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SPECIMENS:
» A Onion Bulb
» B Ginger Rhizome
» C Irish Potato Tuber
» D Potted Bean Seedling
» E Potted Guinea-Corn Seedling
» F Pigeon’s Head with Neck
» G Atlas Vertebra
» H Lumbar Vertebra
» I Cactus Plant
» J Water Lettuce
» K Ripe Tomato Fruit
» L Ripe Palm Fruit
» M Ripe Tridax Fruit
» N Ripe Mango Fruit
» O Ripe Flamboyant Flower
BIOLOGY PRACTICAL MANUAL, NECO, 2024
6/14/2024 1
SPECIMEN A: ONION BULB
6/14/2024 2
SPECIMEN B: GINGER RHIZOME
Diagram of specimen C/Irish potato
SPECIMEN C: IRISH POTATO
Mode of cultivation :
Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by
stem tuber
Life cycle:
Biennial
Agricultural important:
Root tuber
Description/Observation/Features:
It is an underground stem which
contains stored food material. It forms
the swollen tuber. It has on it surface
a number of eyes, and buds which
grow up into new plants. No
adventitious bud. Other example
include: yam
Class of food stores:
Carbohydrate in form of starch
Storage organ:
Stem
Scientific Name: Solanum tuberosum
Class plant: Angiospermae
3
Mode of cultivation :
Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by
rhizome
Life cycle:
Biennial
Agricultural important:
Spices
Description/Observations/Features:
It is an underground stem which
contains stored food material. It forms
nodes and internodes. It has scale
leaves form along the node and also
possesses lateral buds which grow up
into new plants. It has adventitious
roots. Other example include: Tumeric
Class of food stores:
Water and Starch
Storage organ:
Stem
Scientific Name: Zingiber officinale
Class plant: Angiospermae
3
Mode of cultivation :
Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by
bulb
Life cycle:
Biennial
Agricultural important:
Spices and vegetable
Description/Observation/Features:
It is a swollen modified leaf which
contains stored food material. It forms
the bulb. It has adventitious root.
Other example include: Garlic
Class of food stores:
Water and Sucrose
Storage organ:
Modified Leaf
Scientific Name: Allium cepa
Class plant: Angiospermae
3
Specimen D Bean seedling
Type of germination Epigeal
Observable feature for
the type of germination
• The hypocotyl is long and grows
rapidly
• The cotyledons are above the soil
• The epicotyl is short above the
cotyledons carrying the first foliage
leaves for photosynthesis
Plants with the same
type of germination
Castors, Cowpea, soyabean, cotton etc
Dicotyledonous (non-endospermous)
seedling
Broad foliage leaves; net venation
Identification Classification:
Diagram:
6/14/2024 4
Identification and Classification:
Diagram:
Specimen E Guinea-corn seedling
Type of germination Hypogeal
Observable feature
for the type of
germination
• The epicotyl is long and grows
rapidly
• The cotyledon is below the soil
• The hypocotyl invisibly
disappeared.
Plants with the same
type of germination
Rice, sorghum, millet etc
Monocotyledonous
(endospermous) seedling
Long foliage leaves; parallel
venation
6/14/2024 5
CONDITIONS THAT NECESSITATE
THE PROCESSES IN SPECIMENS D
AND E
EXTERNAL:
• Presence of sufficient water for
activation of the enzymes and
transport of nutrients to the embryo.
• Suitable temperature (warmth) for
optimum enzymes activities and
• Adequate oxygen for aerobic cellular
respiration.
• Suitable soil and mineral for
supporting growth and development
INTERNAL:
• Enzymes that regulate the metabolic
processes (growth and development).
EXPECTED QUESTIONS ON SPECIMENS D
AND E:
1. Identify specimens D and E without a
reason.
2. What process has specimens D and E
undergone?
3. State two external and one internal
conditions/factors that will necessitate
the process mentioned in Q2. above.
4. In tabular form state two observable
differences between specimens D and E.
5. Mention two plants each other than the
one mentioned in specimen D and E
which will undergo a similar process.
6/14/2024 6
Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Vertebreta
Class: Ave
Habitat: Cage, tree
Mode of nutrition: Heterotrophic
Dentition: No dentition
Type of feather:
Down
Mouth Modification:
Tiny, short beak for peaking grains, worms
and insects
6/14/2024 7
6/14/2024 8
Just see, don’t draw this
Diagram of the posterior view of Lumbar vertebra/Specimen H
Location: Lower abdomen
Features of the Lumbar vertebra:
 Presence of long and large transverse process
 Presence of broad and massive neural spine.
 Neural canal is narrow compared with atlas
 Presence of well developed centrum.
Diagram of the anterior view of Atlas vertebra/Specimen G
Location: Neck region
Reasons for identification/features:
» It is ring-like/ has wide neural canal.
» Absence of centrum.
» It has a reduced neural spine.
» It possesses vertebraterial canal for the passage
of blood vessels to the head
» It possesses winged transverse processes
Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Tracheophyta
Class: Angiospermae
Subclass: Dicotyledon
Order: Caryophyllales
Habitat: Dry land
Plant type: Xerophyte
Reason for plant type: Because it can survive on dry lands.
Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic by photosynthesis
Observable features and adaptation to its habitat:
1. Possession of thick succulent stem and side branches
for water conservation.
2. Possession of thick herbaceous or woody chlorophyll-
containing stems for photosynthesis.
3. Presence of prickles and thorns to reduce
transpiration.
4. Food is manufactured and stored in the stem.
5. Possesses lots of spine for water conservation
Habitat: Fresh water
Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic by photosynthesis
Plant type: Hydrophyte
Reason for plant type: Because it can only survive in the
water.
Observable features and adaptation to its habitat:
1. Possession of broad leave to increase the rate of
transpiration
2. Possession on waxy cuticle on leaves to prevent
wetting.
3. Possession of adventitious root for water absorption.
4. Possession of air spaces in the tissues for buoyancy.
Diagram of transverse section of tomato fruit
NOTE: Don’t forget you may be asked to state the similarities
and differences between specimen K and L
Similarities of
specimens K and L
o Both are simple, true and
fleshy fruits
Differences between
specimens K and K. Note:
o Differences must be in tabular
form
o Consider the type of
placentation; nature of mesocarp
and epicarp; size of the seeds and
colour of the fruits
Classes of food nutrients contained in specimen K
include: vitamins, minerals, water and carbohydrate.
Scientific Name: Solanum lycopersicum
Class plant: Angiospermae
Type of fruit and other examples: Berry
e.g. pawpaw and guava
Type of placentation and reason: Axial
because seeds are attached to the
placenta at the centre.
Reasons for classification:
1. The entire pericarp is fleshy
2. The endocarp has many seeds
3. It is fresh and succulent
Means of seed dispersal include: By man;
animals
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonous
Placentation: Parietal
Class/group of fruit: Drupe
Reason for
classification/Observable
features:
• It has thin and fleshy epicarp
• Possesses fibrous mesocarp
• Possesses hard or stony
endocarp
Agent of seed dispersal: Man, animals (bat, squirrel, birds) and
wind
Method of propagation:
• The seed is planted in a small container with a very thin layer of
soil, or even half buried, because most often seed is dispersed
either by wind or animals and rarely buried before it sprout.
Benefits of seed dispersal:
• It discourages overcrowding
• It reduces competition for food, light and water among seedlings
or plant.
6/14/2024 11
Just see, don’t draw this
Longitudinal section of a ripe palm fruit
Type of fruit: Dried, simple and indehiscent fruit
Class of fruit: Cypsela
Reasons for classification/Adaptive features:
1. Small fruit
2. Light weighted
3. Hairy pappus present
4. Calyx modified into pappus/parachute
5. Calyx (pappus) present on top of fruit
6. Dry pericarp
7. Hairy pericarp
Mode of seed dispersal: By wind
Drawing of Tridax fruit/ Specimen M
Drawing of Longitudinal of Mango fruit
Scientific Name: Mangifera indica
Class plant: Angiospermae
Type of fruit: True, Fleshy and simple fruit
Class of fruit: Drupe
Reasons for classification:
 Pericarp is well developed.
 The mesocarp is fleshy and edible
 Endocarp is hard and woody
 Has just a single seed
Means of seed dispersal include: By man and Herbivorous
(mammal) animals.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Tracheophyta
Class: Angiospermae
Symmetry: Bilateral/Zygomorphic because it
can be divided into equal halves or antimeres
in only one vertical section passing through
the centre.
Placentation: Marginal
Class of food it contains: Proteins
Elements contained in the class of food:
Nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus,
carbon and sulphur.
Observable biological features from the longitudinal
section of specimen O:
1. Sepals are brightly coloured (yellow, pink, white or
red)
2. One petal modified into tube-like
structure(fold)/honey guide/standard petal
3. Large/fan-like brightly coloured petals/(yellow,
pink, white or red)
4. Long brightly coloured filament
LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF SPECIMEN O
Type of ovary: Superior ovary
because the ovary is located on top
of the receptacle above the point of
attachment of the sepals and petals.
13
Expected Questions
(i) Specimen O is a flower. Remove all the stamens and
three petals from specimen O leaving the special petal.
Make a drawing 10 - 12 cm long of the remaining parts
of specimen O and label Fully. [11 marks]
(ii) What type of ovary is presented in specimen O?
[1 mark]
(iii) Give one reason for your answer in 1 (a)(ii) above
[1 mark]
(iv) Describe the petals and sepals of specimen O.
[2 marks]
(v) What is the function of the special petal? [1 mark]
(vi) State three features of specimen K which have led
to the success of Flowering plants [3 mark]
14
Expected Questions:
1. Observing specimen L, copy and complete the table below:
2. Cut specimen O longitudinally into two halves. Observe the halved
specimen O and use it to answer questions a-d
a. What is the symmetry of specimen O
b. Classify specimen L in relation to its reproductive structure
c. Name the type of placentation of specimen O
d. What type of ovary does specimen O have?
3. Detach the sepals and petals of the longitudinal section of specimen O
and make a labeled drawing 10cm to 12cm long to illustrate the features of
the remaining parts of specimen O.
4. a. Name the agent of pollination of specimen O
b. Give one example of the agent of pollination of specimen O
c. State four adaptive features of specimen O that attracts the agent
you have mentioned.
Floral parts No. of
parts
Colour Fused
or Free
Essential or non essential
Sepal/calyx
Petals/Corolla
Stamens
Stigma
15
Note for the diagram:
1. Quality
a. S = size (10 -12cm)
b. M = magnification
c. C = Clarity of lines
d. NL = Neat labels (ruled
guidelines, horizontal label)
2. Details
a. SO = superior ovary
b. OV = at least 3 ovules
shown
c. FF = at least 5 filaments
shown
d. DL = double lines for cut
surfaces
3. Labels:- Stigma, anther,
filament, flower stalk, style,
receptacle, ovule, ovary,
placental.

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BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx

  • 1. SPECIMENS: » A Onion Bulb » B Ginger Rhizome » C Irish Potato Tuber » D Potted Bean Seedling » E Potted Guinea-Corn Seedling » F Pigeon’s Head with Neck » G Atlas Vertebra » H Lumbar Vertebra » I Cactus Plant » J Water Lettuce » K Ripe Tomato Fruit » L Ripe Palm Fruit » M Ripe Tridax Fruit » N Ripe Mango Fruit » O Ripe Flamboyant Flower BIOLOGY PRACTICAL MANUAL, NECO, 2024 6/14/2024 1
  • 2. SPECIMEN A: ONION BULB 6/14/2024 2 SPECIMEN B: GINGER RHIZOME Diagram of specimen C/Irish potato SPECIMEN C: IRISH POTATO
  • 3. Mode of cultivation : Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by stem tuber Life cycle: Biennial Agricultural important: Root tuber Description/Observation/Features: It is an underground stem which contains stored food material. It forms the swollen tuber. It has on it surface a number of eyes, and buds which grow up into new plants. No adventitious bud. Other example include: yam Class of food stores: Carbohydrate in form of starch Storage organ: Stem Scientific Name: Solanum tuberosum Class plant: Angiospermae 3 Mode of cultivation : Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by rhizome Life cycle: Biennial Agricultural important: Spices Description/Observations/Features: It is an underground stem which contains stored food material. It forms nodes and internodes. It has scale leaves form along the node and also possesses lateral buds which grow up into new plants. It has adventitious roots. Other example include: Tumeric Class of food stores: Water and Starch Storage organ: Stem Scientific Name: Zingiber officinale Class plant: Angiospermae 3 Mode of cultivation : Asexual (Vegetative propagation) by bulb Life cycle: Biennial Agricultural important: Spices and vegetable Description/Observation/Features: It is a swollen modified leaf which contains stored food material. It forms the bulb. It has adventitious root. Other example include: Garlic Class of food stores: Water and Sucrose Storage organ: Modified Leaf Scientific Name: Allium cepa Class plant: Angiospermae 3
  • 4. Specimen D Bean seedling Type of germination Epigeal Observable feature for the type of germination • The hypocotyl is long and grows rapidly • The cotyledons are above the soil • The epicotyl is short above the cotyledons carrying the first foliage leaves for photosynthesis Plants with the same type of germination Castors, Cowpea, soyabean, cotton etc Dicotyledonous (non-endospermous) seedling Broad foliage leaves; net venation Identification Classification: Diagram: 6/14/2024 4
  • 5. Identification and Classification: Diagram: Specimen E Guinea-corn seedling Type of germination Hypogeal Observable feature for the type of germination • The epicotyl is long and grows rapidly • The cotyledon is below the soil • The hypocotyl invisibly disappeared. Plants with the same type of germination Rice, sorghum, millet etc Monocotyledonous (endospermous) seedling Long foliage leaves; parallel venation 6/14/2024 5
  • 6. CONDITIONS THAT NECESSITATE THE PROCESSES IN SPECIMENS D AND E EXTERNAL: • Presence of sufficient water for activation of the enzymes and transport of nutrients to the embryo. • Suitable temperature (warmth) for optimum enzymes activities and • Adequate oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration. • Suitable soil and mineral for supporting growth and development INTERNAL: • Enzymes that regulate the metabolic processes (growth and development). EXPECTED QUESTIONS ON SPECIMENS D AND E: 1. Identify specimens D and E without a reason. 2. What process has specimens D and E undergone? 3. State two external and one internal conditions/factors that will necessitate the process mentioned in Q2. above. 4. In tabular form state two observable differences between specimens D and E. 5. Mention two plants each other than the one mentioned in specimen D and E which will undergo a similar process. 6/14/2024 6
  • 7. Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Vertebreta Class: Ave Habitat: Cage, tree Mode of nutrition: Heterotrophic Dentition: No dentition Type of feather: Down Mouth Modification: Tiny, short beak for peaking grains, worms and insects 6/14/2024 7
  • 8. 6/14/2024 8 Just see, don’t draw this Diagram of the posterior view of Lumbar vertebra/Specimen H Location: Lower abdomen Features of the Lumbar vertebra:  Presence of long and large transverse process  Presence of broad and massive neural spine.  Neural canal is narrow compared with atlas  Presence of well developed centrum. Diagram of the anterior view of Atlas vertebra/Specimen G Location: Neck region Reasons for identification/features: » It is ring-like/ has wide neural canal. » Absence of centrum. » It has a reduced neural spine. » It possesses vertebraterial canal for the passage of blood vessels to the head » It possesses winged transverse processes
  • 9. Classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Tracheophyta Class: Angiospermae Subclass: Dicotyledon Order: Caryophyllales Habitat: Dry land Plant type: Xerophyte Reason for plant type: Because it can survive on dry lands. Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic by photosynthesis Observable features and adaptation to its habitat: 1. Possession of thick succulent stem and side branches for water conservation. 2. Possession of thick herbaceous or woody chlorophyll- containing stems for photosynthesis. 3. Presence of prickles and thorns to reduce transpiration. 4. Food is manufactured and stored in the stem. 5. Possesses lots of spine for water conservation Habitat: Fresh water Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic by photosynthesis Plant type: Hydrophyte Reason for plant type: Because it can only survive in the water. Observable features and adaptation to its habitat: 1. Possession of broad leave to increase the rate of transpiration 2. Possession on waxy cuticle on leaves to prevent wetting. 3. Possession of adventitious root for water absorption. 4. Possession of air spaces in the tissues for buoyancy.
  • 10. Diagram of transverse section of tomato fruit NOTE: Don’t forget you may be asked to state the similarities and differences between specimen K and L Similarities of specimens K and L o Both are simple, true and fleshy fruits Differences between specimens K and K. Note: o Differences must be in tabular form o Consider the type of placentation; nature of mesocarp and epicarp; size of the seeds and colour of the fruits Classes of food nutrients contained in specimen K include: vitamins, minerals, water and carbohydrate. Scientific Name: Solanum lycopersicum Class plant: Angiospermae Type of fruit and other examples: Berry e.g. pawpaw and guava Type of placentation and reason: Axial because seeds are attached to the placenta at the centre. Reasons for classification: 1. The entire pericarp is fleshy 2. The endocarp has many seeds 3. It is fresh and succulent Means of seed dispersal include: By man; animals
  • 11. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonous Placentation: Parietal Class/group of fruit: Drupe Reason for classification/Observable features: • It has thin and fleshy epicarp • Possesses fibrous mesocarp • Possesses hard or stony endocarp Agent of seed dispersal: Man, animals (bat, squirrel, birds) and wind Method of propagation: • The seed is planted in a small container with a very thin layer of soil, or even half buried, because most often seed is dispersed either by wind or animals and rarely buried before it sprout. Benefits of seed dispersal: • It discourages overcrowding • It reduces competition for food, light and water among seedlings or plant. 6/14/2024 11 Just see, don’t draw this Longitudinal section of a ripe palm fruit
  • 12. Type of fruit: Dried, simple and indehiscent fruit Class of fruit: Cypsela Reasons for classification/Adaptive features: 1. Small fruit 2. Light weighted 3. Hairy pappus present 4. Calyx modified into pappus/parachute 5. Calyx (pappus) present on top of fruit 6. Dry pericarp 7. Hairy pericarp Mode of seed dispersal: By wind Drawing of Tridax fruit/ Specimen M Drawing of Longitudinal of Mango fruit Scientific Name: Mangifera indica Class plant: Angiospermae Type of fruit: True, Fleshy and simple fruit Class of fruit: Drupe Reasons for classification:  Pericarp is well developed.  The mesocarp is fleshy and edible  Endocarp is hard and woody  Has just a single seed Means of seed dispersal include: By man and Herbivorous (mammal) animals.
  • 13. Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Tracheophyta Class: Angiospermae Symmetry: Bilateral/Zygomorphic because it can be divided into equal halves or antimeres in only one vertical section passing through the centre. Placentation: Marginal Class of food it contains: Proteins Elements contained in the class of food: Nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus, carbon and sulphur. Observable biological features from the longitudinal section of specimen O: 1. Sepals are brightly coloured (yellow, pink, white or red) 2. One petal modified into tube-like structure(fold)/honey guide/standard petal 3. Large/fan-like brightly coloured petals/(yellow, pink, white or red) 4. Long brightly coloured filament LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF SPECIMEN O Type of ovary: Superior ovary because the ovary is located on top of the receptacle above the point of attachment of the sepals and petals. 13
  • 14. Expected Questions (i) Specimen O is a flower. Remove all the stamens and three petals from specimen O leaving the special petal. Make a drawing 10 - 12 cm long of the remaining parts of specimen O and label Fully. [11 marks] (ii) What type of ovary is presented in specimen O? [1 mark] (iii) Give one reason for your answer in 1 (a)(ii) above [1 mark] (iv) Describe the petals and sepals of specimen O. [2 marks] (v) What is the function of the special petal? [1 mark] (vi) State three features of specimen K which have led to the success of Flowering plants [3 mark] 14
  • 15. Expected Questions: 1. Observing specimen L, copy and complete the table below: 2. Cut specimen O longitudinally into two halves. Observe the halved specimen O and use it to answer questions a-d a. What is the symmetry of specimen O b. Classify specimen L in relation to its reproductive structure c. Name the type of placentation of specimen O d. What type of ovary does specimen O have? 3. Detach the sepals and petals of the longitudinal section of specimen O and make a labeled drawing 10cm to 12cm long to illustrate the features of the remaining parts of specimen O. 4. a. Name the agent of pollination of specimen O b. Give one example of the agent of pollination of specimen O c. State four adaptive features of specimen O that attracts the agent you have mentioned. Floral parts No. of parts Colour Fused or Free Essential or non essential Sepal/calyx Petals/Corolla Stamens Stigma 15 Note for the diagram: 1. Quality a. S = size (10 -12cm) b. M = magnification c. C = Clarity of lines d. NL = Neat labels (ruled guidelines, horizontal label) 2. Details a. SO = superior ovary b. OV = at least 3 ovules shown c. FF = at least 5 filaments shown d. DL = double lines for cut surfaces 3. Labels:- Stigma, anther, filament, flower stalk, style, receptacle, ovule, ovary, placental.