My Ing, To Or 0 Infinitive

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A brief explanation on the use of the -ing, to and zero Infinitive.

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My Ing, To Or 0 Infinitive

  1. 1. -ING, TO OR 0 INFINITIVE? -ING, TO OR 0 INFINITIVE? USING -ING, TO OR ZERO INFINITIVE
  2. 2. Using the Gerund (-ing Form) <ul><li>1. As the Subject of a sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>Going out is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading is my favourite hobby. </li></ul><ul><li>Walking to school is good exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>(We would use the Infinitive in Spanish/ Galician) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>2. After PREPOSITIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks for writing . </li></ul><ul><li>She insisted on driving my car. </li></ul><ul><li>I apologized for being late. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep on trying ! </li></ul><ul><li>We’re tired of waiting . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. After some expressions: </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t (couldn’t) help falling in love with you (as Elvis said). </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t stand getting up early. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t mind / Would you mind opening the window? </li></ul><ul><li>I look forward to visiting India next year. </li></ul><ul><li>We feel like going to the theatre in May. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s no use calling her. She never answers. </li></ul><ul><li>He is/ got used to being a teacher. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>4. As the Direct Object of Verbs such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Love, like, hate, prefer, enjoy, dislike, </li></ul><ul><li>miss, suggest, continue, finish, recommend: </li></ul><ul><li>I miss lying on the beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t you love travelling ? </li></ul><ul><li>I suggested getting her a present. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Using the TO Infinitive <ul><li>1. After some adjectives and adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>She was sad to leave </li></ul><ul><li>I’m happy to see you. </li></ul><ul><li>Especially when they take TOO or ENOUGH : </li></ul><ul><li>He’s too shy to speak . </li></ul><ul><li>You’re not old enough to drive . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. After some verbs such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Agree, allow, appear/ seem, choose, decide, expect, hope, learn, plan, promise, refuse, want AND would like/ love/ hate/ prefer: </li></ul><ul><li>- I ’d love to dance right now. </li></ul><ul><li>- Would you like to come to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>- I want to go out this evening. </li></ul><ul><li>- She decided to leave . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. After the Object of verbs such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Advise, persuade, invite, teach, warn, want: </li></ul><ul><li>They want us to leave . </li></ul><ul><li>They invited me to go . </li></ul><ul><li>What did they teach you to do there? </li></ul><ul><li>She advised him to forget about her. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Using the “Zero” Infinitive <ul><li>1. After All Modal Verbs (except OUGHT TO): </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t meet you later. </li></ul><ul><li>May I come in? </li></ul><ul><li>You shouldn’t be so critical. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. After verbs of perception (hear, see, feel, …) , make and let: </li></ul><ul><li>I heard you talk . </li></ul><ul><li>They saw you cry . </li></ul><ul><li>His parents made her stay at home. </li></ul><ul><li>They won’t let me go away. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Verbs followed by ING or To Infinitive <ul><ul><li>1. No change in meaning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin, start, forbid, intend, propose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She began to pack/packing . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I intended to phone/phoning you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have forbidden to smoke/smoking </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2. Changing the meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>STOP: </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped working and went home. </li></ul><ul><li>(dejar de hacer) </li></ul><ul><li>- I stopped to have lunch. (Pararse a) </li></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER/ FORGET/REGRET: </li></ul><ul><li>- I remember calling you yesterday (something PREVIOUS) </li></ul><ul><li>- Don’t forget to call me later. (something to do LATER). </li></ul><ul><li>- I regret arguing with her yesterday. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>More practice at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://englishteachermargarita.blogspot.com/ </li></ul>

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