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BPSC-105
MOST IMPORTANT
QUESTIONS
UNIT- 1
1 Explain the significance and relevance of
comparative study of politics.
• INTRODUCTION : what is comparative study of politics ?
• Comparative study of politics is about comparing political phenomena.The
central objective is to identify and analyze the major similarities and differences
in politics across the world.
• Comparative politics is the study of different political systems, institutions, and
behaviors across various countries.
• Comparative politics focuses on the examination of political phenomena, such
as democracy, constitutions, political parties, social movements, and more, by
comparing different countries or political systems.
• comparative politics is not a separate and independent field from Political
Science but rather a sub-discipline within it.
• Significance :
• Comparisons: Identification of Relationships
• Comparative political analysis is not just about gathering information
on foreign countries, but it's a systematic way of looking at two or
more countries to find out why they are similar or different in certain
aspects.
• Before, people used to only look for similarities and differences, which led
to categorizing political things as either one thing or another. But now,
the focus is on using comparisons to see how political phenomena are
connected and how they work together.
• Relevance
Comparative politics provides a deeper understanding of global political systems,
their institutions, functions, and behaviors, which enriches knowledge and fosters
global perspectives.
Comparative politics allows us to make conscious comparisons between countries
to develop theories that can be applied to multiple cases. By studying different
countries, we can build strong and reliable theories about political behavior.
Comparing different countries helps make political studies more scientific and
precise. It gives us the ability to control for various factors and ensures that our
findings are valid and reliable.
It influence better policy making and reform and it helps to understand differences
how countries do politics differently .
• Conclusion :The comparative study of politics serves as a lens through
which we can better understand the complexities of political systems,
make informed decisions, and strive towards creating more just stable.
2 Explain the meaning and scope of comparative
study of politics.
• ANS : INTRODUCTION : what is comparative study of politics ?
• Comparative study of politics is about comparing political phenomena.The central
objective is to identify and analyze the major similarities and differences in politics
across the world.
• Comparative politics is the study of different political systems, institutions, and
behaviors across various countries.
• Comparative politics focuses on the examination of political phenomena, such as
democracy, constitutions, political parties, social movements, and more, by
comparing different countries or political systems.
• comparative politics is not a separate and independent field from Political Science
but rather a sub-discipline within it.
• SCOPE
• Comparisons: Identification of Relationships
• Comparative political analysis is not just about gathering information
on foreign countries, but it's a systematic way of looking at two or more
countries to find out why they are similar or different in certain aspects.
• Before, people used to only look for similarities and differences, which led
to categorizing political things as either one thing or another. But now, the
focus is on using comparisons to see how political phenomena are
connected and how they work together.
• Comparative Politics and Comparative Government
• Comparative politics and comparative government are related fields, but they
have distinct focuses. Some people mistakenly think that comparative politics is
only about studying governments, but that's not entirely accurate. Comparative
politics actually covers all forms of political activity, both governmental and
non-governmental.
• In the past, comparative politics mostly studiedWestern countries and focused on
governments and regime types. However, after the process of decolonization,
interest grew in studying "new nations" and understanding their political systems.
• The field of comparative politics expanded to include various aspects of politics,
like individuals, social groups, political parties, interest groups, and social
movements.
• Conclusion :The comparative study of politics serves as a lens through
which we can better understand the complexities of political systems,
make informed decisions, and strive towards creating more just stable.
Describe how the nature, field and scope of
comparative politics.
UNIT-2
Explain the significance of comparative
method.
• INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS COMPARISON
• The concept of comparison in our daily lives and how it is used to
analyze relationships, patterns, and behaviors within different
groups of people. The passage illustrates the idea that individuals'
lives are interconnected and influenced by various factors, leading
to similarities and dissimilarities in their behaviors and routines.
• we compare things in our daily lives to understand how they are
similar or different. We are all connected to each other in some
way, and this influences how we act and what we see. For
example, if we look at people in a neighborhood, some might take
a bus to work while others drive their cars. We can compare these
groups to see why they do things differently.
• Comparing helps us find out what makes things the same or different.
In the neighborhood example, we can figure out that those who take
the bus have common reasons like working in the same place or not
having personal cars. On the other hand, those who drive might have
their own reasons, like going to different offices or having higher
positions.
• Social scientists use these ideas to study and learn about complex
things in society.
• Comparative method:
• The concept of a "method" and why it's important in various types of
studies. A method is a way of doing something in an organized and
effective manner.
• Different methods are used by scholars, such as comparative,
historical, experimental, and statistical methods. The passage
mentions the comparative method, which is used to compare things
to understand similarities and differences.
• This method is not limited to comparative politics; it's used across
various fields like sociology, history, psychology, and literature.
• SIGNIFICANCE :
• The comparative method is a powerful tool used across various fields of study,
including linguistics, sociology, and anthropology. Its significance lies in its ability
to:
• Uncover Relationships: By systematically comparing phenomena across different
contexts (languages, societies, cultures), the comparative method helps identify
similarities and differences. This sheds light on the relationships between these
phenomena, allowing researchers to group them based on shared characteristics or
evolutionary paths.
• Generate Insights: The comparative method goes beyond simply identifying
similarities and differences. It allows researchers to draw broader inferences and
develop generalizable insights.This can lead to the formulation of new theories or
explanations for observed phenomena.
Overall, the comparative method serves as a cornerstone for research in
various disciplines. By systematically examining phenomena in relation to
each other, it offers a window into historical processes, underlying
relationships, and causal factors that shape our world.
Write notes on the following in about 200 words each :
(a) Case Study Method
• Case Study
• A case study goes deep into studying one specific case. Even though
it's not directly about comparing, it provides information about that
case, which can then be used to make general observations. These
observations can be compared with other cases and help explain
things more broadly.
• Example of Tocqueville: Think about Alexis de Tocqueville, who
looked at 18th century France and 19th century United States. In
France, he tried to explain why the French Revolution happened, and
in the USA, he looked at the reasons for social equality. Even though
these are separate cases, they have common themes, like equality,
freedom, and social change. Tocqueville believed that Western
countries were moving from aristocracy to democracy.
• Tocqueville's case studies were like comparing and contrasting
different cases to understand similarities and differences. He thought
about how the American case influenced his views on the French case
and vice versa. He saw the USA as a place where democracy naturally
grew, leading to stability, while in France, the mix of inequality and
desire for equality led to revolution.
• So, even though case studies focus on one case, they can still help us
understand differences and similarities between different cases
• Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : 10+10
• (a) New Institutionalism
• (b) Case Study as a Method of Comparison
Write notes on the following in about 200 words each :
a) Historical Method
• Historical Method
• This approach focuses on finding historical reasons for social and political
events. It emphasizes understanding societies and human actions by
analyzing their past.
• Analytic History: the historical method looks for causal explanations rooted
in the past. It's not about studying a single culture or nation, but about
understanding how different human populations and cultures interacted
and influenced each other.
• Skocpol's Example: Theda Skocpol's work on revolutions (like the French,
Russian, and Chinese Revolutions) uses the historical method. She finds
similar causal patterns in these cases despite their differences. She also
validates her arguments by studying both positive and negative cases.
UNIT – 3
Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each :
(a) New Institutionalism
• New Institutionalism is a relatively new theory, having emerged in the 1980s. It is a
response to the behavioral revolution in political science, which argued that individual
behavior is the key to understanding political outcomes. New Institutionalists argue that
behavior cannot be understood in isolation from the institutions in which it occurs.
• New Institutionalism is a theory in political science that argues that institutions play a
crucial role in shaping human behavior. Institutions are defined as the rules, norms, and
practices that structure social life. They also argue that institutions enable human
behavior by providing the resources and knowledge that people need to act.
• New Institutionalism has been used to study a wide range of political phenomena,
including the behavior of legislatures, bureaucracies, and courts. It has also been used to
study the development of public policy, the formation of social movements, and the
outbreak of war.
• New Institutionalism is a valuable theory for understanding how institutions shape
human behavior.
• Here are some of the key points of New Institutionalism:
• Institutions are the rules, norms, and practices that structure social life.
• Institutions enable human behavior by providing the resources and knowledge
that people need to act.
• New Institutionalism is a relatively new theory, having emerged in the 1980s.
• New Institutionalism has been used to study a wide range of political phenomena,
including the behavior of legislatures, bureaucracies, and courts.
• It provides a framework for understanding why people act the way they do in
different political contexts
INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH
The institutional approach focuses on studying and comparing institutions in various
political systems. Institutions can include structures like government bodies,
legislatures, judiciaries, and other organizations that play a role in shaping a country's
political processes.
The passage uses the example of studying the upper houses in parliamentary democracies,
such as the Rajya Sabha in India and the House of Lords in the United Kingdom, to
illustrate how this approach works. By examining these institutions across different
countries, one can analyze their relative significance and impact.
The institutional approach to comparative political analysis involves comparing and
studying political institutions across different countries to understand their significance
and functions
 The institutional approach to studying political topics has certain aspects that
make it unique.
 First, it focuses on studying the institutions of government and how power is
distributed, such as constitutions and formal legal structures.
 Second, it often uses legal-sounding terms and ideas, sometimes making
speculations or suggesting norms about how things should be.
 Third, it looks at things from a philosophical, historical, or legal point of
view.
 A notable feature of this approach is that it has mostly concentrated on
Western countries.This means it often assumes thatWestern-style liberal
democracy is the best form of government and should be applied universally.
However, this belief has exceptions. It doesn't always fit well with how non-
Western countries were ruled, especially during times ofWestern imperialism.
• INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH: A CRITICAL EVALUATION
Criticism of the way we study governments has come in waves.The first was in the
early 1900s, then again in the 1950s. But after each wave, the approach improved.
• Early Criticisms and Changes
At the start, the approach was criticized for being speculative, normative, and
only focused on individual countries' details. It was called historical and focused
only on western Europe. It was said that it ignored cultural differences.
 Critics also said it was too focused on formal structures and laws, missing the real
political life.
But with Bryce and others, things changed. The approach became more
comparative, combining theory and practice. They gathered facts from
different places, especially Europe.
 1950s Criticisms and Defense
In the 1950s, critics like David Easton and Roy Macridis attacked the approach again. Easton
called it too focused on facts, which he called "factualism." He thought it lacked theories.
But defenders like Jean Blondel disagreed.They said facts are important and that the
approach needed more information to understand politics better.
 Improvements and Changes
Roy Macridis said the approach was too narrow and descriptive. He wanted a broader, more
comparative approach.Others agreed and realized they needed more facts for better
conclusions. Some works started comparing non-Western countries and different structures,
like parties and pressure groups, not just laws.
UNIT-4
Write notes on the following in about 200 words each :
(a) Input-Output Model
• The input-output approach to the political system, brought forth by David
Easton, looks at how politics works by considering it as a big machine with
inputs and outputs.
• Authority in Decision-Making: In this system, decisions made by those in
power are like rules everyone has to follow.
• Patterns of Relationships: It's like a big network of relationships among
people and groups, with certain patterns that repeat.
• Self-Regulating and Dynamic: Just like machines can adjust themselves, the
political system can change and adapt through feedback.
• Different from Other Systems: It's not like systems in nature, like
ecosystems or economies, but it's still organized and has its own rules.
• Inputs and Outputs: Inputs, such as demands and support, activate the
political system, while outputs, such as policies and decisions, provide
feedback on what is not accepted, contributing to the system's ongoing
function.
• Easton's approach to the political system is like looking at a big decision-
making machine. It's praised for helping us compare different political
systems and understand how they work, but some critics say it focuses too
much on keeping things the same and doesn't consider enough how things
have changed in the past or might change in the future.Overall, it's helped
us see politics as a big, interconnected system rather than just a bunch of
separate events.
David Easton FORMULA
Describe the features of Systems Analysis
INTRO:
• The Systems Approach sees a system as having separate parts that work
together with diversity in unity.
• David Easton applied the Systems Approach to politics. He said that a political
system is how authority figures make decisions and put them into action for
society. This approach shows that different parts of politics are connected, and
understanding one part means understanding how the whole system works.
• The Systems Approach in political analysis involves looking at interactions
among different parts. This is like looking at a puzzle where the pieces are
connected in a web-like pattern. O.R. Young suggested that there are interactive
relationships among the parts.
• The focus is on patterns of behavior, interactive behavior, and factors that help
the system stay stable.
• FEATURES:
• Objects and Relationships: In systems analysis, we see things as a bunch of objects that are
connected to each other in different ways.We look at how these objects interact within a patterned
framework.
• Interactive Relationships: We focus on how objects in a system interact with each other.This means
looking at how they behave together and finding factors that help the system keep going.
• Concepts for Understanding: Systems analysis uses concepts like system, subsystem, environment,
input, output, and feedback to understand how systems work. For example, a system is made up of
parts that have patterns of behavior, and it interacts with its environment.
• Input-Output Mechanism: Systems take in inputs from the environment, like demands or support,
and process them to produce outputs, such as rules or policies. Feedback happens when outputs
affect the environment and change the inputs.
• Connected Parts: Systems are like living units made up of different parts that work together. Even
though these parts might not be directly related, they still interact and form a whole system with its
own goals.
• Adaptation and Maintenance: Systems need to maintain themselves and adapt to changes.They
face challenges like decay and decline, so their main concern is to keep functioning effectively.
• Patterned Relationships: Systems have structured relationships among their parts, which explain
how they behave and the roles they play.
• Overall, systems analysis helps us understand complex phenomena by
breaking them down into smaller parts and studying how these parts
interact within a larger framework.
Critically evaluate the systems theory
SYSTEMS APPROACH
• Imagine you're looking at a big puzzle. Each piece of the puzzle
represents something in a group, like parts of a government or different
aspects of politics. The Systems Approach is like looking at the puzzle
as a whole, not just the individual pieces.
• In this approach, we think about how all the puzzle pieces fit together
and work with each other. We see them as a team that helps the puzzle
stay complete and organized. Each piece influences the others, and
they all work together to keep things balanced and working well.
• The Systems Approach is like looking at how the puzzle works as a
team, how the pieces talk to each other, and how they change and
adapt over time. By understanding these connections, we get a better
idea of how everything works together in politics and other complex
situations.
distinctions. The General Systems Theory is more about looking at a system
as a completely integrated unit, like all the parts of a human body working
together.
• On the other hand, the Systems Approach sees a system as having separate
parts that work together with diversity in unity. The General Systems Theory
isn't used much for studying things like politics, while the Systems Approach
has been successfully applied to politics.
• David Easton applied the Systems Approach to politics. He said that a
political system is how authority figures make decisions and put them into
action for society. This approach shows that different parts of politics are
connected, and understanding one part means understanding how the whole
system works.
• The Systems Approach in political analysis involves looking at interactions
among different parts. This is like looking at a puzzle where the pieces are
connected in a web-like pattern. O.R. Young suggested that there are
interactive relationships among the parts.
• The focus is on patterns of behavior, interactive behavior, and factors that
help the system stay stable.
Systems Analysis: Characteristic Features
• The Systems Approach has its own characteristics:
• Social phenomena are not isolated; they are made up of
interconnected parts.
• These parts interact, forming a living system with its own
existence and goals.
• While parts might not be organically related, they interact and
create a living system through behavioral relationships.
• The system operates with inputs and outputs in an environment,
influenced by feedback.
• The focus is on maintaining the system, its behavior, and how it
responds to challenges.
• The goals of the Systems Approach include maintaining the
system's integrity, adapting to changes in the environment, and
pursuing specific goals for the system's well-being.
• Over-Simplification:Critics argue that systems theory tends to oversimplify complex
realities by reducing them to interrelated parts.This reductionism may overlook
important nuances and details.
• Difficulty in Application:Applying systems theory to real-world situations can be
challenging due to the dynamic and unpredictable nature of systems. Identifying all
relevant components and their interactions accurately is often difficult.
• Lack of Predictive Power:While systems theory helps in understanding the general
behavior of systems, it may not provide precise predictions of outcomes.The complexity
of interactions within systems makes it challenging to forecast specific events accurately.
• Ignoring Contextual Factors: Critics suggest that systems theory sometimes overlooks
the role of external factors and context in shaping system behavior. Focusing solely on
internal dynamics may lead to incomplete explanations of phenomena.
• Difficulty in Operationalization:Translating systems theory concepts into measurable
variables for empirical research can be challenging.This difficulty in operationalization
may limit its practical utility in scientific inquiry.
UNIT-5
Describe the political economy approach to
the study of comparative politics.
• political economy is a way of looking at how politics (government and decision-making)
and economics (money, jobs, and businesses) are connected and influence each other. It's
like studying how these two things work together to shape our society.
• But here's the twist: there isn't just one way to understand political economy. It can mean
different things depending on the ideas and beliefs of the people looking at it. For example,
some folks might see it from a liberal perspective (more focused on individual freedoms),
while others might view it from a Marxist perspective (more focused on fairness and
equality).
• Now, here's something interesting: a long time ago, people didn't really separate
economics and politics like we do today.They thought of managing a household as a
part of politics. So, in a way, politics and economics were closely connected.
• And in more recent times, especially after many countries gained independence
from colonial rule, folks used different approaches, like political sociology and
political economy, to figure out how societies change and how resources are
distributed.
• One theory that came up was the modernization theory, which tried to
explain how countries develop and change, especially after big events like
the end of empires and the start of the ColdWar.
• So, political economy is like looking at the connection between politics and
money, but it can mean different things to different people, depending on
their beliefs. It also has a long history and has been used to understand how
societies change over time.
UNIT-6
Explain how democracy and capitalism interact
with each other.
• Capitalism:
• Definition: Capitalism is an economic system where property and businesses are
mainly owned and controlled by private individuals. It is driven by the pursuit of profit
and relies on principles like private ownership, freedom, contractual transactions,
and economic competition. The extent of government intervention can vary, with
extreme forms rejecting any governmental control.
• KeyThinkers:
• Max Weber:Viewed capitalism as an attitude of rationally and systematically earning profits,
emphasizing rational production techniques, a free market, and private ownership.
• Karl Marx: Saw capitalism as a progressive stage bound to collapse due to internal
contradictions. Criticized it for exploitation, class division, and inequality. Believed that
government in a liberal democracy serves the capitalist class and that a working-class revolution
would overthrow both capitalism and democracy to establish communism.
• Liberal Democracy:
• Definition: Liberal democracy is a form of government characterized by
the consent of the governed through periodic, competitive, free, and
fair elections. It emphasizes individual freedom, limited government, and
the protection of rights. It ensures limited exercise of power and
accountability.
• KeyThinkers:
• Giovanni Sartori: Highlighted that in democracy, no one enjoys unconditional and
unlimited power. Emphasized limited exercise of power and accountability as
fundamental elements of democracy.
• Gaetano Mosca, Wilfredo Pareto, and Robert Michels: Elite theorists who criticized
liberal democracy, pointing out that, in practice, a few elites tend to rule in societies
rather than the majority
• INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND CAPITALISM
• Positive Side: Sometimes, capitalism and liberal democracy work well together.
Capitalism can create wealth and economic growth, which can benefit the
country. People can start businesses, and there can be more opportunities for
everyone.
• Negative Side: On the flip side, capitalism can lead to inequality, where some
people have a lot of money, and others have very little. This inequality can affect
the fairness of a democracy because those with more money might have more
influence on political decisions.
• Max Weber:Weber highlighted the rational and systematic pursuit of profit as a
key feature of capitalism. He emphasized the role of private ownership, rational
production, and the free market in capitalism.
• Karl Marx: Marx had a critical view of capitalism, seeing it as a system of
exploitation and class struggle. He believed that capitalism would
eventually collapse due to its internal contradictions, leading to a
communist society.
• Joseph Schumpeter: Schumpeter argued that democracy and capitalism
were historically linked. He saw capitalism as a driver of innovation and
economic growth, which could support democratic systems.
unit-7
SOCIALISM AND THE WORKING OF
THE SOCIALIST STATE
Write short notes on the following in about 200
words each :
(b) Anarcho-Socialism
• Socialism is a way of thinking about how society should work. Instead of letting
individuals own and control everything like in capitalism, socialism says that
society as a whole should own and manage things like factories, land, and
resources.
• Socialism is not just an economic idea; it's also a set of beliefs about fairness
and working together. It's about making sure everyone is treated equally,
focusing on the well-being of the whole group, and trying to get rid of the idea of
rich and poor.
• So, when we talk about a "socialist state," we mean a place where the government
is in charge of things like factories and land, and they do it for the good of
everyone.
• Anarcho-socialism, also called anarchist socialism or libertarian socialism, is a
radical form of socialism advocated by thinkers like Pierre-Joseph Proudhon,
Peter Kropotkin, and Mikhail Bakunin. Unlike other forms of socialism,
anarcho-socialism rejects all forms of coercive authority, including the state,
which it sees as harmful and unnecessary.
• Anarcho-socialists believe that capitalism and the state are closely linked and
cannot be abolished separately.Therefore, they call for the elimination of all
authoritarian institutions, including the state. Instead, they promote workers'
self-management and decentralized control of the economy through
voluntary associations.
• Rather than relying on state control, anarcho-socialists advocate for direct
participatory democracy at the grassroots level.This approach is sometimes
referred to as "stateless socialism" because it seeks to achieve socialism
without the need for a central governing authority.
Write notes on the following in about
200 words each :
(a) Scientific Socialism
Distinguish between Utopian and Scientific SocialisM ?
UTOPIAN
• As said earlier, Marxism existed before Marx.
These are known as the early socialist thinkers.
Karl Marx calls themUtopianSocialists.
• The world ‘utopia’ was derived from a novel of
Thomas Moore titled, ‘Utopia.’ It refers to an
imaginary island, called Utopia, where a perfect
socio-economic- political system existed.
• There was no exploitation and people were
happy. Some important utopian socialist
thinkers are RobertOwen,Charles Fourier, Louis
Blanc,SaintSimon,Sismondi and Proudhon.
SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM
• Marx calls his socialism as ‘Scientific
Socialism’. It is scientific, because it offers the
economic interpretation of history by using
the scientific methodology of dialectical
materialism.
• but also provides for a scientific mechanism
to establish a classless and exploitation less
society.
SOCIALISM ANDTHE MARXIST
PERSPECTIVE OF STATE
• State as a ClassTool: Marxists see the state differently from liberals. While liberals
view the state as a neutral entity that protects individual rights and property,
Marxists see it as a tool used by one class to dominate another.They believe states
come into existence because of the class conflicts in society, and at each stage of
history, the state serves the interests of the dominant class.
• Class Struggle: Marx and Engels emphasized the importance of "class struggle" in
driving historical change.They argued that throughout history, societies have
evolved through class conflicts. For example, feudalism gave way to capitalism as
part of this progression.
• Capitalist State as Exploitative: According to Marxists, the capitalist state is a
product of class divisions caused by private property and capitalism. It serves to
legalize and perpetuate the exploitation of the working class (proletariat) by the
capitalist class (bourgeoisie).
• Overthrow of Capitalist State: Marxists call for the overthrow of the capitalist
state through a violent revolution led by the working class, guided by a
"vanguard party." They believe this revolution is necessary to establish a
socialist state system.
• Dictatorship of the Proletariat: After the revolution, there's a transitional
period called the "dictatorship of the proletariat." During this phase, the state
is used to remove capitalist elements from society by transferring
ownership of the means of production to the state.
• Toward Communism: Marxists see the socialist state as a preliminary stage
of communism. In the ultimate stage, known as communism, society
becomes classless, and the state gradually "withers away." Marx envisioned
this as the final goal, where people would cooperate freely and there would be
no need for a state.
Unit-8
Explain the Decolonisation process after the
SecondWorldWar
• Decolonization Definition: Decolonization refers to both a historical period and a
process.The historical period corresponds to the post-WorldWar II years when
numerous new nation-states emerged in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific as former
European colonial empires dissolved.
• Expanding Definition: Decolonization goes beyond the end of direct political
control and includes the cessation of all forms of colonialism, including economic,
political, educational, and other informal means.The concept of "neocolonialism"
highlights the continued influence of former colonizers in these areas.
• Causes of Decolonization: Decolonization was largely driven by growing nationalism
in the colonies and the subsequent revolt againstWestern colonialism and imperialist
domination.Western values and institutions contributed to the rise of nationalism in
the 19th century.
THE DECOLONISATION PROCESS
• How countries that were once controlled by powerful nations worked to become
independent. It's important to note that this process was not always peaceful, as
the initial colonization involved violence and deceit by the colonizers.
• Some countries managed to gain their independence without much violence, like some
French and British colonies in Africa.They negotiated their freedom relatively
peacefully.
• International organizations like the League of Nations and the United Nations also
played a part.They aimed to help colonies become independent. Most colonies
achieved independence this way, except for SouthWest Africa (now Namibia), which
was held by South Africa.
• However, in some places, like Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola, Mozambique,
Guinea Bissau), there were long and violent struggles.These countries didn't become
independent until 1974 when Portugal itself went through a democratic revolution.
• Algeria, once a French colony, also had a tough time gaining independence. It took
seven years of armed struggle from 1954 to 1961.The French settlers in Algeria
strongly opposed independence.
• Latin America:
• Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America achieved independence in the early
19th century through revolutionary movements.
• By 1825, most of Spain's empire in Latin America was lost, leading to the creation of
seventeen separate republics.
• Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the United States got involved in
Cuba's fight for independence in 1898, but then the U.S. dominated Cuba economically.
• Asia and Africa After WorldWar II:
• Decolonization afterWorld War II was accelerated, with some colonies like French Indo-
China, Dutch Indonesia, British Malaya, and Italian East Africa experiencing disruptions due
to enemy conquests during the war.
• The Japanese occupation in Southeast Asia stimulated nationalist sentiments, leading
to movements for independence.
• Indonesia andVietnam declared independence after Japan's defeat, leading to conflicts
with their colonial rulers (Dutch and French, respectively).
• India:
• India gained independence in 1947, a significant outcome ofWorld War II.
• The Indian National Congress, led by figures like Mahatma Gandhi, played a
key role in the struggle for independence.
• Gandhi's principles of non-violence and non-cooperation shaped the Indian
nationalist movement.
• African Independence:
• Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) and Nigeria were among the pioneers of
African independence.
• Ghana achieved dominion status within the Commonwealth in 1957, with
Kwame Nkrumah as Prime Minister.
• Nigeria became fully independent in 1960.
• South Africa and Namibia:
• South Africa's history involved Dutch and British colonization, leading to racial
segregation and discrimination.
• The apartheid regime in South Africa denied basic human rights to Africans.
• African resistance, including the African National Congress (ANC), led by Nelson
Mandela, gained international support and eventually pressured the apartheid
regime to negotiate.
• In 1994, after negotiations and elections, power was transferred to the black
majority, ending apartheid.
• Namibia, formerly a German colony and then under South African control,
achieved independence after a long struggle and UN resolutions.
Give a brief account of dependency and
underdevelopment in LatinAmerica.
• Dependency and underdevelopment in Latin America are concepts deeply rooted in
the region's history of colonialism, exploitation, and unequal power relations with
Western countries, particularly the United States and European powers.
• Colonial Legacy: Latin America was colonized by European powers, primarily Spain
and Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries.The colonial period saw the extraction of
vast amounts of resources, primarily minerals and agricultural products, which were
sent back to Europe to fuel economic growth and development there.This laid the
groundwork for a pattern of dependency, where Latin American countries became
suppliers of raw materials for the industrialized nations.
• Economic Dependence: After achieving independence in the 19th century, many
Latin American countries continued to rely heavily on exporting raw materials, such
as minerals, agricultural products, and later oil, as their primary source of revenue.
This economic model reinforced their dependency onWestern markets and
investment, as well as on foreign technology and expertise.
• UnequalTrade Relations: Latin American countries often found
themselves in a disadvantageous position in international trade relations.
The terms of trade were typically set by industrialized nations, leading to
the devaluation of primary goods exported by Latin America and the
inflation of prices for manufactured goods imported from the West.This
perpetuated a cycle of dependency and underdevelopment, as Latin
American economies struggled to diversify and add value to their exports.
• Political Instability and Authoritarianism: Dependency and
underdevelopment in Latin America were also exacerbated by political
instability, corruption, and authoritarian regimes. Many countries in the
region experienced periods of military rule, often supported byWestern
powers, which suppressed dissent and perpetuated a system that favored
elites and foreign interests over the needs of the broader population.
• Overall, dependency and underdevelopment in Latin America are deeply
intertwined with the legacy of colonialism, unequal power relations in
international trade, foreign investment patterns, and domestic political
dynamics. Addressing these issues requires comprehensive efforts to
promote sustainable development, diversify economies, reduce inequality,
and foster democratic governance.
Unit-9
What is the nature of the relationship between
the executive and the legislature in UK ?
• The British government operates within a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary
democracy framework.
• The British Parliament has other important jobs. It makes new laws, keeps an eye on the
government, especially when it comes to money, and speaks for the British people.
Members of Parliament (MPs) are like messengers between the people who vote for
them and the government.They help make sure that the government listens to what the
people want.
• Parliamentary supremacy in the United Kingdom, the Parliament is the boss when it
comes to making laws. It can create, change, or get rid of any law without anyone else
being able to stop it. There's a famous saying that Parliament can do almost anything,
except change a person's gender.
• For example, there was a law called the SeptennialAct that extended how long the House of
Commons could stay in power. Parliament made this change on its own, without needing
permission from anyone else.
• Fused Executive and Legislature: Unlike in presidential systems like the
United States, where the executive and legislature are separate bodies, the
UK Parliament operates with a fused system.This means that members of
the executive, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers, are also
members of the legislature (specifically, the House of Commons).
• Prime Minister's Powers:The Prime Minister holds significant powers over
laws, policies, agenda setting, and the organization of the government.
While the Prime Minister's position is technically "first among equals" within
the Cabinet, they have considerable authority in appointing ministers,
shaping policies, and influencing decision-making.
• Collective Decision-Making:The Cabinet operates on the principle of
collective responsibility, meaning that all members must publicly support
government policies, even if they personally disagree. Dissenting opinions
are typically expressed in private meetings, and ministers are bound by
official secrecy directives.
• Parliamentary Sovereignty:While the executive governs, the legislature,
Parliament, holds legal sovereignty.This means that theoretically, the
executive is subordinate to the legislature.
• Challenges to Parliamentary Supremacy: Despite parliamentary
sovereignty, there are criticisms of executive dominance in Parliament.The
government's control over party-affiliated MPs and strict party discipline
often leads to legislation being passed along party lines, limiting the
influence of individual MPs. Additionally, the government's control over the
House of Commons timetable can restrict scrutiny opportunities.
• Accountability Mechanisms: Parliament has developed various mechanisms
to hold the government accountable, including debates, QuestionTime, and
Parliamentary Committees.The opposition party plays a crucial role in
challenging the government and holding it to account, particularly when the
ruling party lacks a majority in the House.
Examine the meaning and evolution of the
doctrine of parliamentary supremacy.
• Origin of "Parliament":The term "parliament" is explained to have
originated from the French word "parler," meaning "to speak."
Historically, it referred to monarchs convening wise advisors to discuss state
affairs.
• Parliamentary supremacy means that in the United Kingdom, the
Parliament is the boss when it comes to making laws. It can create,
change, or get rid of any law without anyone else being able to stop it.
There's a famous saying that Parliament can do almost anything, except
change a person's gender.
• Three important things to know about parliamentary supremacy are:
• Parliament can change any law, even really important ones, in a fair and
consistent way.
• There's no special category of laws that can't be changed by Parliament.They can
modify any law they want.
• No one, not even the courts, can say that a law made by Parliament is invalid.
• The British Parliament also has other important jobs. It makes new laws, keeps
an eye on the government, especially when it comes to money, and speaks for
the British people. Members of Parliament (MPs) are like messengers between
the people who vote for them and the government.They help make sure that the
government listens to what the people want.
EVOLUTION OF THE DOCTRINE OF
PARLIAMENTARY SUPREMACY
• In the British system of parliamentary democracy, the head of the state is
the monarch while the head of the government is elected and comes
from the parliament.
• According to Professor Mayor Grant, the evolution of British Parliament can
be understood in four broad phases:
Stage 1: Early Parliament (Middle Ages)
• In the olden days, there was only one part of Parliament, the House of Lords.
• The Magna Carta in 1215 was a big deal because it happened when rich people didn't
like the king's heavy taxes.
• Later, they added the House of Commons so regular folks could have a say.
• By the 14th century, these two parts became separate.
• Stage 2: Kings vs. Parliament (1485 to 17th Century)
• There was a big fight between kings and Parliament.
• Kings said they ruled with God's blessing, but Parliament said no.
• They even had a CivilWar for 11 years.
• After that war, everyone agreed that Parliament was in charge.
• Stage 3: Modern Parliament (1688 to 1832)
• They started doing things that look like today's Parliament, like having political
parties, ministers, and public debates.
• The Glorious Revolution of 1688 said Parliament was the boss.
• They made laws about this in 1689 and 1701.
• Stage 4: More Changes (1832 to Present)
• After 1832, they made rules about how Parliament works.
• More people got the right to vote, and women could vote in 1918.
• Today, there are regional parliaments in Northern Ireland, Scotland, andWales, but
the main Parliament in London still has the most power.
• It can change the rules for the regional parliaments.
• The big idea is that the main Parliament is in charge, and that's been the way for
a long time.
Write short notes on the following in about
200 words each :
(b) Rule of Law
• The rule of law is an important idea that means everyone, including the
government, must follow the law. It's like having rules that apply to everyone, like
how we follow traffic rules.This idea started a long time ago, with famous thinkers
like Aristotle saying that the law should be more important than rulers.
• In the UK, this idea became really important with a document called the Magna Carta
in 1215. It said that the king couldn't take away people's freedom or property without
a good reason and a fair trial. This idea grew over time to protect individual rights
from the government.
• In the 19th century, a scholar named A.V. Dicey explained the rule of law with
three main points:
• The law should be more important than government decisions. If the
government has too much power to do whatever it wants, it can be a
problem.
• Everyone, regular people, and government officials should be treated the
same way under the law. Nobody should get special treatment.
• Judges and courts should protect people's rights and make sure the law is
followed.
Unit-10
What are the development strategies adopted
by Brazil since its independence? Elaborate
• Brazil's journey from colonial times to the present has been marked by significant changes in its
economic and political landscape, reflecting different approaches to development.
• Colonial and Early Independence Period: Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over three
centuries, primarily engaged in extracting natural resources like brazilwood, sugar, and
minerals with the labor ofAfrican and indigenous slaves.When it gained independence in
1822, it established a constitutional monarchy, bringing political stability but with limitations
on civil rights.
• First Republic (1889-1930):The early republic in Brazil introduced some democratic elements
like elections, but it was characterized by an oligarchic system.The economy was a mix of
traditional agriculture and moderate exports.
• VargasYears (1930-1945): GetúlioVargas introduced policies to diversify
the agricultural sector, increase social protections, and promote
industrialization through import substitution.
• Second Republic (1945-1964): This period saw expansion in voting
rights, state-led industrialization, and the emergence of a strong state
role in economic development. State-owned enterprises were established.
• Military Regime (1964-1985):The military regime continued state-led
industrialization, leading to significant economic growth and urbanization.
Brazil diversified its exports and reduced its dependency on raw
materials.
• Transition to Neoliberalism (1985 onwards): Brazil shifted away from
state-led development to neoliberal policies of liberalization and
privatization, reducing the government's role in the economy.This shift
was driven by changing international economic conditions and the end of
the military regime.
• Recent Period: Brazil's recent history has seen alternating governments
with varying economic and social policies. Presidents like Lula da Silva
focused on social programs, while others continued neoliberal policies.
Brazil has become a major player in global politics and economics,
advocating for changes in international institutions and participating in
key global initiatives.
UNIT-11
Compare and analyse Brazilian and Nigerian
Federalism.
• Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central or
federal government and individual state or regional governments.The key features of
federalism :
• Divided Power: In federalism, there are two levels of government - one big and one small.
They share the responsibilities of governing the country. Sometimes, certain jobs are
only for the big government, and sometimes they share the work.
• Written Rules:There's a special rule book called the constitution that tells the big and
small governments what they can and can't do. It's like a rulebook for how the country
should run. Both the big and small governments have to follow these rules.
• Judge's Role:There is also a judge, like a referee, who makes sure everyone is playing by
the rules. If someone breaks the rules, the judge can say, "No, you can't do that."This
helps keep everything fair.
• Brazilian Federalism:
• Brazil exhibits a highly decentralized form of federalism, where municipal
governments hold significant powers alongside state governments.
• The federal system in Brazil aims to address regional imbalances through
fiscal federalism and the transfer of power to state and local levels.
• Fiscal federalism, which involves the allocation of resources, plays a crucial
role in shaping federal-state relations in Brazil.
• However, excessive decentralization in Brazil has led to challenges for the
federal government in fulfilling socio-economic development programs
due to resource constraints.
• Nigerian Federalism:
• Nigeria, in contrast, has experienced a more centralized form of federalism,
particularly during periods of military rule, where centralizing decrees
encroached on the powers and resources of states.
• Despite being a federation, Nigeria faces difficulties in addressing ethnic
diversity and equitable resource sharing, leading to a dysfunctional federal
system.
• The Nigerian experience highlights the importance of devolution of power and
participatory procedures in maintaining effective federal-state relations.
• Degree of Federalism:
• Brazil's federal system is exceptionally decentralized, granting significant autonomy to states
and municipal governments.
• In contrast, Nigeria has a highly centralized system, with limited autonomy for states.
• Impact of Authoritarian Rule:
• In both countries, federalism suffered during periods of authoritarian or military rule, leading
to centralization of power and resources.
Fiscal Federalism:
• Brazil's federal system effectively addresses regional imbalances through fiscal federalism,
empowering states and local governments in resource management.
• Nigeria faces challenges in fiscal federalism, with disparities in resource sharing and a central
government with significant power.
• Balance of Centralization and Decentralization:
• Striking a balance between centralization and decentralization is crucial for effective federalism.
Brazil's experience shows that too much decentralization can lead to resource constraints at
the federal level.
• Context and the extent of diversity play a role in determining the appropriate level of
centralization. Nigeria grapples with the challenge of accommodating ethnic diversity while
maintaining a strong central government.
8. Write short notes on the following in about
200 words each :
(a) Federalism in Brazil
• Historical Background:
• Brazil was initially a colony of Portugal, and it started as a collection of captaincies under Portuguese
control.
• In 1822, Brazil declared its independence and became an empire under Emperor Dom Pedro I.
• Dom Pedro I established a constitutional monarchy with some provincial autonomy, but real power
remained centralized.
• In 1889, a military coup ended the monarchy, and Brazil became a presidential republic.
• The First Republic (1889-1930) introduced federalism, granting some autonomy to states. However, power
was still concentrated in a few key states.
• GetúlioVargas's regime (1930-1945) favored centralization, leading to a more centralized system.
• A military coup in 1964 marked a period of extreme centralization that lasted until the mid-1980s.
• Transition to Democratic Federalism:
• In the early 1980s, the military allowed direct elections for state governors, and
political parties were permitted.
• This gradual shift led to the establishment of a democratic regime in 1985 and
the drafting of a new constitution in 1988.
• The 1988 constitution emphasized political and fiscal decentralization, making
federalism a fundamental part of Brazil's political system.
• Structure of Brazilian Federalism:
• Brazil is officially known as the "Federative Republic of Brazil" and consists of
26 states, a federal district (Brasilia), and over 5,000 municipalities.
• The country follows a three-tier federal structure: federal government (headed by
the President), state governments (headed by governors), and local governments
(municipios, headed by mayors).
• Legislative powers are divided into exclusive, joint, and concurrent categories,
with the federal government, states, and municipalities sharing these powers.
• Fiscal Federalism:
• Brazil is highly decentralized, with most public spending carried out by state
governments.
• States and municipalities have substantial autonomy in deciding how to use
the funds they receive.
• This decentralization has helped improve the delivery of services like education
and healthcare.
• Challenges:
• Despite decentralization efforts, Brazil faces challenges due to historical
disparities and malapportionment.
• Some states have much larger populations, yet they have the same number of
senators, leading to unequal representation.
• Fiscal decentralization has led to overspending, tax competition between
states, and an overreliance on federal funds.
• The federal government has tried to restore fiscal discipline through various
measures, including the Fiscal Responsibility Law (LRF).
Describe the structure of Nigerian Federalism
and its functioning.
• Historical Background:
• Nigeria is a diverse country with various ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups.
• The federal system was introduced in the Constitution of 1954 during British
colonial rule to accommodate Nigeria's diversity and prevent unrest.
• Nigeria gained independence in 1960, followed by periods of democratic
governance and military rule.
• During military rule (1966-1999), Nigeria transitioned from a decentralized
parliamentary federation to a more centralized presidential system.
• The country experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, which led to economic and
political measures that concentrated power at the federal level.
• Ethnic and Religious Diversity:
• Nigeria's population is composed of numerous ethnic groups, with the Igbo,
Yoruba, and Hausa-Fulani being the most prominent.
• Religious divisions are also significant, with Muslims predominantly in the north
and Christians predominantly in the south.
• Structure of Nigerian Federalism:
• Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory
(Abuja).
• The President is the head of state and federal government, and each state has a
governor.
• The National Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (Lower House)
and the Senate (Upper House).
• Nigeria's judiciary includes federal and state-level courts, with the Supreme Court
as the highest authority.
• Functioning of Nigerian Federalism:
• In practice, Nigeria's federal system often functions more like a unitary
state, with strong centralization tendencies.
• There is a significant fiscal imbalance between the federal government
and states, with the central government controlling most revenue and
resources.
• Elections have been marred by irregularities and fraud, leading to
concerns about the integrity of the democratic process.
• Ethnic and regional disparities persist, with minority groups demanding
more autonomy and resource control.
UNIT-12
Elaborate upon the structure and guiding
ideology of the Communist Party of China.
Explain the functions and role of the
Communist Party in China’s political system.
What are the major challenges confronting the
Chinese Communist Party in contemporary times?
Explain
• Communist Party Rules: China is run by the Communist Party, which is the most important
group in charge. The country's constitution says that China is a socialist state led by the
working class and the Communist Party.
• Unique Political Parties: While the Communist Party is the main ruler, China also allows a few
other small political parties to exist. These smaller parties represent specific groups like teachers
or artists, but they must support the Communist Party's leadership.
• Big Central Government: China's government is very centralized, meaning decisions come
from the top. Even though there are elections, the Communist Party controls who can run for
important jobs like president or prime minister.
• Different Idea of Democracy: China has its own version of democracy, which focuses on the
Communist Party's leadership.They believe this type of democracy suits China better and helps
the country grow stronger.
• National People's Congress: China has a big group called the National People's Congress, which
makes laws and approves important government leaders. But again, the Communist Party decides
who can be in charge.
95
Understanding China‟s Political System
• End of Old Dynasty: A long time ago, China was ruled by an old dynasty called the Qing
Dynasty. It faced big problems, like foreign countries taking control of parts of China.
• Revolutionaries: Some smart people got together and formed a group called the Chinese
Revolutionary Alliance.They wanted to change the government and make China a democracy
likeWestern countries.
• Kuomintang (KMT) Party: This group turned into a political party called the Kuomintang
(KMT). They wanted a democratic China but had a hard time making it happen.
• May Fourth Movement: In 1919, there was a big protest called the May Fourth Movement because
people were upset that the government wasn't doing enough against foreign powers. Some
thinkers got inspired by the communist revolution in Russia and started communist groups in
China.
• Birth of CPC: In 1921, these communist groups came together and officially created the
Communist Party of China (CPC).
96
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:THE BIRTH OF
THE CPC
• Working with KMT:The communists and the KMT joined forces for a while to fight against foreign
powers and warlords in what they called the "United Front." But this alliance didn't last long.
• Conflict and Civil War:The leader of the KMT, Chiang Kai-shek, turned against the communists, and
there was a big fight between them.The communists had to leave the cities and go to the
countryside.
• Mao and the Peasants:One communist leader, Mao Zedong, believed that the peasants (farmers)
should lead the revolution. So, the communists started working closely with the farmers.
• The Long March: In 1934, the communist forces went on a very long and tough journey called the
"Long March" to find a safe place.They ended up inYan'an, a new base.
• Fighting Japan:When Japan invaded China, the communists and the KMT put aside their differences
to fight the Japanese invaders duringWorld War II.
• CommunistsWin: AfterWorld War II, the communists, led by Mao Zedong, defeated the KMT in a
civil war. On October 1, 1949, they declared the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the CPC
became the ruling party.
97
• Control Freaks:The CPC really wants to stay in power.They use things like censoring the
news, arresting people who disagree, and stopping groups that could challenge them.
• In Charge of Everything:They run the show in China.That means they control the army, the
courts, and all the important parts of the government.Their leaders have multiple jobs, like
being both party bosses and government bigwigs.
• They SayThey Know Best:The CPC believes they're the only ones who can understand and
lead China.They think they represent everyone's interests.
• Their Rules, No Questions: Inside the party, they have a rule called "democratic centralism."
It sounds fancy, but it means they'll talk and argue about decisions, but once they make up
their minds, everyone has to follow, no questions asked.
• Obedience is a Big Deal:They tell people that listening to the party is a moral and patriotic
duty. If they crack down on something, they'll say it's for the good of the system and the
country's stability. 98
NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OFTHE
CPC
• Marxism-Leninism: Like many communist parties around the world, the CPC follows the
teachings of Karl Marx andVladimir Lenin.They believe in socialism, where the
government controls many things in society to make things fair for everyone.
• Mao ZedongThought: Mao Zedong, a famous Chinese leader, added his own ideas to
Marxism-Leninism. His ideas were all about making communism work in China, especially in
rural areas.
• Reform and Opening-up:After Mao, a leader named Deng Xiaoping changed things a
lot. He opened up China to the world and made the economy more market-driven.This
change is called "Reform and Opening-up."
• Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:The CPC says that they have their own way of
doing socialism, which fits China better.They mix their traditional ideas with some new
ones.
99
GUIDING IDEOLOGIES AND PRINCIPLES OF
THE CPC
• Scientific Outlook on Development: Hu Jintao, a leader after Jiang, talked
about the "Scientific Outlook on Development."This was about making
society more equal and fair.
• Socialism for a New Era:The current leader, Xi Jinping, talks about
"Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era." He also has a vision
called the "China Dream" to make China strong and great.
• Communist Ideology: Even though they have these new ideas, the CPC still
believes in the ultimate goal of communism.They want a society where
everyone is equal, but they're trying to get there in their own way.
• The Communist Party of China (CPC) has a well-structured organization. Here's a simplified breakdown
of its key parts:
• Party Congress:This is the most important meeting and happens every five years. Delegates from all
over China come together to discuss what the party has done and what it should do in the future.
• Central Committee: This is like a big decision-making group with about 370 members.They meet
every year to talk about the party's work and policies.
• Politburo:This is a smaller group within the Central Committee, with 25 senior members.They make
important decisions when the Central Committee isn't meeting.
• Politburo Standing Committee (PSC): The most powerful group in the CPC, with seven members.
They make the most important decisions and have specific roles.
• General Secretary:This person is the head of the CPC and the country.They lead the party and make
sure things run smoothly.
• Secretariat:This group of seven members helps with everyday party business and makes sure decisions
are carried out. 101
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OFTHE
COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA
• Central Military Commission (CMC):This is in charge of the military (the
People's Liberation Army).There are two, one for the party and one for the
state, but the party's CMC has more power.
• Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI):This group makes sure
party members follow the rules and aren't corrupt.They help keep the
party clean.
• Local Party Organizations:The CPC has branches all over China at different
levels like provinces, cities, and towns.They have their own meetings and
leaders.
• Primary Party Organizations:These are the smallest groups in the party,
found in villages, schools, and workplaces.They spread party ideas and
stay connected with regular people.
• Lack ofTransparency: The CPC is known for its secretive decision-making processes, which can lead to
a lack of transparency and accountability in governance.The absence of independent media and
political opposition makes it difficult for the public to scrutinize party decisions.
• Governance and Legitimacy Crisis: Some observers argue that China's political system, led by the
CPC, is facing a governance and legitimacy crisis. The party's historical methods, such as theTiananmen
Square massacre, have eroded its global reputation and led to questions about its viability.
• Demands for Political Reform:There is a growing demand among Chinese citizens for political reforms,
including multi-party elections, internal democracy, transparency, and protection of civil rights and
liberties. However, the CPC has been reluctant to introduce political reforms and maintains a one-party
system.
• Technological Challenges: The internet and new technologies have empowered Chinese citizens and
made it harder for the CPC to control public opinion. Information flows more freely, which can challenge
the party's narratives and control over information.
103
THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY: ISSUES
AND CHALLENGES
• Corruption: Corruption is a significant challenge within the CPC. It affects
many aspects of Chinese society and has eroded the party's reputation.The
party leadership recognizes the severity of the problem and has launched
anti-corruption campaigns, but it remains a deep-rooted issue.
• Social Unrest: Rapid economic growth has brought issues like income
inequality and unemployment.The wealth gap between urban and rural
areas has led to social unrest and protests in various parts of China.
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BPSC-105 important questions for june term end exam

  • 3. 1 Explain the significance and relevance of comparative study of politics. • INTRODUCTION : what is comparative study of politics ? • Comparative study of politics is about comparing political phenomena.The central objective is to identify and analyze the major similarities and differences in politics across the world. • Comparative politics is the study of different political systems, institutions, and behaviors across various countries. • Comparative politics focuses on the examination of political phenomena, such as democracy, constitutions, political parties, social movements, and more, by comparing different countries or political systems. • comparative politics is not a separate and independent field from Political Science but rather a sub-discipline within it.
  • 4. • Significance : • Comparisons: Identification of Relationships • Comparative political analysis is not just about gathering information on foreign countries, but it's a systematic way of looking at two or more countries to find out why they are similar or different in certain aspects. • Before, people used to only look for similarities and differences, which led to categorizing political things as either one thing or another. But now, the focus is on using comparisons to see how political phenomena are connected and how they work together.
  • 5. • Relevance Comparative politics provides a deeper understanding of global political systems, their institutions, functions, and behaviors, which enriches knowledge and fosters global perspectives. Comparative politics allows us to make conscious comparisons between countries to develop theories that can be applied to multiple cases. By studying different countries, we can build strong and reliable theories about political behavior. Comparing different countries helps make political studies more scientific and precise. It gives us the ability to control for various factors and ensures that our findings are valid and reliable. It influence better policy making and reform and it helps to understand differences how countries do politics differently .
  • 6. • Conclusion :The comparative study of politics serves as a lens through which we can better understand the complexities of political systems, make informed decisions, and strive towards creating more just stable.
  • 7. 2 Explain the meaning and scope of comparative study of politics.
  • 8. • ANS : INTRODUCTION : what is comparative study of politics ? • Comparative study of politics is about comparing political phenomena.The central objective is to identify and analyze the major similarities and differences in politics across the world. • Comparative politics is the study of different political systems, institutions, and behaviors across various countries. • Comparative politics focuses on the examination of political phenomena, such as democracy, constitutions, political parties, social movements, and more, by comparing different countries or political systems. • comparative politics is not a separate and independent field from Political Science but rather a sub-discipline within it.
  • 9. • SCOPE • Comparisons: Identification of Relationships • Comparative political analysis is not just about gathering information on foreign countries, but it's a systematic way of looking at two or more countries to find out why they are similar or different in certain aspects. • Before, people used to only look for similarities and differences, which led to categorizing political things as either one thing or another. But now, the focus is on using comparisons to see how political phenomena are connected and how they work together.
  • 10. • Comparative Politics and Comparative Government • Comparative politics and comparative government are related fields, but they have distinct focuses. Some people mistakenly think that comparative politics is only about studying governments, but that's not entirely accurate. Comparative politics actually covers all forms of political activity, both governmental and non-governmental. • In the past, comparative politics mostly studiedWestern countries and focused on governments and regime types. However, after the process of decolonization, interest grew in studying "new nations" and understanding their political systems. • The field of comparative politics expanded to include various aspects of politics, like individuals, social groups, political parties, interest groups, and social movements.
  • 11. • Conclusion :The comparative study of politics serves as a lens through which we can better understand the complexities of political systems, make informed decisions, and strive towards creating more just stable.
  • 12. Describe how the nature, field and scope of comparative politics.
  • 14. Explain the significance of comparative method. • INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS COMPARISON • The concept of comparison in our daily lives and how it is used to analyze relationships, patterns, and behaviors within different groups of people. The passage illustrates the idea that individuals' lives are interconnected and influenced by various factors, leading to similarities and dissimilarities in their behaviors and routines. • we compare things in our daily lives to understand how they are similar or different. We are all connected to each other in some way, and this influences how we act and what we see. For example, if we look at people in a neighborhood, some might take a bus to work while others drive their cars. We can compare these groups to see why they do things differently.
  • 15. • Comparing helps us find out what makes things the same or different. In the neighborhood example, we can figure out that those who take the bus have common reasons like working in the same place or not having personal cars. On the other hand, those who drive might have their own reasons, like going to different offices or having higher positions. • Social scientists use these ideas to study and learn about complex things in society.
  • 16. • Comparative method: • The concept of a "method" and why it's important in various types of studies. A method is a way of doing something in an organized and effective manner. • Different methods are used by scholars, such as comparative, historical, experimental, and statistical methods. The passage mentions the comparative method, which is used to compare things to understand similarities and differences. • This method is not limited to comparative politics; it's used across various fields like sociology, history, psychology, and literature.
  • 17. • SIGNIFICANCE : • The comparative method is a powerful tool used across various fields of study, including linguistics, sociology, and anthropology. Its significance lies in its ability to: • Uncover Relationships: By systematically comparing phenomena across different contexts (languages, societies, cultures), the comparative method helps identify similarities and differences. This sheds light on the relationships between these phenomena, allowing researchers to group them based on shared characteristics or evolutionary paths. • Generate Insights: The comparative method goes beyond simply identifying similarities and differences. It allows researchers to draw broader inferences and develop generalizable insights.This can lead to the formulation of new theories or explanations for observed phenomena.
  • 18. Overall, the comparative method serves as a cornerstone for research in various disciplines. By systematically examining phenomena in relation to each other, it offers a window into historical processes, underlying relationships, and causal factors that shape our world.
  • 19. Write notes on the following in about 200 words each : (a) Case Study Method • Case Study • A case study goes deep into studying one specific case. Even though it's not directly about comparing, it provides information about that case, which can then be used to make general observations. These observations can be compared with other cases and help explain things more broadly. • Example of Tocqueville: Think about Alexis de Tocqueville, who looked at 18th century France and 19th century United States. In France, he tried to explain why the French Revolution happened, and in the USA, he looked at the reasons for social equality. Even though these are separate cases, they have common themes, like equality, freedom, and social change. Tocqueville believed that Western countries were moving from aristocracy to democracy.
  • 20. • Tocqueville's case studies were like comparing and contrasting different cases to understand similarities and differences. He thought about how the American case influenced his views on the French case and vice versa. He saw the USA as a place where democracy naturally grew, leading to stability, while in France, the mix of inequality and desire for equality led to revolution. • So, even though case studies focus on one case, they can still help us understand differences and similarities between different cases
  • 21. • Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : 10+10 • (a) New Institutionalism • (b) Case Study as a Method of Comparison
  • 22. Write notes on the following in about 200 words each : a) Historical Method • Historical Method • This approach focuses on finding historical reasons for social and political events. It emphasizes understanding societies and human actions by analyzing their past. • Analytic History: the historical method looks for causal explanations rooted in the past. It's not about studying a single culture or nation, but about understanding how different human populations and cultures interacted and influenced each other. • Skocpol's Example: Theda Skocpol's work on revolutions (like the French, Russian, and Chinese Revolutions) uses the historical method. She finds similar causal patterns in these cases despite their differences. She also validates her arguments by studying both positive and negative cases.
  • 24. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : (a) New Institutionalism • New Institutionalism is a relatively new theory, having emerged in the 1980s. It is a response to the behavioral revolution in political science, which argued that individual behavior is the key to understanding political outcomes. New Institutionalists argue that behavior cannot be understood in isolation from the institutions in which it occurs. • New Institutionalism is a theory in political science that argues that institutions play a crucial role in shaping human behavior. Institutions are defined as the rules, norms, and practices that structure social life. They also argue that institutions enable human behavior by providing the resources and knowledge that people need to act. • New Institutionalism has been used to study a wide range of political phenomena, including the behavior of legislatures, bureaucracies, and courts. It has also been used to study the development of public policy, the formation of social movements, and the outbreak of war.
  • 25. • New Institutionalism is a valuable theory for understanding how institutions shape human behavior. • Here are some of the key points of New Institutionalism: • Institutions are the rules, norms, and practices that structure social life. • Institutions enable human behavior by providing the resources and knowledge that people need to act. • New Institutionalism is a relatively new theory, having emerged in the 1980s. • New Institutionalism has been used to study a wide range of political phenomena, including the behavior of legislatures, bureaucracies, and courts. • It provides a framework for understanding why people act the way they do in different political contexts
  • 26. INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH The institutional approach focuses on studying and comparing institutions in various political systems. Institutions can include structures like government bodies, legislatures, judiciaries, and other organizations that play a role in shaping a country's political processes. The passage uses the example of studying the upper houses in parliamentary democracies, such as the Rajya Sabha in India and the House of Lords in the United Kingdom, to illustrate how this approach works. By examining these institutions across different countries, one can analyze their relative significance and impact. The institutional approach to comparative political analysis involves comparing and studying political institutions across different countries to understand their significance and functions
  • 27.  The institutional approach to studying political topics has certain aspects that make it unique.  First, it focuses on studying the institutions of government and how power is distributed, such as constitutions and formal legal structures.  Second, it often uses legal-sounding terms and ideas, sometimes making speculations or suggesting norms about how things should be.  Third, it looks at things from a philosophical, historical, or legal point of view.  A notable feature of this approach is that it has mostly concentrated on Western countries.This means it often assumes thatWestern-style liberal democracy is the best form of government and should be applied universally. However, this belief has exceptions. It doesn't always fit well with how non- Western countries were ruled, especially during times ofWestern imperialism.
  • 28. • INSTITUTIONAL APPROACH: A CRITICAL EVALUATION Criticism of the way we study governments has come in waves.The first was in the early 1900s, then again in the 1950s. But after each wave, the approach improved. • Early Criticisms and Changes At the start, the approach was criticized for being speculative, normative, and only focused on individual countries' details. It was called historical and focused only on western Europe. It was said that it ignored cultural differences.  Critics also said it was too focused on formal structures and laws, missing the real political life. But with Bryce and others, things changed. The approach became more comparative, combining theory and practice. They gathered facts from different places, especially Europe.
  • 29.  1950s Criticisms and Defense In the 1950s, critics like David Easton and Roy Macridis attacked the approach again. Easton called it too focused on facts, which he called "factualism." He thought it lacked theories. But defenders like Jean Blondel disagreed.They said facts are important and that the approach needed more information to understand politics better.  Improvements and Changes Roy Macridis said the approach was too narrow and descriptive. He wanted a broader, more comparative approach.Others agreed and realized they needed more facts for better conclusions. Some works started comparing non-Western countries and different structures, like parties and pressure groups, not just laws.
  • 31. Write notes on the following in about 200 words each : (a) Input-Output Model • The input-output approach to the political system, brought forth by David Easton, looks at how politics works by considering it as a big machine with inputs and outputs. • Authority in Decision-Making: In this system, decisions made by those in power are like rules everyone has to follow. • Patterns of Relationships: It's like a big network of relationships among people and groups, with certain patterns that repeat. • Self-Regulating and Dynamic: Just like machines can adjust themselves, the political system can change and adapt through feedback.
  • 32. • Different from Other Systems: It's not like systems in nature, like ecosystems or economies, but it's still organized and has its own rules. • Inputs and Outputs: Inputs, such as demands and support, activate the political system, while outputs, such as policies and decisions, provide feedback on what is not accepted, contributing to the system's ongoing function. • Easton's approach to the political system is like looking at a big decision- making machine. It's praised for helping us compare different political systems and understand how they work, but some critics say it focuses too much on keeping things the same and doesn't consider enough how things have changed in the past or might change in the future.Overall, it's helped us see politics as a big, interconnected system rather than just a bunch of separate events.
  • 34. Describe the features of Systems Analysis INTRO: • The Systems Approach sees a system as having separate parts that work together with diversity in unity. • David Easton applied the Systems Approach to politics. He said that a political system is how authority figures make decisions and put them into action for society. This approach shows that different parts of politics are connected, and understanding one part means understanding how the whole system works. • The Systems Approach in political analysis involves looking at interactions among different parts. This is like looking at a puzzle where the pieces are connected in a web-like pattern. O.R. Young suggested that there are interactive relationships among the parts. • The focus is on patterns of behavior, interactive behavior, and factors that help the system stay stable.
  • 35. • FEATURES: • Objects and Relationships: In systems analysis, we see things as a bunch of objects that are connected to each other in different ways.We look at how these objects interact within a patterned framework. • Interactive Relationships: We focus on how objects in a system interact with each other.This means looking at how they behave together and finding factors that help the system keep going. • Concepts for Understanding: Systems analysis uses concepts like system, subsystem, environment, input, output, and feedback to understand how systems work. For example, a system is made up of parts that have patterns of behavior, and it interacts with its environment. • Input-Output Mechanism: Systems take in inputs from the environment, like demands or support, and process them to produce outputs, such as rules or policies. Feedback happens when outputs affect the environment and change the inputs. • Connected Parts: Systems are like living units made up of different parts that work together. Even though these parts might not be directly related, they still interact and form a whole system with its own goals. • Adaptation and Maintenance: Systems need to maintain themselves and adapt to changes.They face challenges like decay and decline, so their main concern is to keep functioning effectively. • Patterned Relationships: Systems have structured relationships among their parts, which explain how they behave and the roles they play.
  • 36. • Overall, systems analysis helps us understand complex phenomena by breaking them down into smaller parts and studying how these parts interact within a larger framework.
  • 37. Critically evaluate the systems theory SYSTEMS APPROACH • Imagine you're looking at a big puzzle. Each piece of the puzzle represents something in a group, like parts of a government or different aspects of politics. The Systems Approach is like looking at the puzzle as a whole, not just the individual pieces. • In this approach, we think about how all the puzzle pieces fit together and work with each other. We see them as a team that helps the puzzle stay complete and organized. Each piece influences the others, and they all work together to keep things balanced and working well. • The Systems Approach is like looking at how the puzzle works as a team, how the pieces talk to each other, and how they change and adapt over time. By understanding these connections, we get a better idea of how everything works together in politics and other complex situations.
  • 38. distinctions. The General Systems Theory is more about looking at a system as a completely integrated unit, like all the parts of a human body working together. • On the other hand, the Systems Approach sees a system as having separate parts that work together with diversity in unity. The General Systems Theory isn't used much for studying things like politics, while the Systems Approach has been successfully applied to politics. • David Easton applied the Systems Approach to politics. He said that a political system is how authority figures make decisions and put them into action for society. This approach shows that different parts of politics are connected, and understanding one part means understanding how the whole system works. • The Systems Approach in political analysis involves looking at interactions among different parts. This is like looking at a puzzle where the pieces are connected in a web-like pattern. O.R. Young suggested that there are interactive relationships among the parts. • The focus is on patterns of behavior, interactive behavior, and factors that help the system stay stable.
  • 39. Systems Analysis: Characteristic Features • The Systems Approach has its own characteristics: • Social phenomena are not isolated; they are made up of interconnected parts. • These parts interact, forming a living system with its own existence and goals. • While parts might not be organically related, they interact and create a living system through behavioral relationships. • The system operates with inputs and outputs in an environment, influenced by feedback. • The focus is on maintaining the system, its behavior, and how it responds to challenges. • The goals of the Systems Approach include maintaining the system's integrity, adapting to changes in the environment, and pursuing specific goals for the system's well-being.
  • 40. • Over-Simplification:Critics argue that systems theory tends to oversimplify complex realities by reducing them to interrelated parts.This reductionism may overlook important nuances and details. • Difficulty in Application:Applying systems theory to real-world situations can be challenging due to the dynamic and unpredictable nature of systems. Identifying all relevant components and their interactions accurately is often difficult. • Lack of Predictive Power:While systems theory helps in understanding the general behavior of systems, it may not provide precise predictions of outcomes.The complexity of interactions within systems makes it challenging to forecast specific events accurately. • Ignoring Contextual Factors: Critics suggest that systems theory sometimes overlooks the role of external factors and context in shaping system behavior. Focusing solely on internal dynamics may lead to incomplete explanations of phenomena. • Difficulty in Operationalization:Translating systems theory concepts into measurable variables for empirical research can be challenging.This difficulty in operationalization may limit its practical utility in scientific inquiry.
  • 42. Describe the political economy approach to the study of comparative politics. • political economy is a way of looking at how politics (government and decision-making) and economics (money, jobs, and businesses) are connected and influence each other. It's like studying how these two things work together to shape our society. • But here's the twist: there isn't just one way to understand political economy. It can mean different things depending on the ideas and beliefs of the people looking at it. For example, some folks might see it from a liberal perspective (more focused on individual freedoms), while others might view it from a Marxist perspective (more focused on fairness and equality). • Now, here's something interesting: a long time ago, people didn't really separate economics and politics like we do today.They thought of managing a household as a part of politics. So, in a way, politics and economics were closely connected.
  • 43. • And in more recent times, especially after many countries gained independence from colonial rule, folks used different approaches, like political sociology and political economy, to figure out how societies change and how resources are distributed. • One theory that came up was the modernization theory, which tried to explain how countries develop and change, especially after big events like the end of empires and the start of the ColdWar. • So, political economy is like looking at the connection between politics and money, but it can mean different things to different people, depending on their beliefs. It also has a long history and has been used to understand how societies change over time.
  • 45. Explain how democracy and capitalism interact with each other. • Capitalism: • Definition: Capitalism is an economic system where property and businesses are mainly owned and controlled by private individuals. It is driven by the pursuit of profit and relies on principles like private ownership, freedom, contractual transactions, and economic competition. The extent of government intervention can vary, with extreme forms rejecting any governmental control. • KeyThinkers: • Max Weber:Viewed capitalism as an attitude of rationally and systematically earning profits, emphasizing rational production techniques, a free market, and private ownership. • Karl Marx: Saw capitalism as a progressive stage bound to collapse due to internal contradictions. Criticized it for exploitation, class division, and inequality. Believed that government in a liberal democracy serves the capitalist class and that a working-class revolution would overthrow both capitalism and democracy to establish communism.
  • 46. • Liberal Democracy: • Definition: Liberal democracy is a form of government characterized by the consent of the governed through periodic, competitive, free, and fair elections. It emphasizes individual freedom, limited government, and the protection of rights. It ensures limited exercise of power and accountability. • KeyThinkers: • Giovanni Sartori: Highlighted that in democracy, no one enjoys unconditional and unlimited power. Emphasized limited exercise of power and accountability as fundamental elements of democracy. • Gaetano Mosca, Wilfredo Pareto, and Robert Michels: Elite theorists who criticized liberal democracy, pointing out that, in practice, a few elites tend to rule in societies rather than the majority
  • 47. • INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND CAPITALISM • Positive Side: Sometimes, capitalism and liberal democracy work well together. Capitalism can create wealth and economic growth, which can benefit the country. People can start businesses, and there can be more opportunities for everyone. • Negative Side: On the flip side, capitalism can lead to inequality, where some people have a lot of money, and others have very little. This inequality can affect the fairness of a democracy because those with more money might have more influence on political decisions. • Max Weber:Weber highlighted the rational and systematic pursuit of profit as a key feature of capitalism. He emphasized the role of private ownership, rational production, and the free market in capitalism.
  • 48. • Karl Marx: Marx had a critical view of capitalism, seeing it as a system of exploitation and class struggle. He believed that capitalism would eventually collapse due to its internal contradictions, leading to a communist society. • Joseph Schumpeter: Schumpeter argued that democracy and capitalism were historically linked. He saw capitalism as a driver of innovation and economic growth, which could support democratic systems.
  • 49. unit-7 SOCIALISM AND THE WORKING OF THE SOCIALIST STATE
  • 50. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : (b) Anarcho-Socialism • Socialism is a way of thinking about how society should work. Instead of letting individuals own and control everything like in capitalism, socialism says that society as a whole should own and manage things like factories, land, and resources. • Socialism is not just an economic idea; it's also a set of beliefs about fairness and working together. It's about making sure everyone is treated equally, focusing on the well-being of the whole group, and trying to get rid of the idea of rich and poor. • So, when we talk about a "socialist state," we mean a place where the government is in charge of things like factories and land, and they do it for the good of everyone.
  • 51. • Anarcho-socialism, also called anarchist socialism or libertarian socialism, is a radical form of socialism advocated by thinkers like Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Peter Kropotkin, and Mikhail Bakunin. Unlike other forms of socialism, anarcho-socialism rejects all forms of coercive authority, including the state, which it sees as harmful and unnecessary. • Anarcho-socialists believe that capitalism and the state are closely linked and cannot be abolished separately.Therefore, they call for the elimination of all authoritarian institutions, including the state. Instead, they promote workers' self-management and decentralized control of the economy through voluntary associations. • Rather than relying on state control, anarcho-socialists advocate for direct participatory democracy at the grassroots level.This approach is sometimes referred to as "stateless socialism" because it seeks to achieve socialism without the need for a central governing authority.
  • 52. Write notes on the following in about 200 words each : (a) Scientific Socialism
  • 53. Distinguish between Utopian and Scientific SocialisM ? UTOPIAN • As said earlier, Marxism existed before Marx. These are known as the early socialist thinkers. Karl Marx calls themUtopianSocialists. • The world ‘utopia’ was derived from a novel of Thomas Moore titled, ‘Utopia.’ It refers to an imaginary island, called Utopia, where a perfect socio-economic- political system existed. • There was no exploitation and people were happy. Some important utopian socialist thinkers are RobertOwen,Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc,SaintSimon,Sismondi and Proudhon. SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM • Marx calls his socialism as ‘Scientific Socialism’. It is scientific, because it offers the economic interpretation of history by using the scientific methodology of dialectical materialism. • but also provides for a scientific mechanism to establish a classless and exploitation less society.
  • 54. SOCIALISM ANDTHE MARXIST PERSPECTIVE OF STATE • State as a ClassTool: Marxists see the state differently from liberals. While liberals view the state as a neutral entity that protects individual rights and property, Marxists see it as a tool used by one class to dominate another.They believe states come into existence because of the class conflicts in society, and at each stage of history, the state serves the interests of the dominant class. • Class Struggle: Marx and Engels emphasized the importance of "class struggle" in driving historical change.They argued that throughout history, societies have evolved through class conflicts. For example, feudalism gave way to capitalism as part of this progression. • Capitalist State as Exploitative: According to Marxists, the capitalist state is a product of class divisions caused by private property and capitalism. It serves to legalize and perpetuate the exploitation of the working class (proletariat) by the capitalist class (bourgeoisie).
  • 55. • Overthrow of Capitalist State: Marxists call for the overthrow of the capitalist state through a violent revolution led by the working class, guided by a "vanguard party." They believe this revolution is necessary to establish a socialist state system. • Dictatorship of the Proletariat: After the revolution, there's a transitional period called the "dictatorship of the proletariat." During this phase, the state is used to remove capitalist elements from society by transferring ownership of the means of production to the state. • Toward Communism: Marxists see the socialist state as a preliminary stage of communism. In the ultimate stage, known as communism, society becomes classless, and the state gradually "withers away." Marx envisioned this as the final goal, where people would cooperate freely and there would be no need for a state.
  • 57. Explain the Decolonisation process after the SecondWorldWar • Decolonization Definition: Decolonization refers to both a historical period and a process.The historical period corresponds to the post-WorldWar II years when numerous new nation-states emerged in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific as former European colonial empires dissolved. • Expanding Definition: Decolonization goes beyond the end of direct political control and includes the cessation of all forms of colonialism, including economic, political, educational, and other informal means.The concept of "neocolonialism" highlights the continued influence of former colonizers in these areas. • Causes of Decolonization: Decolonization was largely driven by growing nationalism in the colonies and the subsequent revolt againstWestern colonialism and imperialist domination.Western values and institutions contributed to the rise of nationalism in the 19th century.
  • 58. THE DECOLONISATION PROCESS • How countries that were once controlled by powerful nations worked to become independent. It's important to note that this process was not always peaceful, as the initial colonization involved violence and deceit by the colonizers. • Some countries managed to gain their independence without much violence, like some French and British colonies in Africa.They negotiated their freedom relatively peacefully. • International organizations like the League of Nations and the United Nations also played a part.They aimed to help colonies become independent. Most colonies achieved independence this way, except for SouthWest Africa (now Namibia), which was held by South Africa. • However, in some places, like Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau), there were long and violent struggles.These countries didn't become independent until 1974 when Portugal itself went through a democratic revolution. • Algeria, once a French colony, also had a tough time gaining independence. It took seven years of armed struggle from 1954 to 1961.The French settlers in Algeria strongly opposed independence.
  • 59. • Latin America: • Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America achieved independence in the early 19th century through revolutionary movements. • By 1825, most of Spain's empire in Latin America was lost, leading to the creation of seventeen separate republics. • Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule until the United States got involved in Cuba's fight for independence in 1898, but then the U.S. dominated Cuba economically. • Asia and Africa After WorldWar II: • Decolonization afterWorld War II was accelerated, with some colonies like French Indo- China, Dutch Indonesia, British Malaya, and Italian East Africa experiencing disruptions due to enemy conquests during the war. • The Japanese occupation in Southeast Asia stimulated nationalist sentiments, leading to movements for independence. • Indonesia andVietnam declared independence after Japan's defeat, leading to conflicts with their colonial rulers (Dutch and French, respectively).
  • 60. • India: • India gained independence in 1947, a significant outcome ofWorld War II. • The Indian National Congress, led by figures like Mahatma Gandhi, played a key role in the struggle for independence. • Gandhi's principles of non-violence and non-cooperation shaped the Indian nationalist movement. • African Independence: • Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) and Nigeria were among the pioneers of African independence. • Ghana achieved dominion status within the Commonwealth in 1957, with Kwame Nkrumah as Prime Minister. • Nigeria became fully independent in 1960.
  • 61. • South Africa and Namibia: • South Africa's history involved Dutch and British colonization, leading to racial segregation and discrimination. • The apartheid regime in South Africa denied basic human rights to Africans. • African resistance, including the African National Congress (ANC), led by Nelson Mandela, gained international support and eventually pressured the apartheid regime to negotiate. • In 1994, after negotiations and elections, power was transferred to the black majority, ending apartheid. • Namibia, formerly a German colony and then under South African control, achieved independence after a long struggle and UN resolutions.
  • 62. Give a brief account of dependency and underdevelopment in LatinAmerica. • Dependency and underdevelopment in Latin America are concepts deeply rooted in the region's history of colonialism, exploitation, and unequal power relations with Western countries, particularly the United States and European powers. • Colonial Legacy: Latin America was colonized by European powers, primarily Spain and Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries.The colonial period saw the extraction of vast amounts of resources, primarily minerals and agricultural products, which were sent back to Europe to fuel economic growth and development there.This laid the groundwork for a pattern of dependency, where Latin American countries became suppliers of raw materials for the industrialized nations. • Economic Dependence: After achieving independence in the 19th century, many Latin American countries continued to rely heavily on exporting raw materials, such as minerals, agricultural products, and later oil, as their primary source of revenue. This economic model reinforced their dependency onWestern markets and investment, as well as on foreign technology and expertise.
  • 63. • UnequalTrade Relations: Latin American countries often found themselves in a disadvantageous position in international trade relations. The terms of trade were typically set by industrialized nations, leading to the devaluation of primary goods exported by Latin America and the inflation of prices for manufactured goods imported from the West.This perpetuated a cycle of dependency and underdevelopment, as Latin American economies struggled to diversify and add value to their exports. • Political Instability and Authoritarianism: Dependency and underdevelopment in Latin America were also exacerbated by political instability, corruption, and authoritarian regimes. Many countries in the region experienced periods of military rule, often supported byWestern powers, which suppressed dissent and perpetuated a system that favored elites and foreign interests over the needs of the broader population.
  • 64. • Overall, dependency and underdevelopment in Latin America are deeply intertwined with the legacy of colonialism, unequal power relations in international trade, foreign investment patterns, and domestic political dynamics. Addressing these issues requires comprehensive efforts to promote sustainable development, diversify economies, reduce inequality, and foster democratic governance.
  • 66. What is the nature of the relationship between the executive and the legislature in UK ? • The British government operates within a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy framework. • The British Parliament has other important jobs. It makes new laws, keeps an eye on the government, especially when it comes to money, and speaks for the British people. Members of Parliament (MPs) are like messengers between the people who vote for them and the government.They help make sure that the government listens to what the people want. • Parliamentary supremacy in the United Kingdom, the Parliament is the boss when it comes to making laws. It can create, change, or get rid of any law without anyone else being able to stop it. There's a famous saying that Parliament can do almost anything, except change a person's gender. • For example, there was a law called the SeptennialAct that extended how long the House of Commons could stay in power. Parliament made this change on its own, without needing permission from anyone else.
  • 67. • Fused Executive and Legislature: Unlike in presidential systems like the United States, where the executive and legislature are separate bodies, the UK Parliament operates with a fused system.This means that members of the executive, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers, are also members of the legislature (specifically, the House of Commons). • Prime Minister's Powers:The Prime Minister holds significant powers over laws, policies, agenda setting, and the organization of the government. While the Prime Minister's position is technically "first among equals" within the Cabinet, they have considerable authority in appointing ministers, shaping policies, and influencing decision-making. • Collective Decision-Making:The Cabinet operates on the principle of collective responsibility, meaning that all members must publicly support government policies, even if they personally disagree. Dissenting opinions are typically expressed in private meetings, and ministers are bound by official secrecy directives.
  • 68. • Parliamentary Sovereignty:While the executive governs, the legislature, Parliament, holds legal sovereignty.This means that theoretically, the executive is subordinate to the legislature. • Challenges to Parliamentary Supremacy: Despite parliamentary sovereignty, there are criticisms of executive dominance in Parliament.The government's control over party-affiliated MPs and strict party discipline often leads to legislation being passed along party lines, limiting the influence of individual MPs. Additionally, the government's control over the House of Commons timetable can restrict scrutiny opportunities. • Accountability Mechanisms: Parliament has developed various mechanisms to hold the government accountable, including debates, QuestionTime, and Parliamentary Committees.The opposition party plays a crucial role in challenging the government and holding it to account, particularly when the ruling party lacks a majority in the House.
  • 69. Examine the meaning and evolution of the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy. • Origin of "Parliament":The term "parliament" is explained to have originated from the French word "parler," meaning "to speak." Historically, it referred to monarchs convening wise advisors to discuss state affairs. • Parliamentary supremacy means that in the United Kingdom, the Parliament is the boss when it comes to making laws. It can create, change, or get rid of any law without anyone else being able to stop it. There's a famous saying that Parliament can do almost anything, except change a person's gender.
  • 70. • Three important things to know about parliamentary supremacy are: • Parliament can change any law, even really important ones, in a fair and consistent way. • There's no special category of laws that can't be changed by Parliament.They can modify any law they want. • No one, not even the courts, can say that a law made by Parliament is invalid. • The British Parliament also has other important jobs. It makes new laws, keeps an eye on the government, especially when it comes to money, and speaks for the British people. Members of Parliament (MPs) are like messengers between the people who vote for them and the government.They help make sure that the government listens to what the people want.
  • 71. EVOLUTION OF THE DOCTRINE OF PARLIAMENTARY SUPREMACY • In the British system of parliamentary democracy, the head of the state is the monarch while the head of the government is elected and comes from the parliament. • According to Professor Mayor Grant, the evolution of British Parliament can be understood in four broad phases:
  • 72. Stage 1: Early Parliament (Middle Ages) • In the olden days, there was only one part of Parliament, the House of Lords. • The Magna Carta in 1215 was a big deal because it happened when rich people didn't like the king's heavy taxes. • Later, they added the House of Commons so regular folks could have a say. • By the 14th century, these two parts became separate. • Stage 2: Kings vs. Parliament (1485 to 17th Century) • There was a big fight between kings and Parliament. • Kings said they ruled with God's blessing, but Parliament said no. • They even had a CivilWar for 11 years. • After that war, everyone agreed that Parliament was in charge.
  • 73. • Stage 3: Modern Parliament (1688 to 1832) • They started doing things that look like today's Parliament, like having political parties, ministers, and public debates. • The Glorious Revolution of 1688 said Parliament was the boss. • They made laws about this in 1689 and 1701. • Stage 4: More Changes (1832 to Present) • After 1832, they made rules about how Parliament works. • More people got the right to vote, and women could vote in 1918. • Today, there are regional parliaments in Northern Ireland, Scotland, andWales, but the main Parliament in London still has the most power. • It can change the rules for the regional parliaments. • The big idea is that the main Parliament is in charge, and that's been the way for a long time.
  • 74. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : (b) Rule of Law • The rule of law is an important idea that means everyone, including the government, must follow the law. It's like having rules that apply to everyone, like how we follow traffic rules.This idea started a long time ago, with famous thinkers like Aristotle saying that the law should be more important than rulers. • In the UK, this idea became really important with a document called the Magna Carta in 1215. It said that the king couldn't take away people's freedom or property without a good reason and a fair trial. This idea grew over time to protect individual rights from the government.
  • 75. • In the 19th century, a scholar named A.V. Dicey explained the rule of law with three main points: • The law should be more important than government decisions. If the government has too much power to do whatever it wants, it can be a problem. • Everyone, regular people, and government officials should be treated the same way under the law. Nobody should get special treatment. • Judges and courts should protect people's rights and make sure the law is followed.
  • 77. What are the development strategies adopted by Brazil since its independence? Elaborate • Brazil's journey from colonial times to the present has been marked by significant changes in its economic and political landscape, reflecting different approaches to development. • Colonial and Early Independence Period: Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over three centuries, primarily engaged in extracting natural resources like brazilwood, sugar, and minerals with the labor ofAfrican and indigenous slaves.When it gained independence in 1822, it established a constitutional monarchy, bringing political stability but with limitations on civil rights. • First Republic (1889-1930):The early republic in Brazil introduced some democratic elements like elections, but it was characterized by an oligarchic system.The economy was a mix of traditional agriculture and moderate exports.
  • 78. • VargasYears (1930-1945): GetúlioVargas introduced policies to diversify the agricultural sector, increase social protections, and promote industrialization through import substitution. • Second Republic (1945-1964): This period saw expansion in voting rights, state-led industrialization, and the emergence of a strong state role in economic development. State-owned enterprises were established. • Military Regime (1964-1985):The military regime continued state-led industrialization, leading to significant economic growth and urbanization. Brazil diversified its exports and reduced its dependency on raw materials.
  • 79. • Transition to Neoliberalism (1985 onwards): Brazil shifted away from state-led development to neoliberal policies of liberalization and privatization, reducing the government's role in the economy.This shift was driven by changing international economic conditions and the end of the military regime. • Recent Period: Brazil's recent history has seen alternating governments with varying economic and social policies. Presidents like Lula da Silva focused on social programs, while others continued neoliberal policies. Brazil has become a major player in global politics and economics, advocating for changes in international institutions and participating in key global initiatives.
  • 81. Compare and analyse Brazilian and Nigerian Federalism. • Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a central or federal government and individual state or regional governments.The key features of federalism : • Divided Power: In federalism, there are two levels of government - one big and one small. They share the responsibilities of governing the country. Sometimes, certain jobs are only for the big government, and sometimes they share the work. • Written Rules:There's a special rule book called the constitution that tells the big and small governments what they can and can't do. It's like a rulebook for how the country should run. Both the big and small governments have to follow these rules. • Judge's Role:There is also a judge, like a referee, who makes sure everyone is playing by the rules. If someone breaks the rules, the judge can say, "No, you can't do that."This helps keep everything fair.
  • 82. • Brazilian Federalism: • Brazil exhibits a highly decentralized form of federalism, where municipal governments hold significant powers alongside state governments. • The federal system in Brazil aims to address regional imbalances through fiscal federalism and the transfer of power to state and local levels. • Fiscal federalism, which involves the allocation of resources, plays a crucial role in shaping federal-state relations in Brazil. • However, excessive decentralization in Brazil has led to challenges for the federal government in fulfilling socio-economic development programs due to resource constraints.
  • 83. • Nigerian Federalism: • Nigeria, in contrast, has experienced a more centralized form of federalism, particularly during periods of military rule, where centralizing decrees encroached on the powers and resources of states. • Despite being a federation, Nigeria faces difficulties in addressing ethnic diversity and equitable resource sharing, leading to a dysfunctional federal system. • The Nigerian experience highlights the importance of devolution of power and participatory procedures in maintaining effective federal-state relations.
  • 84. • Degree of Federalism: • Brazil's federal system is exceptionally decentralized, granting significant autonomy to states and municipal governments. • In contrast, Nigeria has a highly centralized system, with limited autonomy for states. • Impact of Authoritarian Rule: • In both countries, federalism suffered during periods of authoritarian or military rule, leading to centralization of power and resources. Fiscal Federalism: • Brazil's federal system effectively addresses regional imbalances through fiscal federalism, empowering states and local governments in resource management. • Nigeria faces challenges in fiscal federalism, with disparities in resource sharing and a central government with significant power. • Balance of Centralization and Decentralization: • Striking a balance between centralization and decentralization is crucial for effective federalism. Brazil's experience shows that too much decentralization can lead to resource constraints at the federal level. • Context and the extent of diversity play a role in determining the appropriate level of centralization. Nigeria grapples with the challenge of accommodating ethnic diversity while maintaining a strong central government.
  • 85. 8. Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each : (a) Federalism in Brazil • Historical Background: • Brazil was initially a colony of Portugal, and it started as a collection of captaincies under Portuguese control. • In 1822, Brazil declared its independence and became an empire under Emperor Dom Pedro I. • Dom Pedro I established a constitutional monarchy with some provincial autonomy, but real power remained centralized. • In 1889, a military coup ended the monarchy, and Brazil became a presidential republic. • The First Republic (1889-1930) introduced federalism, granting some autonomy to states. However, power was still concentrated in a few key states. • GetúlioVargas's regime (1930-1945) favored centralization, leading to a more centralized system. • A military coup in 1964 marked a period of extreme centralization that lasted until the mid-1980s.
  • 86. • Transition to Democratic Federalism: • In the early 1980s, the military allowed direct elections for state governors, and political parties were permitted. • This gradual shift led to the establishment of a democratic regime in 1985 and the drafting of a new constitution in 1988. • The 1988 constitution emphasized political and fiscal decentralization, making federalism a fundamental part of Brazil's political system. • Structure of Brazilian Federalism: • Brazil is officially known as the "Federative Republic of Brazil" and consists of 26 states, a federal district (Brasilia), and over 5,000 municipalities. • The country follows a three-tier federal structure: federal government (headed by the President), state governments (headed by governors), and local governments (municipios, headed by mayors). • Legislative powers are divided into exclusive, joint, and concurrent categories, with the federal government, states, and municipalities sharing these powers.
  • 87. • Fiscal Federalism: • Brazil is highly decentralized, with most public spending carried out by state governments. • States and municipalities have substantial autonomy in deciding how to use the funds they receive. • This decentralization has helped improve the delivery of services like education and healthcare. • Challenges: • Despite decentralization efforts, Brazil faces challenges due to historical disparities and malapportionment. • Some states have much larger populations, yet they have the same number of senators, leading to unequal representation. • Fiscal decentralization has led to overspending, tax competition between states, and an overreliance on federal funds. • The federal government has tried to restore fiscal discipline through various measures, including the Fiscal Responsibility Law (LRF).
  • 88. Describe the structure of Nigerian Federalism and its functioning. • Historical Background: • Nigeria is a diverse country with various ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. • The federal system was introduced in the Constitution of 1954 during British colonial rule to accommodate Nigeria's diversity and prevent unrest. • Nigeria gained independence in 1960, followed by periods of democratic governance and military rule. • During military rule (1966-1999), Nigeria transitioned from a decentralized parliamentary federation to a more centralized presidential system. • The country experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, which led to economic and political measures that concentrated power at the federal level.
  • 89. • Ethnic and Religious Diversity: • Nigeria's population is composed of numerous ethnic groups, with the Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa-Fulani being the most prominent. • Religious divisions are also significant, with Muslims predominantly in the north and Christians predominantly in the south. • Structure of Nigerian Federalism: • Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory (Abuja). • The President is the head of state and federal government, and each state has a governor. • The National Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). • Nigeria's judiciary includes federal and state-level courts, with the Supreme Court as the highest authority.
  • 90. • Functioning of Nigerian Federalism: • In practice, Nigeria's federal system often functions more like a unitary state, with strong centralization tendencies. • There is a significant fiscal imbalance between the federal government and states, with the central government controlling most revenue and resources. • Elections have been marred by irregularities and fraud, leading to concerns about the integrity of the democratic process. • Ethnic and regional disparities persist, with minority groups demanding more autonomy and resource control.
  • 92. Elaborate upon the structure and guiding ideology of the Communist Party of China.
  • 93. Explain the functions and role of the Communist Party in China’s political system.
  • 94. What are the major challenges confronting the Chinese Communist Party in contemporary times? Explain
  • 95. • Communist Party Rules: China is run by the Communist Party, which is the most important group in charge. The country's constitution says that China is a socialist state led by the working class and the Communist Party. • Unique Political Parties: While the Communist Party is the main ruler, China also allows a few other small political parties to exist. These smaller parties represent specific groups like teachers or artists, but they must support the Communist Party's leadership. • Big Central Government: China's government is very centralized, meaning decisions come from the top. Even though there are elections, the Communist Party controls who can run for important jobs like president or prime minister. • Different Idea of Democracy: China has its own version of democracy, which focuses on the Communist Party's leadership.They believe this type of democracy suits China better and helps the country grow stronger. • National People's Congress: China has a big group called the National People's Congress, which makes laws and approves important government leaders. But again, the Communist Party decides who can be in charge. 95 Understanding China‟s Political System
  • 96. • End of Old Dynasty: A long time ago, China was ruled by an old dynasty called the Qing Dynasty. It faced big problems, like foreign countries taking control of parts of China. • Revolutionaries: Some smart people got together and formed a group called the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance.They wanted to change the government and make China a democracy likeWestern countries. • Kuomintang (KMT) Party: This group turned into a political party called the Kuomintang (KMT). They wanted a democratic China but had a hard time making it happen. • May Fourth Movement: In 1919, there was a big protest called the May Fourth Movement because people were upset that the government wasn't doing enough against foreign powers. Some thinkers got inspired by the communist revolution in Russia and started communist groups in China. • Birth of CPC: In 1921, these communist groups came together and officially created the Communist Party of China (CPC). 96 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:THE BIRTH OF THE CPC
  • 97. • Working with KMT:The communists and the KMT joined forces for a while to fight against foreign powers and warlords in what they called the "United Front." But this alliance didn't last long. • Conflict and Civil War:The leader of the KMT, Chiang Kai-shek, turned against the communists, and there was a big fight between them.The communists had to leave the cities and go to the countryside. • Mao and the Peasants:One communist leader, Mao Zedong, believed that the peasants (farmers) should lead the revolution. So, the communists started working closely with the farmers. • The Long March: In 1934, the communist forces went on a very long and tough journey called the "Long March" to find a safe place.They ended up inYan'an, a new base. • Fighting Japan:When Japan invaded China, the communists and the KMT put aside their differences to fight the Japanese invaders duringWorld War II. • CommunistsWin: AfterWorld War II, the communists, led by Mao Zedong, defeated the KMT in a civil war. On October 1, 1949, they declared the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the CPC became the ruling party. 97
  • 98. • Control Freaks:The CPC really wants to stay in power.They use things like censoring the news, arresting people who disagree, and stopping groups that could challenge them. • In Charge of Everything:They run the show in China.That means they control the army, the courts, and all the important parts of the government.Their leaders have multiple jobs, like being both party bosses and government bigwigs. • They SayThey Know Best:The CPC believes they're the only ones who can understand and lead China.They think they represent everyone's interests. • Their Rules, No Questions: Inside the party, they have a rule called "democratic centralism." It sounds fancy, but it means they'll talk and argue about decisions, but once they make up their minds, everyone has to follow, no questions asked. • Obedience is a Big Deal:They tell people that listening to the party is a moral and patriotic duty. If they crack down on something, they'll say it's for the good of the system and the country's stability. 98 NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OFTHE CPC
  • 99. • Marxism-Leninism: Like many communist parties around the world, the CPC follows the teachings of Karl Marx andVladimir Lenin.They believe in socialism, where the government controls many things in society to make things fair for everyone. • Mao ZedongThought: Mao Zedong, a famous Chinese leader, added his own ideas to Marxism-Leninism. His ideas were all about making communism work in China, especially in rural areas. • Reform and Opening-up:After Mao, a leader named Deng Xiaoping changed things a lot. He opened up China to the world and made the economy more market-driven.This change is called "Reform and Opening-up." • Socialism with Chinese Characteristics:The CPC says that they have their own way of doing socialism, which fits China better.They mix their traditional ideas with some new ones. 99 GUIDING IDEOLOGIES AND PRINCIPLES OF THE CPC
  • 100. • Scientific Outlook on Development: Hu Jintao, a leader after Jiang, talked about the "Scientific Outlook on Development."This was about making society more equal and fair. • Socialism for a New Era:The current leader, Xi Jinping, talks about "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era." He also has a vision called the "China Dream" to make China strong and great. • Communist Ideology: Even though they have these new ideas, the CPC still believes in the ultimate goal of communism.They want a society where everyone is equal, but they're trying to get there in their own way.
  • 101. • The Communist Party of China (CPC) has a well-structured organization. Here's a simplified breakdown of its key parts: • Party Congress:This is the most important meeting and happens every five years. Delegates from all over China come together to discuss what the party has done and what it should do in the future. • Central Committee: This is like a big decision-making group with about 370 members.They meet every year to talk about the party's work and policies. • Politburo:This is a smaller group within the Central Committee, with 25 senior members.They make important decisions when the Central Committee isn't meeting. • Politburo Standing Committee (PSC): The most powerful group in the CPC, with seven members. They make the most important decisions and have specific roles. • General Secretary:This person is the head of the CPC and the country.They lead the party and make sure things run smoothly. • Secretariat:This group of seven members helps with everyday party business and makes sure decisions are carried out. 101 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OFTHE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA
  • 102. • Central Military Commission (CMC):This is in charge of the military (the People's Liberation Army).There are two, one for the party and one for the state, but the party's CMC has more power. • Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI):This group makes sure party members follow the rules and aren't corrupt.They help keep the party clean. • Local Party Organizations:The CPC has branches all over China at different levels like provinces, cities, and towns.They have their own meetings and leaders. • Primary Party Organizations:These are the smallest groups in the party, found in villages, schools, and workplaces.They spread party ideas and stay connected with regular people.
  • 103. • Lack ofTransparency: The CPC is known for its secretive decision-making processes, which can lead to a lack of transparency and accountability in governance.The absence of independent media and political opposition makes it difficult for the public to scrutinize party decisions. • Governance and Legitimacy Crisis: Some observers argue that China's political system, led by the CPC, is facing a governance and legitimacy crisis. The party's historical methods, such as theTiananmen Square massacre, have eroded its global reputation and led to questions about its viability. • Demands for Political Reform:There is a growing demand among Chinese citizens for political reforms, including multi-party elections, internal democracy, transparency, and protection of civil rights and liberties. However, the CPC has been reluctant to introduce political reforms and maintains a one-party system. • Technological Challenges: The internet and new technologies have empowered Chinese citizens and made it harder for the CPC to control public opinion. Information flows more freely, which can challenge the party's narratives and control over information. 103 THE CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
  • 104. • Corruption: Corruption is a significant challenge within the CPC. It affects many aspects of Chinese society and has eroded the party's reputation.The party leadership recognizes the severity of the problem and has launched anti-corruption campaigns, but it remains a deep-rooted issue. • Social Unrest: Rapid economic growth has brought issues like income inequality and unemployment.The wealth gap between urban and rural areas has led to social unrest and protests in various parts of China.