Immigration In Central America


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Immigration In Central America

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  2. 2. Content of Presentation<br />• Is Migration a Problem?• Push and Pull Theory• Examples: Violence and Economic Opportunity• Types of Migrants• Obama’s ”Comprehensive Policy”• Photos from collection ”Crossings”• Is Migration a Problem? <br />
  3. 3. IsMigration a Problem?<br />No:Economic opportunities, improved education, security, broadening of the middle class, cultural exchange and global learning. <br />Yes:Broken families, exploitation of workers, braindrain, youth drain, cultural disintegration and useless cnsumerism.<br />
  4. 4. Push and Pull Theory<br />Push and pull factors are those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them. Push factor:A flaw or distress that drives a person away from a certain place. Pull factor:A benefit that attracts people to a certain place.<br />
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  6. 6. Pull Factors<br />Job opportunities<br />Better living conditions<br />Political/religious freedom<br />Enjoyment<br />Education<br />Better medical care<br />Security<br />Family links<br />Industry<br />Better chances of finding courtship<br />What might or might not be found in the US?<br />
  7. 7. Pull Factors<br />Taxi driver Edwin Rodriguez worked illegally in the US for 5 years and then returned and started his own business with the money he had saved. <br />
  8. 8. Push Factors<br />Loss of wealth<br />Natural Disasters<br />Death threats<br />Slavery<br />Pollution<br />Poor housing<br />Landlords<br />Poor chances of courtship<br />Not enough jobs<br />Few opportunities<br />&quot;Primitive&quot; conditions<br />Desertification<br />Famine/drought<br />Political fear/persecution<br />Poor medical careWar<br />What might be “pushing” especially in El Salvador?<br />
  9. 9. Push Factor: Violence (security)<br />Political fear/persecution:Over 50 politicalcandidatesassissinated in campaign periodo for 2007 elections in Guatemala.<br />Extortions: The National Civil Police of El Salvador reported the following cases of extortion in:2003: 289 cases2004: 314 cases 2005: 493 cases<br />2006: 2145 cases = 335% increase.<br />
  10. 10. Push Factor: Violence (security)<br />Narco-trafficking and youthgangs: <br />70,000 to 300,000 youngpeopleestimatedtobe in gangs in Central America.<br />
  11. 11. A mother cries at the sight of her son lying dead in the Mexican town of Tenosique. The man was stabbed to death during an argument in the middle of the street. <br />
  12. 12. Pull Factor: EconomicOpportunity<br />“Peoplemigratebecausetheywanttomakemoney.”<br />No, it’snotthat simple in thecontradictorysocieties of<br />Central America:<br />Contradiction 1:Lackof jobsisCallcenters and<br />consideredone of BUT… sugarcane<br />mainproblemsharvestwithout<br />in region. sufficient labor.<br />
  13. 13. Pull Factor: EconomicOpportunity<br />Rosa Mejía is pregnant with her first child. Her husband has migrated from Nicaragua to Costa Rica to find a job and support the child and Rosa. <br />
  14. 14. Pull Factor: EconomicOpportunity<br />Contradiction 2:FamilymembersIncreaingnumbers of in the US sends home peoplemigrate, <br />moneytoimprove BUT especiallypeoplewho<br />living conditions. alreadyhavefamilymembers in the US. <br />
  15. 15. Pull Factor: EconomicOpportunity<br />Contradiction 3:Business sector More university<br />complains of lack of BUT… graduatesthanadequate training everbefore. of labor.<br />
  16. 16. Types of migrants<br />Sportspeople, academics, musicians, politicians, businesspeople, retiredpeople<br />Legal<br />: <br />TemporaryworkersTourists(CA4),<br />Semi-legal<br />Undocumentedworkers,touristsworking, <br />deportees<br />Illegal<br />
  17. 17. Goods and people cross the border illegally, in both directions. Transporting cans of cheap Mexican gas to Guatemala, these porters avoid an export ban. The price difference earns them six dollars a trip.<br />
  18. 18. Obama’s “comprehensivepolicy” onimmigration<br />Campaign video<br />
  19. 19. Obama’ssuggestions<br />•Create Secure Borders<br />Additional personnel, infrastructure and technology on the border and at our ports of entry. <br />• Improve Our Immigration System Improve the immigration bureaucracy and increase the number of legal immigrants to keep families together and meet the demand for jobs that employers cannot fill.<br />• Remove Incentives to Enter Illegally<br />Remove incentives to enter the country illegally by cracking down on employers who hire undocumented immigrants. <br />
  20. 20. Obama’ssuggestions<br />• Bring People Out of the Shadows<br />Support a system that allows undocumented immigrants who are in good standing to pay a fine, learn English, and go to the back of the line for the opportunity to become citizens.<br />• Work with Mexico Do more to promote economic development in Mexico to decrease illegal immigration.<br />
  21. 21. “Crossings: photographs from the US-Mexican border”Photos by Alex Webb<br />
  22. 22. Guatemalan border towns such as El Carmen are booming as they service the growing stream of migrants - offering meals, Mexican currency, cheap hotels, and three-wheeled-taxi rides to the frontier.<br />
  23. 23. Riding “the beast,” exhausted men cling to tanker cars during a jerky, seven-hour trip to Palenque, Mexico.If they fall asleep, they can tumble off.<br />
  24. 24. Honduran men wash the few clothes they have left after being robbed by a gang outside Tenosique, Mexico, where they were waiting to catch a train. Staying clean allows migrants to blend in and hide from immigration agents.<br />
  25. 25. José Mauricio left El Salvador with the dream of a better life - only to lose a leg to the train. Now he makes bracelets that sell for 90 cents apiece, while waiting for an artificial limb.<br />
  26. 26. A train loaded with migrants moves through Gregorio Méndez, where residents sometimes toss travelers bottles of water. The migrants need all the help they can get. <br />
  27. 27. Over one million illegal emigrants cross the US-Mexican border anually. It’s the US on the left side and Mexico is on the right side.<br />
  28. 28. There are 11,000 U.S. Border Patrol officers along the US-Mexican border.At times army personnel have been called upon to stop crossings and drug smugglers.<br />
  29. 29. A group of arrested emigrants walk to a U.S. Border Patrol vehicle in Nogales, Arizona. <br />
  30. 30. The US-Mexican border is so vast that complete border control coverage is nearly impossible. <br />
  31. 31. IsMigration a Problem?<br />“Themoneythat are sent back do notsolvethe<br />problem of povertyortheneedfor real development. <br />Themoneydoesnotmake Guatemala a richer<br />country, becauseitisonly a temporarysolutionto a<br />structuralproblem.”<br />Manuel Orozco, Nicaraguanexpertonimmigration<br />