolithic Age • Mid 1800s almost devoid of forest cover • 1900 only 1% forest cover • 2003 - 9.4% • EU average 31% 29/07/2014 16Geoecology
  17. 17. Country Forest Cover (% of land area) 2003 Ireland 9.4 % Netherlands 9.5 % Denmark 12.7 % Belgium 22.4 % Germany 30.2 % France 31.6 % Sweden 73.5 % Finland 75.5 % 29/07/2014 Geoecology 17 Source OECD
  18. 18. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 18 Dark Green: > 40 % cover Mid Green: 10 – 40 % cover Light Green: woodland, shrubland bushland
  19. 19. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 19 Average Annual % 1990 - 2000
  20. 20. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 20 Importance of Tropical Rain Forests • Home to Tribal Cultures that have survived for thousands of years • Home to 50% of plant and animal species • Winter home to birds that breed in temperate climates • Help to reduce Global CO2 levels • Help to maintain global rain and weather patterns • Source of pharmaceutical Drugs
  21. 21. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 21 Reasons for Felling • Firewood, charcoal, building materials, furniture • Conversion to pasture for cattle ranching • Mining for gold, bauxite (aluminium) etc. • Cultivation of Cash Crops • Overpopulation - migration
  22. 22. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 22 Brazil Source UNEP
  23. 23. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 23 Argentina: Source UNEP
  24. 24. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 24 Bolivia Source: UNEP
  25. 25. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 25 Bolivia Source: UNEP
  26. 26. Trends in Atmospheric Concentrations and Anthropogenic Emissions of Carbon Dioxide 29/07/2014 Geoecology 26
  27. 27. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1999 Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent per capita 29/07/2014 Geoecology 27
  28. 28. 29/07/2014 Geoecology 28Source: angelfire.com
  29. 29. Effects of Acid Rain 29/07/2014 Geoecology 29 Source: angelfire.com
  30. 30. Pollution of Rivers and Lakes – Faecal Coliforms 29/07/2014 Geoecology 30
  31. 31. Pollution of Rivers and Lakes – pH values 29/07/2014 Geoecology 31
  32. 32. Pollution of Coasts and Seas 29/07/2014 Geoecology 32
  33. 33. Pollution of Coasts and Seas 29/07/2014 Geoecology 33
  34. 34. World Ecosystems Undisturbed Partially Disturbed Human Dominated 51.9 % 24.2 % 23.9 % Adjusted for Rock, Ice & Barren Land 27 % 36.7 % 36.3 % 29/07/2014 Geoecology 34 Source Hannah et Al 1994

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