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• planning and organisational difficulties lead to problems in mobilising facts, sequencing, classifying, categorising, summarising, seeing and remembering patterns, and difficulties with abstract thinking
• phonological awareness - the ability to tune into the sound aspects of words, particularly to the fact that words can be broken up into individual sounds. The most significant of these skills are segmentation and blending.
• letter-naming ability - the ability to identify letters is an early predictor of reading; probably reflects broad exposure to text material and other literacy experiences
• Rapid Automatised Naming (RAN) skills - connecting a verbal label to an abstract symbol requires many reading-related skills - visual detection and discrimination, retrieval of phonological label, integration of semantic and conceptual information and activation of motor response to articulate name of letter .