Infinitive or ing


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Infinitive or ing

  1. 3. <ul><li>to express purpose </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>after certain verbs ( agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, etc.) </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>after would like, would prefer, would love, etc. to express specific preference </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>after adjectives which describe feelings/emotions ( happy, sad, glad etc.), willingness/unwillingness ( willing, eager, reluctant and the adjectives lucky and fortunate </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>after too / enough </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>to talk about an unexpected event, usually with only </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>with it + be + adjective/noun </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>after be + first/second/next/last... </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>after ask, learn, explain, decide, find out, want, want to know, etc. when they are followed by a question word </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>after modal verbs </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>after let, make, see, hear and feel </li></ul>NOTE : after be made, be heard, be seen etc. (passive form) we use to-infinitive: He was made to throw his cigarette.
  12. 15. <ul><li>after had better and would rather </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>help can be followed either by to-infinitive or infinitive without to </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Present (to) play refers to the present or future. </li></ul><ul><li>Present Continuous (to) be playing expresses an action happening now. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect (to) have played is used to show that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Continuous (to) have been playing is used to emphasise the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened before tha main verb. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>as a noun </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>after certain verbs admit, appreciate, avoid, continue, deny, fancy go (for activities), imagine, mind, miss, qiut, save, suggest, practise, consider, prevent </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>after love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>after expressions be busy, it’s no use, it’s (no) good, it’s (not) worth, what’s the use of, can’t help, there’s no point in, can’t stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble etc. </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>after spend, waste or lose </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>after to with look forward to, be used to, in addition to, object to, prefer (doing sth to sth else) </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>after other prepositions </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>after hear, liste to, notice, see, watch and feel to describe an incomplete action </li></ul>BUT: We use the infinitive without to to describe the complete action I heard Maria tell the story. (I heard the whole story.)
  23. 28. <ul><li>remember </li></ul><ul><li>not recall </li></ul><ul><li>He forgot to post the letter. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ll never forget visiting the Taj Mahal. </li></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>not forget </li></ul><ul><li>recall </li></ul><ul><li>Did you remember to feed the cat? </li></ul><ul><li>I remember telling him to lock all the doors. </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>intend to </li></ul><ul><li>involve </li></ul><ul><li>I’m sorry, I never meant to hurt your feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Passing an exam means studying hard. </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>be sorry to (normally used in the present simple with say, tell, inform ) </li></ul><ul><li>feel sorry about </li></ul><ul><li>We regret to inform you that you have failed your exams. </li></ul><ul><li>I regret speaking to her so rudely. </li></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>do one’s best, attempt </li></ul><ul><li>do sth. as experience </li></ul><ul><li>He tried to call but the line was busy. </li></ul><ul><li>Why don’t you try taking some vitamins? </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>stop briefly to do sth. else </li></ul><ul><li>finish, give up </li></ul><ul><li>He stopped to buy a newspaper on his way to work. </li></ul><ul><li>He stopped eating junk food so as not to gain weight. </li></ul>