Oral Language


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Oral Language

  1. 1. Oral Language: Role in Literacy Development • Learning language is an important part of learning to read. (Ruddell & Ruddell) • Oral language is the “bedrock” of all the language arts. (Snow, Burns, & Griffin) • “Reading is dependent upon growth of language competence in the early years.” (Morrow)
  2. 2. Oral Language: Connection to Reading • Vocabulary knowledge • Syntax knowledge • Use of prior knowledge in comprehension (Bakhtin theorizes that the brain stores knowledge as language.)
  3. 3. Stages of Language Development • Infants crying • 2-4 months cooing • 6 months intonation • 8-10 months babbling • 1 year sing words • 18 months telegraphic speech
  4. 4. Stages of Language Development • 1-2 holophrastic (single word) to telegraphic (two words) • 2-3 telegraphic to descriptive (language play, more syntactic complexity) • 3-4 simple to complex (dramatic growth in syntax & vocabulary, overgeneralization of rules) • 4-6 toward refinement (generative language—supply own words, use language creatively)
  5. 5. Oral Language Development • Not random • Not imitation • Chomsky (1965) proposed a “language acquisition device” • Complex problem- solving • Learned in process of using it • Unique to the individual
  6. 6. Functions of Language Use (Halliday, 1975) • Instrumental • Regulatory • Interactional • Personal • Heuristic • Imaginative • Informative/Representational
  7. 7. Conditions of Learning (Cambourne, 1988) • Immersion • Demonstration • Engagement • Expectation • Responsibility • Use/Practice • Approximation • Response
  8. 8. Language-Learning Conditions at Home vs. School • Home: adult response twice as often, negotiation of meaning, many child initiations • School: teacher-dominated talk, less language complexity (Wells, 1999) • IRE: Initiation of topic by teacher, Response by student, Evaluation by teacher (Cazden, 1988)
  9. 9. Rules for School by Karin, 1st grade • Don’t tawk!! • Unles you rase your hand. • And onle if the techer ses you can!
  10. 10. Fostering Oral Language in Classrooms • Physical Environment • Psychological Environment • Opportunities for Talk • Group Task: Create an observational checklist to assess the conditions for oral language development in an early childhood, primary, or elementary classroom.
  11. 11. Implications for English Language Learners • BICS vs. CALPS – BICS: basic interpersonal language proficiency skills (2-3 years) – CALPS: cognitive academic language proficiency skills (5-7 years) • “comprehensible input” • “total physical response” • “funds of knowledge”
  12. 12. Phonological Awareness • Definition: the ability to manipulate larger units of sound, such as words and syllables, onsets and rimes • Hearing/recognizing rhyming patterns • Producing rhymes • Segmenting separate words in sentences • Segmenting syllables in words • Blending syllables in words
  13. 13. Phonemic Awareness • Definition: understanding that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds; the ability to manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) within words • Matching sounds • Isolating sounds (initial, final, medial) • Deleting sounds (initial, final) • Substituting sounds • Blending onset and rime to form words • Stretching/segmenting words to hear individual sounds • Blending individual sounds to form words
  14. 14. Research Base for Phonemic Awareness • Children who cannot hear individual sounds within words have difficulty learning to read. • Phonemic awareness is a predictor of later reading achievement. • Phonemic awareness positively affects spelling achievement. • Research supports direct/explicit instruction in phonemic awareness. • Literacy activities contribute to the development of phonemic awareness. • Phonemic awareness instruction is particularly effective when accompanied by use of letters of the alphabet.
  15. 15. Methods for Helping Students Develop Phonemic Awareness • Language play • Literature • Direct instruction • Interactive writing • Role Play with a Partner: Parent and Teacher “What is phonemic awareness?”
  16. 16. Alphabetic Principle • Words are composed of sounds (phonemic awareness) • Sounds can be represented by letters (phonics) • Phonemic awareness is the means by which we make use of the alphabetic principle to decode letters and encode sounds (read and write).
  17. 17. Phonics Terms to Know • Phoneme • Grapheme • Consonant Digraph • Consonant Blends or Clusters • Diphthongs • Schwa • Onset • Rime • Morpheme • Structural Analysis
  18. 18. The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words • Effortless way for early readers to read words before phonics instruction • Recognition of some words in isolation assists young readers in learning other word identification strategies. • Automatic recall of words leads to more word recognition. • Some high-frequency words in English are not decodable.
  19. 19. The Importance of Recognizing Sight Words • Automatic word recognition contributes to improved comprehension. • A reader needs instant recognition of about 95% of words in any given text to read the text independently. • Reading in which a student cannot automatically recognize many words is laborious; in such cases, the student may never develop a desire to read. • Automatic visual recognition of whole words is critical to fluency.
  20. 20. Balanced Literacy Approach Phonics: • Explicit, direct instruction • Systematic instruction in the code Whole Language: • Authentic reading and writing • Daily opportunities to read and write
  21. 21. Three Cueing Systems (Marie Clay) • Graphophonic (visual): Does it look right? • Syntactic (structure): Does it sound right? • Semantic (meaning): Does it make sense? He bocked the piffle with a tig daft. • What did he bock? • What did he use to bock? • What kind of daft was it?
  22. 22. Six Cueing Systems (Rumelhart, 1976) Surface Structures: • Graphophonic • Lexical • Syntactic Deep Structures: • Semantic • Schematic • Pragmatic
  23. 23. Fluency and Comprehension • Strong correlation between the two • Fluency is the bridge between word identification and comprehension • One theory: comprehension is the outcome of fluency • Another theory: making meaning while reading results in fluency • Chicken and egg situation: fluency promotes comprehension; comprehension promotes fluency
  24. 24. Fluency is a multi-dimensional construct (Rasinski, 2003) • Rate • Accuracy • Phrasing • Prosody (pitch, pauses, stress, intonation) “Fluency is the ability to read accurately and effortlessly with appropriate expression and meaning.” ~Timothy Rasinski
  25. 25. • “Woman without her man is nothing.” • “The teacher said the principal is the best in the distinct.” • “Tom borrowed my lawnmower.”